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LIFE AND LETTERS OF 
THOMAS THELLUSSON CARTER 



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39 PAThKV'JSTER KTV. LO-;i>;"^ 

NEW \(..''K AND BOMM.AV 

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LIFE AND LETTERS 

OF 

THOMAS THELLUSSON CARTER 

WARDEN OF THE HOUSE OF MERCY, CLEWER, 

HON. CANON OF CHRIST CHURCH, OXFORD, AND 

FOR THIRTY-SIX YEARS RECTOR OF CLEWER 



EDITED BY THE 

VEN. W. H. HUTCHINGS, M.A. 

ARCHDEACON OP CLEVELAND 



WITH PORTRAITS AND OTHER ILLUSTRATIONS 



THIRD EDITION 



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NEW YORK AND BOMBAY 

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AU rights reserved 



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HARVm.xD 

lUNlVERSITYl 

L?BR^RY 

DEC 171943 



PREFACE 

Thomas Thellusson Carter, it must be acknowledged by 
all, whatever may be their beliefs or opinions, was one 
of the most distmguished men of his generation. He was 
distinguished above all else by his holiness. He lived for 
God. Those who had the privilege of close acquaintance 
with him, will bear about a remembrance of his life some- 
thing like the impression of Alpine sceneiy, where one peak 
rose high above the rest and was resplendent with the sun's 
rays. His face was like the sunshine, ever bright 

His chief work, perhaps, was in the revival of Sisterhoods 
in our Communion, of which it has been said that when the 
history of English religion in the nineteenth century is 
written, that revival ''will be looked back upon as one of the 
chief events, perhaps the chief." '* dewer " was the outcome 
of his devotion, and of his genius. 

This volume, entitled " life and Letters of Thomas Thel- 
lusson Carter," aims at most to enshrine and preserve some 
glimpses of the saintly man and what he achieved, and is no 
attempt at continuous biography. To delineate his beautiful 
character, to make a record of lus ceaseless activities, to treat 
with any measure of completeness his literary work (which 
is said to cover one hundred and fifty entries in the Catalogue 
of the British Museum), to draw a picture of his marvellous 
self*sacrifice daily in the service of others, to attempt to 
enumerate his utterances in public, his speeches, sermons, 
addresses, etc., would require an immense volume. The object 
in writing a book of this size is to bring some outline of his 



VI PREFACE. 

life and work^ his example and ministry, within the reach 
of all; and to reveal his mind by printing some of his 
spiritual letters, a species of literature which is not very 
prolific amongst us. There are some subjects touched upon 
about which there is considerable diversity of opinion; in 
these pages will be found his mind upon them. His 
sympathies were broader than his convictions. 

From these letters (for letters are personal revelations) 
will be seen the spirituality of his mind, his elevation above 
all that is earthly or self-seeking, his warmth of affection, his 
intense delight in natural beauty, and his loyal faithfulness 
to the Church of England. 

His love for God seemed to quicken his natural sensi- 
bilities. He delighted in beautiful ceremonial, but in other 
respects his sympathies were with the early Tractarians, and 
he deplored in teaching and ritual whatever he thought went 
beyond the doctrine and practice of the English Church. 

I take this opportunity of thanking all those who have 
kindly entrusted to my care letters which they had received 
from Canon Carter, or given me any help. To select from 
the letters those which seemed suitable for publication has 
been a matter of no small diflBlculty. I have also to thank 
the representatives of Dr. Pusey, Dr. liddon. Dr. Bright, 
etc., for allowing me to make use of some of their communi- 
cations. 

It is hoped that the following pages may have caught 
something of the spirit of the Warden of Clewer, and may 
preserve some of the elements of his character for admiration 
and imitation. Such saintliness as his, is the best evidence 
of the truth and reality of the English Communion as a part 
of the True Church. 

W. H. H. 

ElBBT IClBPEBTOH BbOTOBT, 

Nwembery 1903. 



CONTENTS 



CKAPTBB PAOB 

Preface v 

I. Eably Tears 1 

II. Ordinatiok and Earliest Parochial Work .... 12 

m. Clewer 26 

IV. Foreign Travel, Italy, etc., 1871-73 49 

V. Penitentiary Work 76 

VI. The Community op St. John Baptist 99 

VII. Kesignation of Clewer Parish 150 

Vra. Letters 180 

IX. Ltterature 280 

X. Character 289 

XL Later Years 323 

Index 339 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



TO VAOX PAOI 

PoBTBAiT IN 1882. (Photogravure) FrontiipieoB 

(From the PainHng by Frank Holl, R.A,) 

Mb. Cabteb on lbavino Eton . 8 

(From the PainHng in Eton CoUege) 

Cleweb Bectobt 26 

The Rev. T. T. Cabteb, M.A 76 

iFrom a Drawing in Chaik by Mas, Newton) 

Pabt op House of Mebct, with West End op Chapel ... 99 

St. Ani>bew*s Hospital, Cleweb 149 

Cleweb Chubch in 1844 179 

{From a Water-eolour Drawing by W. Ingalton) 

Cleweb Church, 1903 179 

{From a Photograph by Hills & Saunders, Eton.) 

Specimens op Handwbitino . , 296 

Fboposed Memobul in the Chapel 335 

{Detigned by O. F. Bodlet, B.A.) 

Bbonzb in Cleweb Chubch 336 

CDetignod and executed by W. Bainbridob Bbtnolds) 



LIFE AND LETTERS 



OF 



Thomas Thellusson Carter 



CHAPTER I. 

EAELY TEAES. 

The Rev. Thomas Thellusson Carter, son of the Rev. Thomas 
Carter, for many years Vice-Provost of Eton, and of his wife, 
Mary, daughter of Henry Proctor, Esq., the younger son of a 
family long established at Clewer,^ was born at Eton on the 
nineteenth of March, 1808, in a house which still stands at 
the entrance to Keate's Lane. His father was at this time 
Lower Master, and it was perhaps for that reason, and also 
because of the misery suffered by an elder brother when sent 
to one of the rough preparatory schools of those days, that 
the child began his Eton life when just six years old. This 
was less strange than it now appears, for some day-boys 
from the town then came so young, that on winter evenings 
nursemaids might be seen waiting outside the archway of 
Lower School to take them safe home. 

One of Mr. Carter's earliest recollections was of being 
led by his father up the school on his first entrance. Another 
is of the great assemblage in the year of Waterloo, when the 
Prince Regent received the allied sovereigns and their 
generals at Frogmore. The Eton boys were invited to 

1 Mr. Carter was fond of telling how an ancestor, Henry Proctor, 
meeting Charles I. on his last journey to London, pulled off his hat to the 
royal prisoner, and was hustled into the ditch by the guards for so doing. 



2 ETON. 

attend, and his family were accufltomed to relate how he 
was taken np and kissed by Blucher, as being one of the 
youngest boys who were present at that wonderful gathering. 

Among the treasured mementoes of these early days, is 
a water-colour sketch by William Evans " of Eton," repre- 
senting Thomas Thellusson Carter as he appeared at the 
Montem of probably 1817, a little fair, round-faced boy in 
a light-blue jacket and trousers, and blue cap with white 
ostrich-plumes. 

The school was then in a state of indiscipline hard to 
realize, and Mr. Carter was still a small boy when the out- 
break known as the Great Bebellion took place, and the 
Upper School was wrecked. He remembered seeing a brick 
thrown at the head of a master who was looking from his 
drawing-room window, half hidden by the blinds, at the 
tumult below. He remembered also the "bed of justice," 
when Dr. Keate, standing amid the ruins of his shattered 
desk, expelled the five ringleaders in the presence of the 
assembled school. Order was restored with a firm hand, but 
the standard of manners and life was still low. Bear-baiting 
and cockfights were among the tolerated amusements ; quar- 
rels were settled by savage fights in the playing-fields; in 
one instance with a fatal result. Beligious teaching was 
represented by a curious institution called "Prose." On 
Sunday afternoons the boys assembled in Upper School, and 
after an inaudible prayer, recited by one of the collegers. Dr. 
Keate read a portion of Blair's Sermons. 

In T. T. Carter's early life, other and gentler influences 
predominated, for the twelve years of his school life were 
spent under his father's roof. 

" This unbroken attachment to home, instead of a boy's 
usual separation from it, has, I have no doubt, had its effect 
on me," he wrote long afterwards. "Its loving care and 
thought for us all, one remembers with deepest thankful- 
ness." 

Many still living can remember the Vice-Provost in his 



EARLY YEARS. 3 

venerable age^ his kindly smile and ready sympathy, and the 
unfailing interest with which he watched the progress of his 
grandsons, as one after another they passed through Eton. 
They remember also Mrs. Carter's stately presence, her fine 
features and bright, beautiful eyes, her keen pleasure in 
travel and in all new and interesting sights, her delight in 
flowers, and the love of art which she inherited from her 
father and transmitted to more than one of her children. 

Both parents did their utmost to make their house a 
truly happy home to their large family. They formed a 
bright, merry party, and " Tom " was the favourite with all. 
" He was the brotider to whom we all looked," writes one of 
his five sisters, who still survives. 

The home was the centre of a cheerful society ; books of 
all kinds abounded ; a small but choice collection of pictures, 
of which the foundation had been laid by Mr. Proctor, was 
formed year by year. As the young people grew up, tours 
to Wales and Scotland were planned for their holiday 
pleasure. 

The journal of one of these tours, kept by their son at 
the age of seventeen, for the pleasure of his parents, is still 
treasured. It is written in a clear, delicate hand, very 
different from that familiar to his friends in later years, 
when the writer worked under pressure of a large corre- 
spondence« and was illustrated by a sister, who became an 
excellent amateur artist. This book shows that the love of 
beautiful scenery, which to the end of his life was one of Mr. 
Carter's chief delights, was already developed. 

" The road, winding round the base of a hill, brought us 
to a most enchanting view," he writes of Loch Fyna " Im- 
mediately beneath lay the lake, spreading to the right into a 
large bay. Gn the banks was the town of Inverary, looking 
like a fairy city, and on the right of which was the castle 
and the whole range of the park, terminated by the fine 
peak of Dunnachoich, clothed with wood ; mountains rose in 
the background, and toward the left, till they were lost in 
mist. The lake was perfectly calm, and I never saw the 



4 LOVE OF SCENERY, 

reflection so beautiful. Every tree, every leaf, was entire, 
and the whole town seemed to sleep in the lake." 

The Borrowdale mountains seen from Skiddaw at sunset 
" appeared like a sea of gold when stormy." The scenery of 
Derwentwater "is past all description. . . . The mixed 
splendour of the south end is excessive, and the dark clouds 
which alternately displayed and concealed it, rendered it 
still more beautiful." The journal abounds with passages 
such as these, showing a sensitive feeling for natural beauty 
not often seen in a boy so young. 

He delighted not only in the scenery, but in the active 
exercise and rough and sometimes dangerous climbing 
necessary for the full enjoyment of a mountain country, and 
was gifted with a steady head and firm step, which he 
retained till far advanced in life. On one occasion he was 
caught by the sea near Whitby, and returned with unhoped- 
for speed to the anxious watchers, having climbed up the 
cliflf, which the sailors had told his parents was impossible. 

These household pleasures did not injure Mr. Carter's 
school life, or take him too much away from the society of 
his fellows. He played cricket and hockey, and was a pro- 
ficient in fives, which in those days was played against the 
chapel wall, the deep buttresses of which formed the courts. 
Another favourite amusement was wood-turning, in which 
he was very skilful, and which he practised industriously, 
when the weather was too bad for outdoor games, at Eoger- 
son's lathe. Of his studies, no record remains, but he took 
and kept a high place in the school, and left it Captain of 
Oppidans. 

A letter from a young visitor, the sister of the Eev. 
William Oxenham, of Harrow, then lately married to his 
eldest sister, gives a pleasant glimpse of his family life at 
this time. 

" Eton College, Oetcher 16, 1826. 

..." I have had so much to do and see here that I have 
had little leisure for writing. . . . L. and Tom and I drove to 



EARLY YEARS. 5 

Sandpit Gate and saw the royal animals, and beauties they 
are ! We first saw thirteen kangaroos hopping about in a 
paddock, then some lovely peacocks of all colours, then a pig 
deer, which is very pretty, notwithstanding its name. Then 
Mr. Lewis, a very interesting looking young artist, came 
out and took us into another paddock, where under a shed, 
overshadowed by fine oaks, stood his easel and a picture he 
was painting of the animals and their keeper, old Clarke, 
who was standing by with a Java deer, which was just 
sketched in. Close by was a shed, in which was a beautiful 
white stag from the Burman Empire, and in an adjoining 
paddock, also railed off, two extraordinary birds, called emus, 
as large as ostriches and more odd looking. . . . The whole 
was enchanting, quite like a fairy-tale. ... I saw the cottage, 
but not the king, though Mr. Lewis said he was expecting him 
every moment. We could not wait, which I thought tan- 
talizing to a degree, but they all indulge me in the slightest 
wish so much that I would not say I wished it, for I knew 
Tom wanted to be at home, as it was the day before he went. 
He was a great loss to our party ; I think he has one of the 
most delightful dispositions I ever met with. L. is a dear 
girl, not the least like what I had imagined ; in fact, they are 
all very engaging, and Mrs. Carter quite a mother to me. . . . 
We had a defightful musical evening here on Friday; Venua 
played exquisitely on his violin, E. C." (probably the Eev. 
Edward Coleridge) " on the violoncello, and Mr. C. Yonge on 
his fiute, L. on the harp, and E. on the pianoforte." 

In 1826 Mr. Carter went to Christ ChurcL King's 
College, Cambridge, would have seemed his more probable 
destination, but for the fact that his place in the school was 
so high for his age, that in order to try for the scholarship he 
must have been placed in a lower form. This his father's 
tender pride would not suffer, and to this seeming accident he 
owed his Oxford training. Few details of ^his University life 
can now be gathered, for aU those who shared it have passed 
away. No doubt many letters were exchanged between the 
boy and the home which he had never before quitted for more 
than a few weeks, but none have been preserved, except three 
boyish epistles to his sisters. One of these,written shortly after 
his arrival at Oxford, gives his first impressions of his new life. 



6 CHRIST CHURCH. 

" Christ Churchy AprU 30. 

"My dexe L., 

'' Conceive a room about eighteen feet long by fifteen 
broad ; at one end the door, with a bookcase on one side, at the 
opposite end a long row of cupboards, painted yellow and white, 
oi: rather by this time having degenerated into no colour at alL 
On one side is a Saxo-Gothic fbreplace, with a bookcase, and 
at each extremity a door, more suited to a bam, one leading 
into a servants' room, and another into my bedroom. On the 
opposite side the ceiling falls in a direct slope on a wall of a 
few feet in height. In the slope are two windows, against one 
pf which rises an angle of stone and mortar, perfectly excluding 
all apology for a view, and through the other a few square 
inches of the * empyrean vault of heaven * is discernible 
through a plenitude of iron bars. . . . The fireplace is 
exceedingly hot and the windows very cold, so I have the 
advantage of a West Indian sun and a Siberian frost, concen- 
trated into me. My bedroom affords just room enough to 
turn in. The bed is too short by a considerable number of 
inches, but that is a trifle. Altogether I shall be very 
comfortable by next term. I have now settled myself, and 
shall begin to read to-morrow. By-the-by, I find my books 
scratched very much, by what I know not, except it may be 
bad packing ; also be it known, that, instead of twelve bottles 
of Bucellas, I have only received eleven. 

" I am now very nearly settled, but I must own that I feel 
rather solitary, having always been accustomed to the 
pleasures of home ; and in addition to that, though I know 
a great many men as Eton men, yet I scarcely know one 
intimately, and indeed have not found one of my most 
particular Eton friends. That will come round in time. 
Pusey, Freshfield, et cetera, have, called on me, and even the 
gaunt form of Plimiptre's cousin made his way very kindly up 
into my room yesterday, and asked me to breakfast to-morrow. 
About a fortnight ago I was asked to go down in the Christ 
Church boat ; I accordingly went, and I found myself imper- 
ceptibly brought into a regular course of training. Coming 
up the same evening, I was put between the stroke and a man 
who is general teacher. Since that I have been down every 
day, and am to pull in the second boat. The other day we 
went down to Abingdon. I have got to know by this several 
very pleasant lAen, and have found it altogether very satis- 
factory. Consequently I have not opened my bats, and I do 



EARLY YEARS. 7 

not know whether I shall, as playing here is very incon- 
venient. . . . The other day I wined with one of the Gtoulds " 
(afterwards his brothers-in-law), "and met Merivale ; my 
father will know who I mean. Also tell him that I heard 
Dumford ^ up in the schools, and he did capitally, I believe, in 
everything, and ia reckoned certain of his class. . . . Pray write 
as soon as you can, as you cannot tell the pleasure it is to me. 
I look forward to Montem most anxiously." 

Soon after, he writes to his eldest sister, then staying 
with the parents of her future husband, the Kev. W. Oxenham, 
in Devonshire. 

" Chriii Church, May 11. 

" By degrees I have been entirely reconciled to this life, 
and now like it very much, as 1 have become acquainted 
with various very agreeable men, though I find scarcely any 
Eton friend. As cricket is particularly inconvenient, I have 
become a sailor. I am rather tired of the boat, as it has 
become a bore, and I shall shirk it when I can. The races 
have begun, and continue twice every week, and I am obliged 
to pull in them, as I at first agreed. So much for myself. 
Your letter was sent to me from Eton, and I pitied your 
situation greatly, though you must feel differently. ... I 
expect to go (to Eton) to-morrow. I went a short time ago 
to Short, and he told me that he certainly would not give me 
leave till Monday, even if the Dean did, and told me I was 
a great fool for going at all. So I put him down in my 
estimation next to the Provost and Polehampton ; but, how- 
ever, he told me to-day that the Dean had given somebody 
else leave for a longer time, and thought I might get it also. 
So he is an angel. I have been to one large party at Mrs. 
W.'s, and I was so sickened that I will never go to 
another. ... I thought of proposing blind-man's buff; but, 
however, the ladies looked over prints, and the gentlemen 
played with their fingers, till there was some music, which 
was amusing." 

To the same sister he wrote in the year following — 

« Ghriit Church, March 22, 1827. 

"My dearest M., 

" Most humble and contrite I have taken up the 
pen, trusting for forgiveness to your generosity alone, as I 
1 Richard Dumford, afterwards Bishop of Chichester. 



8 CONTEMPORARIES. 

have nothing to say for myself. . . . My conscience was 
pricked immensely at the receipt of your parcel last week, 
but I did not write immediately, that I might give you my 
opinion of your first essay in preserves, and for that reason 
dared to transgress your positive order. I am really much 
obliged to you for thinking of me, for I did not deserve it. 
The contents were very good, considering you are young in 
the world. ... I have been going on in the old monotonous 

way, except now and then a stupid party at 's. I was 

^eatly disgusted a short time ago at not being able to get a 
ticket for the Woodstock ball. W. had promised me one, 
but on the Sunday before, when I went to demand it, he 
had not even one for himself. The consequence was, it was 
too late to get one anywhere else. ... Of course, you know 
that I am singing away like a nightingale, and that I have 
a tenor voice, and that I already come one octave and a half 
with great effect. . . . Tell Oxenham by his recommendations 
I have been attending Buckland, to my great amusement, 
though this (mineralogy) is the less interesting of the two." 

" I went to Christ Church in 1827.^ The same loving 
care that had watched over me all my earlier years then 
decided for me what has always been a cause of great thank- 
fulness. Dr. Pusey was then, or just afterwards (1828), 
Hebrew Professor, living, where he always remained, in the 
comer house of Tom Quad. Gladstone was in the year 
behind me. So also was Hamilton, afterwards Bishop of 
Salisbury, and Charles Wordsworth, afterwards Bishop of 
St. Andrews. Vowler Short, afterwards Bishop of St. Asaph, 
was my tutor ; Longley, afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, 
the Fellow and Senior Censor. Newman was at Oriel, and 
for the last (about) two years of my time Vicar of St. Mary's. 
But it was the object of the College authorities to prevent 
our going to hear him preach, and the Chapel services were 
so arranged as to make it impossible. Hurrell Proude once 
came to my rooms to meet Nutcombe Oxenham " (brother of 
W. Oxenham, and for many years Vicar of Modbury), " other- 
wise I knew nothing of the Oriel men. Their fame had not 
as yet begun to be thought of among undergraduates. Pusey, 
my father's pupil at Eton, was kind to me. I was occasion- 
ally at his house. But I was unconscious at that time of 

^ The absence of letters is made up for by an account of these years 
written by himself many years afterwards in a precious volume of notes 
compiled for his children. — Ed. 




MR. CARTER ON LEAVING ETON. 
{From tJte Painting in Eton College.) 



nd 



EARLY YEARS. 9 

any such influence as afterwards so affected me. There was 
then no private intercourse between tutor and undergraduate. 
I believe Jelf, some years afterwards, was the first to break 
through this class distinction. I would add a few words 
concerning my Christ Church tutor, Vowler Short. There 
was a fatherly kindness in his dealings and intercourse, though, 
as before stated, there were at that time no familiar or friencUy 
communications between tutor and pupil. The only private 
advice I remember ever receiving from him was on asking 
him to give me hints for writing sermons. He told, as an 
example, his plan of writing his sermons, and his idea what 
they should be; that they should resemble a jelly-bag — a 
good round base, tapering smoothly down to a point ; that he 
divided his sermons into three heads and a conclusion, and 
taking a head a day, as he rode, each separately worked out 
and thought of during the ride. 

"Stacey, Fellow of New College, an old Eton private 
tutor and friend of ours, asked me continually to dine with 
him on Sundays, and a most pleasant engagement it was. 
Evensong (New College choir was then second only, if second, 
to that of Magdalen College), then dinner with the Fellows 
in Hall, and wine afterwards in their common room, I was 
quite at home with Stacey. Mr. Wingfield, the surgeon, 
was also a family friend, and his wife, a great musical 
amateur, gave very pleasant evenings. 

" In the summer term I joined a party of men in hiring 
a four-oared boat, and latterly I pulled sixth in the College 
Torpid. Tennis was too expensive, though I sometimes 
played. I attended with great pleasure Buckland*s Geo- 
logical Lectures. While I was at Oxford, Scott's novels 
began to come out, and it was one of the delights of that 
time. Previously, while at school, Mrs. Eadclifife's Eomances 
had been one's only food of this kind. My favourite reading 
as a boy had been the ' Seven Champions of Christendom.' 
I slept with it under my pillow. After this time I enjoyed 
Eichardson's novels ; but Scott carried the day. 

" My tutor was disgusted at my deciding not to work at 
Mathematics after my Little Go. I had no mind or head for 
it. Classics and Philosophy were enough for me. The 
greatest boon I owe to Oxford teaching is the knowledge 
and love of Butler's Analogy, then the authorized standard 
of Philosophy, though no longer so. To my mind it has 
always been the true philosophical groimd-work in support of 
the Mosaic and Christian dispensation and religion generally. 



lo LEAVING OXFORD. 

"We were, at the time of my leaving Oxford, on the very 
verge of the Tractarian movement, but as yet there was, as 
far as I knew, no sign of its approach. All had been as it 
was at Eton, a mere routine of Chapel going; at Christ 
Church on week-days a shortened form of Latin prayers. To 
be often late in coming in, after the closing of Tom Gate, 
which was at 9 p.m., seemed the only thing that brought 
reproof or question as to one's conduct. 

" I passed my last examination early in 1831, half a year 
later than was intended, in consequence of my awaking on 
the morning of the day I was to go into the schools with an 
attack of jaundice. After my examination I went abroad 
with Charles Woodcock " (a lifelong friend, for many years 
Eector of Chardstock) " and Burr, friend of his. It was an 
expedition of pleasurable excitement of no ordinary kind. 
We walked through part of Belgium, and up the Ehine as 
far as Coblentz. In one of the inns on the Ehine, hap- 
pening to find an English paper, I there first saw the Class 
List." His name was in the First Class of Classics (Lit. Hum). 

" Woodcock had to return, leaving me and Burr, and we 
two went down the Tyrol to Venice. We then approached 
Venice by sea, its towers gradually rising above the waters. 

" On my return home, I was to have met my father, 
mother, and sisters in Switzerland, but an Smeute in Paris 
unhappily hindered their expedition. I returned alone, walk- 
ing over the Albula Pass. 

" The year after this, I think it was, I stood for a Fellow- 
ship at Oriel. I should never have thought of this, but was 
persuaded by a friend of ours, Jenkins, an Oriel Fellow, 
afterwards Greek Professor at Durham. I failed, as might 
have been expected ; but so did Henry Wilberforce, who was 
also a candidate. Eden won it, one of the * twelve good men ' 
of whom Burgon wrote. He became Tutor at Oriel." 

In the winter of 1831-32 he went to Paris, " thinking to 
learn French, and took lodgings with a French family in the 
Eue de Bac ; but the Woodcocks were passing the winter in 
Paris that same year, and the temptation was great to leave 
the French family, and think that a French tutor on the 
Tuileries' side of Paris might sufficiently serve my purpose ; 
and so I made the change, and lost my chance of learning 
French." 



EARLY YEARS. n 

The only family tradition which can be added to this 
account is of his having been sworn in as special constable 
during the machine riots of 1830, and being called out 
at night, in company with his friend, Mr. W. Evans, 
the well-known artist, to some riotous scenes in the neigh- 
bourhood. 



CHAPTEE II. 

ORDINATION AND EARLIEST PAROCHIAL WORK. 

Thomas Thellusson Carter had always been intended by 
his father for Holy Orders, and he himself "never had any 
other thought." He was ordained Deacon on Sunday, 
October 21, 1832, by Bishop Burgess, in Salisbury Cathedral, 
to the curacy of St. Mary's, Beading, Berkshire being then 
in the diocese of Salisbury. 

It is characteristic of the time that his rector, the Eev. 
H. H. Milman, afterwards Dean of St. Paul's, went, on his 
first arrival, for a six- weeks' holiday, leaving the parish in 
charge of the young deacon. The only services, besides those 
of Sunday, were on Wednesday and Friday, when the clerk 
was accustomed to keep watch for a possible congregation, 
and if he saw no one coining, would say to the curate, " No 
prayers, sir, to-day." Even when the rector was at home, 
Mr. Carter was sometimes left with unexpected responsi- 
bilities. Mr. Milman was occasionally called on, on Sunday, 
for a Times article, and the curate would have to preach with 
scant time for preparation. 

" Milman was at that time rather under a cloud because 
of his * History of the Jews,' of which he said to me that it 
had been pubUshed fifty years too soon, a very true prophecy. 
It was one of the first-fruits of the Broad School, then just 
struggling into life through the growing study of German 
literature. Milman's sermons were very elegant composi- 
tions, much liked by the educated — of the essay kind. He 
once said that he had almost exhausted the Scripture subjects 
— an essay-like idea. I thought he knew his parish well. 



ORDINATION AND EARLIEST PAROCHIAL WORK. 13 

" Milman and his wife were both very kind to me. But 
I was most at home at the Moncks' at Coley Park, fiiends 
of my father's. Invitations came from country families 
out of regard to my own family, and from townspeople 
because of my position in the town. And there was a very 
hospitable spirit all round me. Altogether the social calls 
were too much, and I was thankful when, at the end of my 
first year, my father becoming Vicar of Bumham, there came 
what seemed a clear call to seek another sphere free &om 
these social entanglements." 

The Eev. T. T. Carter, to use his most familiar name, was 
ordained priest at Buckden on Sunday, December 22, 1833, 
by Dr. Kaye, Bishop of Lincoln, a diocese which then included 
Buckinghamshire, and became curate to his father. 

" My Bumham curacy was a most happy time. I lived 
at the vicarage. My father left me free to do what I could in 
the parish, my dear mother giving me all possible encourage- 
ment also. The Wesleyans were active at that time. The 
wife of one of the local preachers kept the Church Sunday- 
school ; her husband used to attend the church, and both, I 
think, at times communicated there. Wesleyan preachers 
were very busy in the outer hamlets ; I owe a debt to one of 
these preachers. He called on me one morning, and began 
an earnest talk as to the spiritual needs of the people, and 
their desire of being visited, with many details of their state. 
I was young and inexperienced, and could not but be struck 
with his earnestness. And I date from that time a change 
in my habits. I had been accustomed to one's old college 
use of reading, or other like occupation, in the morning, and 
outdoor exercise in the afternoon, only substituting parish 
visiting for the constitutionaL But I then began to give up 
to the parish the morning also. 

" It was, I think, soon after going to Bumham, that I 
made the voyage to Madeira. It was thought good for my 
health. I stayed about a fortnight in the island, while the 
vessel, a brig of the old type, was unlading and relading. 
It was the custom then for wine-merchants to receive visitors 
into their houses. The hotel was an indifferent one, and Mr. 
Dickinson, a cousin of the Grover family> kindly entertained 
me. The return for the hospitality was an order for wine. 
\t was a delightful opportunity of seeing the exceeding 



14 THE OXFORD TRACTS. 

beauty and luxuriance of the island before the rich wonders 
of its vintage were destroyed. The vintage was going on 
while I was there. 

'' At that time we were at a great loss as to parish work, 
without training, and without guidance. At that time I had 
my first experience of a parish trouble, the breaking up of 
the parish choir, which, with various wind instruments, had 
established itself in the gallery in a very independent posi- 
tion. It was a time when we had only Tate and Brady's 
version of the Psalms, and there was a strong feeling at the 
time that one ought to keep to what was in the Prayer-book. 
As the choir broke up, I went over to Windsor in a great 
extremity, and found B., a shoemaker in Bier Lane, who, 
with his solitary flageolet, commenced a new and more 
docile form of choir. 

"There was equally an entire want of guidance as to 
what books or what line of theology one should adopt. This 
want of guidance ran throughout. It was while we were 
thus floating without authority to guide us, that the Oxford 
tracts appeared. It is impossible to exaggerate the im- 
mediate effect. In reading them as they came out, one felt 
a sense of interest and earnestness in religious doctrines one 
had not known before. Doctrines new to one were vividly 
taught, and those with which one was familiar, but had held 
in a somewhat perfunctory way, started into fresh life. The 
Church, its Priesthood and Sacraments, acquired a reality un- 
felt before. Calls then came from OxiSord to vote on critical 
questions, and then one met old friends and talked over 
the new teaching. * Have you read the tract on Apostolic 
Succession? What does it all mean?' I remember ask- 
ing. All questions seemed to present themselves in a new 
way. 

" It was while I was at Bumham I first saw the Eastward 
position taken at the Altar. I can still recall the surprise it 
gave me. It was at the old Margaret Street chapel, on the 
site of which All Saints' Church now stands. Oakley was 
then vicar, and a good deal of talk was caused about this new 
departure in celebrating. I went often on purpose to see him- 
celebrate, as many others did. It struck one with a new idea 
of the service. 

"As the Oxford movement advanced, there was no diflSculty 
in learning what books to read. The ' Library of the Fathers ' 
and the ' Library of Anglo-Catholic Theology ' became our 
standard, and a riQh abundance of material qq siiidlar linea 



ORDINATION AND EARLIEST PAROCHIAL WORK. 15 

was constantly being supplied. These influences came to 
bear on me more on my marriage." 

On November 26, 1835, Mr. Carter married Mary Anne, 
daughter of John Gould, Esq., then residing at Amberd, near 
Taunton. His wife's girlhood had been spent in the neigh- 
bourhood of Totnes, where her father lived before his re- 
moval to Somersetshire. Dartington Eectory, then held by 
Archdeacon Froude, and Dartington Hall, where Isaac 
Williams found a wife, were close by. 

" Hurrell Froude had been in early days a playmate of 
my dear wife and her sisters. They were diligent readers of 
the British Magazine, the periodical of which Hugh James 
Bose was the editor, and in which Newman's and Keble's 
short poems first appeared. It was distinctly the forerunner 
of the TroAsts for the Times, even as the Christian Year was 
a deeper herald of the coming change. I was thus introduced 
into a new order of family life and a new set of associations 
on different Church foundations from my own. Devonshire 
thought among serious minded families was of a different 
stamp from that of Eton. The Oxenhams, to whom I and 
mine were doubly related, were also close intimates of the 
Froudes, as well as of other Devonshire higher Churchmen, 
and among them of the Cornishes, Keble's friends. 

"Bunmam has ever remained to me a most precious 
memory, the place of my first real ministerial work and of 
my early married life. I left it at Easter, 1838, for Piddle- 
hinton, six miles from Dorchester." 

During this time Mr. Carter's first printed works 
appeared. 

" The Eton system of Education Vindicated, and its Capa- 
bilities of Improvement Considered," a pamphlet published 
in 1834, contains a striking passage on the value of daily 
service in schools and colleges. 

''That man is not to be envied whose heart does not 
turn with love and reverence to those collegiate chapels 
where, alone in our land, the God to whom the eyfes of all 
look up for their daily bread, receives His daily offering of 



i6 EARLY PUBLICATIONS. 

public praise and thanksgiying. . . . They are the links 
that bind ns to past times and to modes of Ufe which are no 
more. They realize to our senses the habits of devotion that 
prevailed in Christendom, when religion was all in all. 
They are the standing memorials and visible proofs of the 
deep, heartfelt impressions that Christianity wrought in the 
world when it was first preached. . . . The summons to 
chapel at the commencement and close of every day, the 
recurring consciousness of the sacred duty, the constant 
representation of their dependence upon their Maker, the 
contrast of the devout ceremony and its solemn warnings, 
with the scene and the conversation which may have just 
been left, the support and direction afforded to the transient 
and wavering aspirations after better things, — these are 
influences so congenial to all our purer feelings, so beneficially 
associated with the general training of young minds, that 
their effects can be destroyed or impaired only by some 
unnatural perverseness or insensibility." 

A short tract addressed "To the Parishioners of Bumham," 
" on the Blessings of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper," 
was published in 1835, in which there breathes already that 
love of the Blessed Sacrament, though differently expressed 
to what it would have been in later years, which marked 
the Founder of the Confraternity. The Christian "sees with 
the eye of faith the Lord Jesus standing at His holy table. 
He draws near with a full assurance of faith : as he eats 
the broken bread, he knows the Spirit of his Lord is feed- 
ing his heart; as he drinks of the cup of wine, he knows 
that Christ is sprinkling His Blood upon his heart; he 
knows that the unspeakable consolation spreading over his 
spirit is the very peace of Gk)d which passeth all under- 
standing, that the lifting up of his heart is the love of Grod 
' shed abroad over his heart by the Holy Ghost that is given 
him ; ' that the new power over sin he then feels is an 
unusual outpouring of the Spirit of Christ." 

This was followed in 1836 by a paper on " The Duties 
and Blessings of the Christian Sabbath, considered with 
Reference to the Present State of Society," Mr. Carter's last 
publication while Curate of Bumham. 



ORDINATION AND EARLIEST PAROCHIAL WORK. 17 • 

A book of MSS. sermons, preached in 1837-38, is also in 
existence, written in the same clear, beautiful hand as the 
Scottish journals of his boyhood, and prepared, like them, as 
a gift to his parents, to whom the volume is dedicated " with 
feelings of sincerest aflfection and reverence." 

Ih 1838 Mr. Carter was presented by his father to the 

si Eectory of Piddlehinton, a living in the gift of Eton College, 

situated about six miles from Dorchester, and twelve from 

Weymouth, and he entered on his new work at Easter in 

that year. 

The change from the atmosphere of Eton and Oxford, 
from congenial society, from the rising stir of Church life in 
which he had already begun to take part, to this solitary 
village, which lies, surrounded by orchards and water- 
meadows, in a valley amid the Dorsetshire downs, was 
great indeed. Of his clerical neighbours, two or three were 
strongly Calvinistic, the greater number were sportsmen or 
farmers. "What will he find to do?" one of them is 
reported to have said, on hearing that the new rector neither 
shot nor fished. 

A letter written four or five years later, when he had left 
the neighbourhood, will give an idea of the society in which 
Mr. Carter now found himself. 

" Piddletrentkide, Sept. 24. 

*'My dear Carter, 

" Many thanks for your last kind letter, to which 
I will reply as well as I can, though I assure you I feel 
more in need of advice than able to give it, on the interest- 
ing subjects introduced by your comprehensive questions. . . . 
I am now going to give you an account of our Visitation, etc., 
which I know wUl interest you much. The Bishop's charge 
you will, of course, see, and no doubt you know by the 
questions put us what it was going to be. Everything went 
off as usual at first — an excellent sermon, of course, by the 
preacher for the day, Mr. Waugh; many more reverend 
brethren addressed than were present — as usual. Dinner as 
usual. The Bishop kind and mild and gentle as usual, and 
by his behaviour, as well as by his charge, likely, one would 

c 



i8 A BISHOPS VISITATION. 

have thought, to bind the hearts of all as one man in love 
towards each other, and respect towards himself in his office 
at least. The Bishop proposed Church and Queen and 
Queen Adelaide as usual. Mr. 6. made a long speech as 
usual, containing some matter and more tautology than was 
suitable to our organs of digestion in the midst of ducks and 
potatoes, and port wine and nuts, and grapes and apples ; 
and Mr. G.'s speech called forth a speech from Mr. W., which, 
however, much to be lamented at the time, inasmuch as it 
gave evident pain to our good Bishop, will do good by open- 
ing his eyes. Mr. W. objected to the charge, told the Bishop 
he had contradicted himself, wanted to make him eat his 
own words, and, I believe, thought by one vigorous attack 
to prevent its publication* What must have been his chagrin 
at seeing his lordship quickly drink his wine, and, in the 
name of the clergy, Ms own health, because they did not do 
it for him, for they had no time, and then get up apparently 
to make a reply. The reply was to this effect : his lordship 
felt sorry that any objection was made to his charge. Of 
course, having been requested to print it, and having promised 
to do so, he should print it ; hoped that no one woidd be so 
silly as to think that he should consider Mr. W. answerable 
for what he had said, and concluded by assuring them that 
he did not consider it necessary to make any further reply. 
The conversation was immediately changed, and Mr. G. 
spoke of the comparative anatomy of potato-gardens and 
national schools, and this was followed by certain most 
valuable observations on the part of Mr, G. on turnip flies, 
riots, turnpikes, railways, etc., etc. The only desideratum was 
one of Billy Butler's plum puddings to make the thing perfect 
of its kind." 

The writer of this letter, the Eev. James Hicks, was 
a bright exception to the general dreariness, a really like- 
minded and sympathetic friend. Another was found in 
Arthur H. D. Acland, better known, perhaps, by the name 
which he bore in later life, as Mr. Troyte of Huntsham, who 
then lived in Dorchester. He, like Mr. Hicks, had been deeply 
affected by the Oxford movement, and threw himself heart 
and soul into the struggle to raise up a new and vigorous 
life in the Church. His little book of " Hours " was one of the 
earliest of such recovered helps to devotion, and his " Daily 



ORDINATION AND EARLIEST PAROCHIAL WORK. 19 

Steps towards Heaven/' a book of Meditations founded on a 
Latin work, but selected and arranged by himself, is still in 
use. 

Mr. Carter needed the refreshment of such congenial 
society. The parish seems to have been sadly neglected. 
The most earnest people were Wesleyans. There was no 
Church school in the place. He succeeded in forming a 
dame's school, and placed a converted Wesleyan girl as 
mistress. A chief object was the restoration of the church. 
To earn money for this purpose, he took pupils, and by this 
means, with some help from subscriptions, the work was 
accomplished. "The removal of the gallery," he wrote, 
''was a terrible grievance, and so was the breaking up of the 
choir, to make a fresh beginning, as had been done at Bum- 
ham ; but the main body of the people bore all this very 
kindly." 

Greater trouble was caused by what seems a very trivial 
matter. It was the custom that the rector, at Christmas, 
should give a mince pie, a loaf of bread, and a quart of ale, 
to each individual in the parish, of every class, character, 
and age, down to the baby in arms. The ale was brewed at 
the Bectory, and a baker came from Dorchester to make 
the mince pies. This appeared a very undesirable waste 
of money, but the custom was of such antiquity that Mr. 
Carter thought it well to consult a lawyer before attempting 
to abolish it. 

" With the sum thus spent (£10), I planned a clothing 
club for the poor, using the money for a 'bonus' to 
aid contributors. There was a great sensation, and the 
farmers, who used to come on tithe days for a supper at 
the Eectory, refused to appear eyer afterwards. I believe 
all reasonable people felt it was a right thing to do. I 
trust it was so. The custom seemed to me most hurtful. 
But some, I am afraid, never forgave me. After I had been 
some while at Clewer, once on a Christmas Day a large 
parcel arrived, and at the bottom of a heap of rags and 
straw appeared a mince pie." 



20 HOME LIFE. 

A glimpse of his home life^ in which he found relaxation 
from these parish cares, is afforded by a letter to a little 
daughter, which is also very characteristic of the writer's 
mind. 

** Fiddlehinton, May 29 (1840). 

" I feel a very great desire to know how you are, and how 
you are behaving, and if you obey everybody in everything, 
and particularly dearest Mama, and if you do your lessons 
very nicely. I shall hope to hear you read very much better 
when you come home. And above all, I hope that you do 
all you can to please and comfort dearest Mama, now that 
I am away, and cannot do anything for her. You must 
always remember that you cannot love or obey her too much, 
and that the way to show you love her is to do all she bids 
you to do. 

" I have been very busy in the garden ; I watered your 
garden with the large watering-pot yesterday evening, and I 
saw many of your seeds coming up, amongst the rest some 
sweet peas ; and there is a pretty rose close to your garden, 
which is in full bloom. 

" You cannot tell how many beautiful plants I have been 
preparing for dearest Mama. I planted so many to-day that 
we could not find enough things to cover them. We got all 
the sea-kale pots, an old beehive, some boxes from the tool- 
house, besides the flower-pots, and so we had enough. . . . 
Gilbert (one of the pupils) is very fond of the garden, and 
helps me greatly. I think you will like him, for he is very 
kind." 

Mr. Carter lived and worked at Piddlehinton for four 
years, and here, in 1841, his only son was bom. The relax- 
ing climate tried him greatly, and he was compelled to spend 
two winters at Weymouth, for health's sake. In 1842 he 
obtained leave of absence, and after this he returned to 
Bumham as his father's curate. 

He remained at Bumham for two years, residing in a 
small house — since pulled down — with a large and pretty 
garden, called the Priory Cottage, and situated nearly opposite 
the house now bearing that name. At this time we find the 
first traces of an anxiety and trouble which often recurred 



ORDINATION AND EARLIEST PAROCHIAL WORK. 21 

during tlie troubled years which followed the first bright 
dawn of the Oxford movement. A lady, whose faith in the 
English Church was shaken, came to him for advice. Mr. 
Carter laid the case before Dr. Pusey, and thus began an 
intercourse which lasted, growing ever closer and nearer, for 
forty years. His letter is not forthcoming, but some passages 
may be given from his answers. It is without date of year, 
but the allusion to Newman seems to place it before 1843. 

" My deab Cartbk, 

" I am at any time glad to hear from you, especi- 
ally in a case when I can be of any use. I received your letter 
just as I was setting out on a journey, which prevented my 
answering it at once. I at first adopted the same plan as 
yourseK with regard to those who were in perplexity about 
the E[oman] C[hurch], arguing on points of detail. But after- 
wards it became plain to me that these were not the grounds 
upon which their conduct was meant to depend, that it was 
appealing to them on subjects beyond their reach, and at the 
same time taking them, by controversy, off from themselves 
and their own responsibilities. It was making them judges 
of churches, instead of teaching them to be obedient children 
of that in which God had placed them. It was, too, misleading 
them, as though they could judge, whereas they cannot judge ; 
e,g. supposing that the supremacy of the Bishop of Bome 
depended on a certain number of the passages of the Fathers 
and could be proved or disproved by them, yet simple minds 
must be entirely dependent on otibers as to any questions 
about the genuineness of passages, their interpretation, 
so that it was only a circuitous way in which at last they 
would depend upon one's self and one's own authority, as com- 
pletely as if they at once avowedly did so. It is plain that 
for the main part of our flocks, the little ones and lambs of 
Christ, those who are His special care, this is not the way 
intended. Their convictions must rest on something more 
immediate and cognizable by alL 

"This seems to me to be supplied by St. Paul's rule, 
' Wherein a man was called, there let him abide with God.' 
It was not meant that he should change ; all change implies 
something defective ; the plain line, unless something inter- 
vene extraordinary, is to work out our salvation where He 
hath called us. TJnless there be some great cause, breaking 
His order, it is not our business to go back to first principles, 



22 DR. PUSEVS ADVICE. 

or examine foundations, but to ' build ourselves up in that 
most holy faith' which we have received, to live in and on 
that faith,.not to examine for ourselves whether it be the faith. 
If we are placed where obedience is required, it is our duty 
mostly to obey, not to inquire. This, which is the plain 
duty of most simple Christians, is their privilege also. Life 
is not long enough for endless disputations, what we are to 
beUeve, where we are to be. It is for acting, growing in 
grace, not for disputing. The only question, then, seems to 
be whether we are in a body founded and ordered by God, 
which has the presence of Christ and the grace of the Sacra- 
ments ; in other words, whether, where we are, we have the 
covenanted means of salvation. Now, to a member of a 
Church, her very existence as a Church guarantees this . . . 
but now, in proportion to increasing difficulties, God seems 
to be bestowing upon us nearer and more immediate proofs, 
which appeal more directly to our consciences, and aid us 
more than abstract truth is wont to do. It, too, meets 
graciously the very difficulties we have. We are pressed 
from without with the question, ' Have we not, by having 
lost visible unity, and being severed from the rest of Christen- 
dom, lost also the privilege of a Church, while we preserve 
its form ? ' To this He has now given us the answer by 
tokens of His Presence among us. Every one, one may say 
the whole world, those of our Communion, and those who have 
rejected us, see that a great work is being carried on among 
us. Never, perhaps, has such a change been brought over the 
face of a Church as here in ours in the last ten years. And 
the work is evidently with our whole Church. It is not 
that a few individuals are being called out, it is a leavening 
of the whole Church ; everything is in motion and every- 
thing in our direction ; things prosperous and adverse, near oi: 
remote, in Church and State, aU have one effect. Whatever 
change is made is towards truth and restoration. Nothing can 
be touched but it turns to good ; every one receives some- 
thing more than he did some years past ; even those who 
oppose what is going on are themselves carried onward and 
take higher ground than they did before. With growth of 
truth there is also growth in life; there is everywhere, 
among the young especially, a deeper devotional life; 
children are often not what they used to be, but out of their 
mouths praise is perfected; we have deepening holiness, 
enlarged self-denial, stricter seK-discipline, deepening humility, 
both in iadividuals and as a Church. There is an earnest 



ORDINA TION AND EARLIEST PAROCHIAL WORK 23 

yearning for something better than we are ; all are amazed 
at it, forcing a S[oman] C[atholic] after so long separation (to) 
look with interest and attention towards our Church, begin 
to acknowledge it, and to think individuals safe in it. One 
can only say, * This is the Lord's doing, and it is marvellous 
in our eyes.' ... I can hardly understand how people, who 
see what God is doing, cbh think of leaving the place of His 
Presence. ... I may say (though this is very subordinate, 
knowing the tempers of many who have gone over and those 
who, being tempted, have stayed) I should have no doubt, on 
this ground only, with whom I should wish my portion to 
be ... I have, I think, found it most useful when people's 
minds have been disturbed to lead them to look back in 
what this disturbance originated. ' The most peaceful, duti- 
ful, humble minds are not disturbed; how is it that I 
am ? ' . . . Does our friend know Mr. N[ewman'sl sermon. 
'Obedience the Eemedy for Eeligious Perplexity ? Then 
his three articles in the B\ritisK\ C[ritic] on * Geraldine,' * 
the Catholicity of the English Church, and on private judg- 
ment, are the best I know for settling a mind perplexed on 
this point. . . . 

" Eemember me very gratefully to your father, whenever 
you have an opportunity, and believe me, 

" Yours most faithfully, 

" E. B. PUSEY. 

« Vigil of S. Simon and S. Jude." [1842 ?] 

Mr. Carter kept a copy of his answer to this letter. 

" BumJiam, Nov. 2. 

" My dear Sir, 

" On returning home after a rather long absence, 
I have been fully occupied with arrears of parochial busi- 
ness, or I would not have so long delayed writing to you to 
thank you for so kindly complying with my request, indeed 
so very far beyond my utmost expectations. You will 
excuse me, I hope, for saying that I have ever had cause of 
deepest gratitude to you for your publick writings, but 
above all, now for your great help to me personally. I have 
thought much on your views, and hope to act upon them, 
trusting that I may not myself be insensible to their power. 

1 A religious novel, which Dr. Pusey considered '* likely to do exten- 
sive mischief." 



24 MR, CARTER'S REPLY. 

" I do not know whether I am yet blinded and hindered 
by the lower interests of controversy, and ought at once to 
lay aside all discussion on details such as I spoke of; but 
while I endeavour to confirm myseK and to quiet others in 
the simply submissive faith you describe, yet, in the case 
now before me, I hardly quite feel that I can pass by all the 
details of the question. At least I hope that I should not be 
erring against your principles if I explain, where I can, the 

difficulties and objections which have influenced , for 

she has read much of the opposite teaching, and rests on 
passages of authority which she has seen quoted in evidence ; 
and I feel that those passages will lie in her mind and 
possess it, unless cleared away. And thus much I think I 
might try to do, consistently with your principles, for clear 
explanation, and answering difficulties already strongly felt, 
is not disputation. What I propose, then, to myself is, to 
suggest answers to all false grounds or evidences which I 
may find existing, and no further, always at the same time 
trying to lead her to live in the spirit, and on the principles 
you have unfolded to me. My opportunities are rare, but 
I have already written on the plan which I mention. I 
earnestly hope that such a method would not be censured 
by you. 

*' If I feel the need of your help again, I will take ad- 
vantage of your kindness. I find that the discussions on 
the great principles of the Church system are now rapidly 
descending from the higher to the lower classes even in the 
country, and agitating the minds of many. Within a few 
days I have been grieved to find a much sterner and stronger 
opposition to them, even in our adherents, than I had 
expected. The extent of latitudinarianism and self-dependent 
judgment seems to open to me mpre and more. 

" I am sometimes at a loss to know how to speak on 
such subjects to the more unlearned classes. They seem 
quite unprepared for the spirit of dependent faith, which 
would submissively lend itseK to any authoritative teaching. 

" They are incapable of seeing the grounds on which such 
a spirit rests ; as incapable they are of discussing the question 
and seeiQg the force of arguments. I speak generally. 

" I am at a loss often to know whether it be better to 
speak boldly, content merely to witness to the doctrines; 
trusting that God will cause them to work as He wills, or 
else to act upon a kind of economy, leading them they know 
not how, to the end in view. 



ORDINATION AND EARLIEST PAROCHIAL WORK. 25 

"But this latter seems scarcely possible now with the 
adults, for they are demanding things and realities ; and are 
questioning the very groundwork, and there is no keeping 
off from the very conclusions themselves. It seems as $ 
there must be an actual collision, and that we must openly 
take our stand on the ground that is to be won, and show 
them that they must come there too, and not merely guide 
them up to it by such an imperceptible track as might be 
practicable in other conditions of the national mind. I feel 
that we are driven to this, and though I would most earnestly 
avoid everything which might make me wear, in the eyes of 
my parishioners, the semblance of what they deem a party, 
yet I am impressed with the conviction that the occasions of 
the time do not admit of this, and that, even in less important 
posts of the holy Church, a decided and bold avowal of great 
principles must be made, meekly indeed as we may, but yet 
unequivocally. It seems necessary now for the triumph of 
Truth, come though it may in other generations. Anything 
like doubt, or what has been fahdy called (as I suppose) 
moderation, seems to have no right place now. I am speak- 
ing more of the minister's tone in conversation with his 
people than in his preaching, for it is then that the difficulty 
is generally most felt. 

" But I ought not thus to detain ; and would close with 
again expressing my very sincere gratitude for your kindness. 

" Tours most faithfully, 

"T. T. Cabteb." 



CHAPTER III. 

OLEWEB. 

In the spring of 1844 Mr. Carter resigned Piddlehinton for 
the living of Clewer, which is in the gift of Eton College, 
and here he began the work which was to continue for fifty- 
seven years, and with which his name will be always 
associated. 

The parish, though perhaps not much more populous than 
at present, was far larger in extent, and included a consider- 
able part of the town of Windsor. It had been neglected to 
a degree which now appears almost incredible. It had 
usually been held by a Fellow of Eton, and the rector was 
frequently non-resident. As the Vicar of Windsor was also 
incumbent of Datchet, and preferred to live in that pleasant 
village, it followed that these two parishes (now divided 
into four, with eight churches) were served by two curates ; 
and even these were not always on the spot, for at one time 
the Curate of Windsor lived at an hotel in Piccadilly, coming 
down for Sunday ; and on other days, when his services were 
required for marriages or funerals. 

The heart of Greorge Augustus Selwyn, afterwards the 
great Bishop of New Zealand and Lichfield, but then a 
private tutor at Eton, was stirred by the sight of this 
spiritual desert, and he with some like-minded friends, began 
active work among the neglected people. One fruit of their 
devotion greatly affected Clewer. Mainly through their 
efforts the church of Holy Trinity was built, and consecrated 
at the close of 1844, for the town part of Clewer, which was 




O 
H 
O 

06 

c6 

•-) 

u 



CLEWER. 27 

then formed into a new parish. They had also procured the 
buflding of a school-chapel at Dedworth, a hamlet about two 
miles from the town, and here one of the Eton workers, the 
Eev. Stephen Hawtrey (who became the first incumbent 
of Holy Trinity, Windsor), laboured for some time. He 
formed a small choir, which he used to take with him, pass- 
ing the whole Sunday at Dedworth, and resting between the 
services in a cottage or in the fields. 

Then, when Mr. Carter began his work, he found some 
new life already stirring, but the long past neglect left bitter 
fruits. 

For some time the parish had been under sequestration, 
owing, it was said, to the intemperate habits of the late 
rector, and though for two years the locmn, tenena (the Eev. 
E. J. Gould, Mr. Carter's brother-in-law, afterwards Curate- 
in-charge of Windsor) had done all that was possible to amend 
matters, the time was too short to produce much effect. 

The ancient and now beautiful church was in worse than 
disrepair. Some of the massive pillars had been cut away and 
the walls held up with iron clamps. The little churchyard, 
being over full, a second had been formed — not adjoining, but 
across a road (in which was the parish pound) — a desolate 
place indeed, with no visible sign of its consecration. When 
the first cross was placed on a grave, people said that there 
was nothing to be seen like it, except in the graveyard of 
the Eoman Catholic chapel at Eeading. 

The behaviour of the congregation was on a par with the 
appearance of the church and churchyard. At first the new 
rector used to sit in the desk in his surplice while the bells 
were ringing, as a means of stopping the talk that went on 
among the men in the large square pews, and the women 
who gathered in winter round a stove, which stood in the 
middle of the church. The font was filled with hats. An 
old barrel-organ led the singing of a few school-children. 

" Perhaps the very worst feature of the time was the 
churchwardens having half the alms, and giving them in 



28 PRACTICAL ADVICE. 

money gifts to those who came regularly to Holy Communion. 
Such was the effect, that people generally were repelled from 
Communion, and those who came were objects of contempt as 
eleemosynary beggars. It took long to root out this most 
unhappy state of feeling, though the churchwardens kindly 
gave up to me their share of the alms. It was extraordinary 
how long it took also to do away with the prevailing habit 
of looking out for gifts, arising, I suppose, from the very 
indiscriminate manner of giving, which had spread itseK to 
all the labouring class." 

Letters of this date show with what anxious thought and 
care Mr. Carter entered on his difl&cult work. He again 
wrote for advice to Dr. Pusey, whose answer gives an interest- 
ing glimpse into the practical difficulties of the time. 

"My dear Carter, 

" I have some difficulty in answering your ques- 
tions, because I have never had a parochial care, and so cannot 
judge of the temper of people. 

" I should think that there should be a difference between 
those rubrics which relate to yourself, and would affect those 
only who wish to avail themselves of a provision so made, 
and those which would affect all who go to church at alL 
We have, in restoration, not our own duty only to perform, 
but to regard our people. It may be ground enough for 
restoring anything that it is required of u%; but unless people 
have been first taught to look upon the Church as a parent, 
this, aJUm^y is rather a dry ground for theuL . . . There is an 
obvious objection in their minds, that the Church has not, for 
above a century, had any power of revising her rubrics, that 
we do not know whether she would have retained them . . . 
and there is something in this. We ought not to be in the 
state in which we are. The very necessity of change, implies 
defect, and a previous acknowledgment of it. Unless we 
were wrong before, we should be wrong now, and until people 
see that we have been so, there is a rightful prejudice against 
change. Then restoration ought to be the act of the body, so 
that people should feel that they were obeying not only dis- 
used laws, but a living authority. ... I think harm has been 
done by trying to introduce changes without teaching people 
about them before, and trying to raise their mind to them. It 
does not seem to me right by our people to bring all at once 



CLEWER. 29 

a practice before them which they have to receive or reject so 
unprepared. It seems to me rLsking the putting them in a 
worse condition, and a want of Chnstian consideration. . . . 
We have not only acts and servicesto restore, but which is far 
more, haHtsj|f imnd to recover in our ownjgople^ . . , 

" My own theory, then, for restoration, would be, I think, 
to commence at once those things which did not put people 
decidedly in a worse position if neglected, and require them 
to choose at once for better or worse. Thus, uidess there 
were local reason to the contrary, I should at once commence 
daily service at an early hour, because attendance at that 
office is at all times a question of duty ; and being at an unusual 
hour (I believe an early hour is far the best), it is not like a 
deliberate refusal It is meant, as things are, not for all, but 
for those who can attend. 

"The restoration of Communions is fax more difficult, 
unless they also are placed at an early hour, which in itself 
is far the best, and which in most places is almost an absolute 
duty in the case of frequent (i.«.. weekly) Communion. For on 
the one hand, that feeling which has been handed down to us 
of ' never turning the back ' upon it, is so valuable, that one 
would be risking serious injury to persons, and much inward 
strife and distress, by bringing them to the choice unprepared, 
and might be breaking down a valuable feeling ; on the other 
hand, we might lead them to diminish preparation, and the 
aim with which they now approach it. For there is among the 
uneducated a much deeper reverence often, and unwillingness 
to approach without full preparation, than among the rich. I 
should be disposed in this to lay down no rule for myself 
beforehand, but ascertain who were communicants, learn 
something of them, and then speak with them. 

" With regard to the prayer for the Church Militant, I 
think it would be best to prepare people's minds beforehand 
by a sermon on intercessory prayer, which might make part of 
a course of sermons on prayer (including the daUy service), 
for all that has been said about it might make people think it 
a mere form or badge, and so they would never come to feel 
the full beauty of it ; whereas I think that if they learnt how 
Apostolic and exactly prescribed by Holy Scripture it is, none 
of the better sort of people would object to it. 

" For ordinary charitable collections, that way of collecting 
at the door, leaving God's House, as if wrong to do it in His 
sight, is really so heathen and irreverent, and the other of 
offering the alms to Him with prayer for their acceptance, 



30 ARCHDEACON MANNING. 

at His Altar, is so beautiful and fitting, just what any mind 
of simple piety would wish, that I can hardly think there 
would be any difficulty if the subject were adequately ex- 
plained, high ground taken, and withal arrangements made 
as to length in collecting and privacy in giving (by some 
sort of box or bag). 

" But a weekly offertory is a high thing. It also is so 
clearly Scriptural, and such an obvious act of grateful piety, 
and such a manifest blessing on the week's labours, Uiat I 
should hope people might be brought, without any great 
difficulty, to this also. . . . Intending to carry out the 
rubrics altogether, you would restore catechising in an even- 
ing service, which, if pains is taken, may be much more 
interesting and instructive than a sermon. ... I hardly 
think it expedient to consult the Bishop, when the use is 
clear, because it makes him responsible, which they had 
often rather not be. I do not think that it is any compro- 
mise not doing everything at once, provided that it is your 
intention to do so, and that you delay only until you have 
prepared your people's minds for it. . . . 

" Tours affectionately, 

" E. B. P." 

•* Lent, Ember Week. Friday. 1844." 

The condition of the Church was early considered, though 
some time passed before much could be taken in hand ; and 
there is a letter from Mr. J. H. Parker, dated July 18, 1844, 
advising as to a suitable pavement, and the best design for a 
font-cover. 

"Archdeacon Manning" was consulted as to the best 
way of creating an interest in missionary work, and he 
wrote from Lavington in July, 1845, about " a plan (short 
of the offertory) for parochial collections." 

" I can think of nothing better than the scheme you sug- 
gest — of two boxes in the church, one for home and one for 
abroad, with Lectures. 

" If I were to suggest anything further, it would be : (1) 
Sermons on Missions, etc., without collections; (2) Boxes in 
private houses, even of the poor; (3) Collector for the S.P.G., 
and each having a book with a few names. I find this 



CLE WE R. 31 

enlists a strong and active feeling distinct from the prin- 
ciple of giving. Obviously, the thuig we have all neglected 
too much is frequent mention of alms corporal and spiritual, 
and of missions, etc., in our common preaching and cate- 
chising. 

" Believe me, my dear sir, 

" Yours very truly, 

"H. E. Manning." 

With this letter was found a copy in Mr. Carter's 

writing of one written by himself on this subject, which 

seems to have occupied him a good deal. It is only dated 
September 26. 

"My dear Mr. Hobhouse, 

"Had I the pleasure of a longer conversation 
with you, I would have mentioned to you that Archdeacon 
Manning entirely supports the association system. The plan 
pursued in his archdeaconry is to get persons to give their 
names as contributors, then have their offerings collected by 
some voluntary agents, the sums being delivered to the 
parish priest, and once at the end of the year the sum-total 
is brought and laid on the altar at the time of the offertory. 
He has foimd this plan well succeed, and has strongly re- 
commended it. He advises, also, an alms-box in the church 
as well as in private houses, and particularly speaks on the 
need of sermons on missions, etc. 

"I certainly feel that there is great good in the principle 
of getting persons to give their names and avowedly join 
a body united for such a purpose. In America, where the 
mission system is put on the highest ground, the plan in 
each separate parish is personally to get persons to give in 
their names as contributors, and then they bring their offer- 
ing to church, wrapped in paper, signed with their name, 
and it is collected by the persons appointed. 

" But the principle of associating persons by name as 
contributors seems fully acted upon, the only difference being 
that we collect out of church, and they in. Much as I 
prefer the latter method, yet it seems impracticable in our 
present circumstances in ordinary parishes, and therefore 
collecting at the houses seems unavoidable. Manning has 
spoken to me strongly of the good of getting collectors in 
the parish, both as good for themselves as well as for the 



32 ELEMENTARY SCHOOLMASTERS. 

Society. . . . How to start an association is a dififerent 
thing. The o£fering of the yearly sum on the Altar seems 
a great improvement on the usual way. 

" I am truly glad to have had the pleasure of knowing 
you, and remain, 

" Most faithfully yours, 

"T. T. Cabteb." 

A little later we find letters on the position and duties of 
schoolmasters. 

" I perfectly agree with you," writes the Eev. T. Jackson, 
then head of the Battersea Training College, ''that the 
Elementary Schoolmaster is daily becoming a person of 
greater importance, and that many, many influential parties 
are bidding for his support. I, for one, pray that he may be 
kept sound, a true friend of the Church, a faithful ally of the 
clergyman. . . . My notion of the Church's elementary teacher 
is that of an educated 'peasant, living among the peasantry, 
sympathizing with their wants and pursuits, and endeavour- 
ing to lead them in whatever promotes their civilization; 
above all, their progress in the way to heaven. ... It is the 
highest philosophy and the mark of the deepest skill to 
teach plain things in a plain way. . . . Societies of a formal 
kind, instituted for the benefit of schoolmasters, have pro- 
duced much good. . . . Why should not a series of country 
parsonages be opened in succession to the twenty nearest 
schoolmasters, a service be given in church, afterwards essays 
and a short discussion, some tea and coffee, by no means to 
be omitted, and making the ayairv? complete, a final inter- 
change of Christian sympathizers, and a blessing from the 
Eural Dean or some senior clergyman ? " 

Another letter on the same subject, with some account 
of an association for mutual improvement among the London 
schoolmasters, comes from the Rev. W. Short.^ 

" I believe," he says, " if the clergy take care to see that 
Christianity is distinctly taught according to the doctrines 
of the Church of England, there is no fear of the Govern- 
ment taking education out of the hands of the Church. . . . 
I trust, having the game in our hands, we may not be so 

* Brother of the Bishop of St. Asaph. 



CLEWER. 33 

foolish as to lose the opportunity of giving England a Christian 
education," 

Mr. Carter toiled early and late. He had been accus- 
tomed, when at Bumham, to hold evening meetings at cottages 
in the scattered hamlets, and this use he continued at Clewer, 
and found useful. He also gave short addresses at the 
daily Matins, which some of the older people attended. 
One elderly man was so far touched that he volunteered to 
ring the bell daily without payment, and continued to do this 
for several years. House-to-house visiting was undertaken 
to the utmost of his power ; but drunkenness was terribly 
rife. After a miserable week, in which the Eector had to bury 
two persons who had died violent deaths through drinking, 
he began a temperance society. He worked also for the 
social improvement of the people, took a deep interest in the 
establishment of a benefit society, and gave part of the glebe 
for allotments. 

In addition to this varied work at home, for two years he 
acted as an Organizing Secretary for S.P.6., in order to 
earn money to begin the reparation of the chanceL 

For many years he could not afford to engage a curate, 
but the ever-ready help of Eton did not fail, and two private 
tutors, first, Jacob Mountain, who worked in Clewer till the 
call came to give himself to mission work in a lonely out- 
station in Newfoundland, and then Wellington Furse, sub- 
sequently Principal of Cuddesdon, and then Archdeacon of 
"Westminster, came to his aid. But they could only give the 
time spared from their other work, and Mr. Carter became 
greatly overdone. He would sometimes arrive at a distant 
cottage so much exhausted by the walk (he was a rapid 
walker, and would go surprising distances in a very short 
time) that he could only sink down into a seat and rest 
before being able to speak. In those days he hardly ever 
took a holiday, except the two short visits each year to his 
father, in summer at Bumham, in the winter at Eton, which 
were rarely or never omitted, and which he much enjoyed 

D 



34 REST BY THE SEA. 

especially the long summer days in the woods and lanes of 
Bumham. 

Such a strain, aggravated as it was by his attempt at 
total abstinence, which did not suit his constitution, could 
not continue with impunity, and in 1853 his health broke 
down. He was ordered to the sea, and went with Mrs. 
Garter to Folkestone. 

" If the process of imbibing salt air at every pore be the 
thing to be desired," he wrote, " we have so done, for no two 
gulls could have been more constant on the cliffs than we 
have been, and nobody of our own species, I think, has been 
so much about the coast, except the preventive service officer. 
You wiU see us much browned." 

Best and sea-air restored his strength, and about this 
time bis father enabled him to have a regular curate. 

In 1853 he was able to begin the long-dreamed-of restora- 
tion of the parish church. It was in so bad a state that a 
proposal was made to bmld a new church in a more central 
spot, leaving the old one for a cemetery chapel ; but he could 
not bear the thought of this, and the vestry supported him. 
He began with the chancel, and the parishioners were so 
much pleased with the effect that they gave willing assist- 
ance in the further and larger work of restoring the nave to 
a fitting appearance. Some few difficulties were made, but 
on the whole the work was carried out with great unanimity. 

" Mr. in high good-humour," Mrs. Carter writes in 

1855. " Only conceive his proposing that if father would 
stand at the north instead of the west of the altar, he would 
not object to a lectern I Father consents up to a certain 

portion of the service ; telling Mr. that he must not 

consider this as a compromise to obtain a lectern, but as 

consideration of the wishes of his flock ! which Mr. 

thinks so amiable that he thinks there will be no farther 
objection to a lectern." 

Meanwhile Mrs. Carter had taken the choir in hand (not 
^ surpliced choir, then hardly to be seen at that date in a 



CLEWER. 35 

village church, but a mixed choir of men and women), and 
worked diligently, assisted as time went on by two ladies of 
great musical gifts, to improve this portion of the service. 

The singularly meagre hymn-book which had been found 
in use was replaced first by Hullah's arrangement of the 
Metrical Psalms, and then by a hymn-book specially com- 
piled, and printed privately in 1859, with a dedication to the 
parishioners of Clewer, " in grateful commemoration of their 
parish church," and this continued in use till the publication 
of '' Hymns Ancient and Modem ** made it needless to keep 
it in print. 

This is, perhaps, the best place to introduce Mr. Carter's 
own account^ of his intercourse with Bishop Wilberforce, 
which counted for much in the work at Clewer. 

" His" (the Bishop's) "activity reached everywhere, em- 
bracing all aetails, stirring work where it was slack, and where 
it was alive keeping his hand upon it, or trying his best to 
do so. I remember, e.g. in early days, privately putting 
forth a leaflet containing a prayer relating to the Blessed 
Sacrament. He heard of it. It happened to be beyond his 
line of belief, and he at once took it up, remonstrating about 
it. This he did always most kindly, but in a way very difficult 
to resist. . . . 

"With an enormous capacity for work, an overpowering 
attractiveness of manner, and excessive warmth of affection- 
ateness, he entered into the Church movement in a most 
practical way, unlike any one else. He popularized the 
Church revival, and raised the whole idea of Episcopal work, 
with a most elastic sympathy, extending itself on all sides, to 
all kinds of views. The Tract writers restored doctrine ; he 
impelled it forward as an active force, at least in its main 
practical issues. 

"There was no man that preached more, not one that 
made others preach more sermons, as I remember hearing 
Bishop Thirlwall say at one of the Cuddesdon festivals. 

" The Bishop organized the course of Lenten sermons at 

Oxford, making St. Mary's and St. Giles' the two centres, 

and collecting preachers of different schools from various 

places. He initiated missions, not according to the more 

1 MSS. notes. 



36 VISITS TO CUDDESDON. 

scientific, and in the most important particulars, the more 
effective method of later days, but according to his own mind. 
He chose certain centres, and included the surrounding 
villages, and arranged for services throughout the district. 
We communicated together in the morning at the centre; 
after breakfast, perhaps, met in conference on some practical 
matters touching ministerial life, and then disperseid to our 
appointed posts ; and in the evening there followed supper 
and pleasant talk. His method started the idea of missions. 
It stirred new work in and around the chosen centres. It 
cherished brotherly love and co-operativeness among men 
possibly not likely to meet at other times. 

^* He did not initiate retreats, but he gave tliem a fresh 
impulse and a high sanction, making them a regular annual 
use at Cuddesdon College, and, from his example, drawing 
together to attend them elderly men, such as Leighton, head 
of All Souls, and Archdeacon Bandall. He was himself 
always present, when not called off for work, or greatly 
pressed, one year himself giving the retreat. They were 
begun after his own idea, socially inclined as he was in all 
his methods, and so talking in a subdued tone was at first 
the rule ; but this, as men grew to desire it, he soon allowed 
to be discontinued, and silence became the custom as else- 
where. 

'* The Bishop furthered ritual, though far from being a 
Bitualist. Characteristically, he was against outward details 
of religious use, though he liked and encouraged a certain 
reverent form; e.g. he liked processions of surpliced clergy 
and choir in due order. . . . The Bishop's peculiar and 
evident policy was to encourage, while moderating, those 
who were inclined to advance, and, on the other lutnd, to 
raise to a higher level the slower minds of his Evangelical 
adherents, and so bring together the two parties. And 
certainly he succeeded by lus ubiquitous energy, his social 
attractiveness, and his many co-operative arrangements, so as 
to weld the diverse elements together in a very remarkable 
manner, and impart to them a higher Church tone than, as 
far as I know, is to be found in any other English diocese, 
leaving an impression that lived after him, and still lives. 

" Visits to Cuddesdon were a part of the Bishop's scheme. 
They were quite unique, delightful experiences, never to be 
forgotten. He kept a kind of open house at Christmas, 
invitiug the clergy who worked with him and others, and 
holding meetings of Inspectors and Eural De&ns. There 



CLE WE R. 37 

one met those with whom one was most in harmony, and 
with whom one was accustomed to co-operate in Church 
doings, as well as men of mark. Among others whom I 
remember, one met Sir George Prevost, the Randalls, Pott, 
liddon, Butler, Milman (afterwards of Calcutta), Claughton 
(afterwards of St. Albans), Burgon, Bickersteth (afterwards 
Dean of Lichfield), (Jordon, famous for his school-work; 
also Leighton of All Souls, and his wife. The order of the 
day was as follows : First, prayers in chapel, and sometimes 
a short exposition of Scripture by the Bishop. Then break- 
fast, with general talk, the Bishop, as always, the leader ; then, 
shortly, an invitation to his study to certain of us, to discuss, 
perhaps, the subjects for the Lenten sermons, or to settle the 
preachers, or to make arrangements for a mission, the when, 
and the where, and the what. This might last till luncheon. 
Afterwards he would invite some of us to walk with him, 
himself, with a thick stick in hand, heading the party. Then 
he might start a subject and ask us to express our thoughts. 
They were often serious ones. I remember one on the Blessed 

Sacrament, and his asserting his view ; while and some 

of us bore witness to another belief. But he was always 
patient with differences. 

"Eetuming home, some of us might be called into the 
study to write letters for him, he dictating to each, then 
signing, if necessary, and sealing ; he always sealed his letters. 
Then, in due time, dinner, somewhat, though not over, 
luxurious; and then his very remarkable conversational 
powers would come out. The ladies being gone, he would 
sometimes start some subject of the day and have it dis- 
cussed. Then the drawing-room, and music, and easy talk, 
himself calling one or another aside, to speak more privately 
while resting on a sofa by his side. 

" This is a long digression, but the circumstances closely 
affected my own life. I was led to work, helping, in part, to 
carry out the Bishop's plans, so that it could not well have 
been omitted. I had my share in the Lenten sermons, the 
missions, and the retreats, till he left for Winchester. 

" I once stayed with Bishop Wilberforce at Lavington. It 
was the year when Manning left us (1851). When I was 
with the Bishop, it was known that this was sure to come. 
Knowing Manning pretty well, I told the Bishop I could 
not but call at the vicarage to see him. The Bishop wished 
me not to do so, but I could not have done otherwise. I was 
with him in his study looking out upon the beautiful wooded 



38 THE CLERICAL MEETING. 

hill above Lavington. I have never forgotten our talk. . . . 
The main subject was as to inspiration. He had come to 
believe that, not Apostles only, but a whole line of teachers 
down to the present time, leading men, at least, such as the 
Church of Some had canonized, were equally inspired. It 
was clear enough what would follow. This idea agrees with 
what he subsequently wrote, viz. that to quote history is 



^ Manning's eloquence was great. We always delighted 
to hear him. 

'' While Cuddesdon influences were thus telling, life was 
growing around one at home among the neighbouring clergy, 
and mutual intercourse was furthered, especially through the 
clerical meeting which I joined with others in forming soon 
after coming to Clewer. We discussed all the burning ques- 
tions as they arose. It was a very stirring time, for we were 
striving together to revive old truths ; and diflFerences, which 
afterwards revealed themselves, had not appeared so as to 
divide us. . . . It was the discussions that were there carried 
on that led me to write my two books the ' Doctrines of the 
Priesthood' and the 'Doctrine of Confession,' the latter 
the stiffest work I ever undertook. I had a very great desire 
always to make good what I had committed myself to in 
argument, and so I was led to write fully on the subjects 
discussed. 

" One good deed which deserves to be recorded was done 
by the Clerical Meeting. It was the time when as yet the 
Private Chapels Act had not been passed, and there was no 
opening for dissentients from the teaching of the parish 
church to form for themselves a more congenial service. 
The Evangelicals had chosen Exeter Hall for a regular Even- 
song on Simdays. It raised a great commotion, and at last 
the incumbent of the parish in which Exeter Hall is situated 
forbade it, and the law supported his rights. When we 
talked this over at one of our meetings, we resolved to peti- 
tion the Deans of St. Paul's and Westminster Abbey to com- 
mence a Sunday Evensong. The meeting that week happened 
to be at my house, and I had to write to the two Deans 
Milman and Stanley (?) Other influences no doubt helped, 
but the services were soon commenced as we desired." 

By this time the work at Clewer (which now included 
the House of Mercy) had so far grown that the single curate 
had been supplemented by one, if not two others ; and we are 



CLEWER. 39 

permitted to give some recollections by one (the Bev. H. 
Tudor) who worked in Olewer from 1858 to 1865. 

'' An old friend whom I had known at Cuddesdon, and 
who was senior curate of Clewer, asked me to come and see 
Mr. Carter with a view to my coming there as one of his 
curates. I went, and it was decided that I should work 
there, and though so many years have passed, I can remember 
my interview with Mr. Carter, and that I felt then, as I have 
ever since felt, that I was happy in being curate to so holy 
and earnest a rector. Clewer was then in a transition epoch. 
Boughly, it might be said that it had four scattered centres 
of population, and that his parishioners consisted of all 
sorts and conditions — rich people, who had also houses in 
London; well-to-do people ; two or three farmers; people retired 
from business or engaged in it ; working classes of all kinds, 
and the poor. I mention these details because I think they 
may point out that Mr. Carter had a parish which, from its 
size and arrangement of population, contained elements of 
special difficulty, increased by the parish church being at the 
extreme border of the parish. One thing I may mention 
is, that during the six years I was Mr. Carter's curate, though, 
no doubt, there were some who did not on all points agree 
with him, I never heard of any who doubted his goodness 
or did not recognize how hard he worked. The parish church 
was full of high pews in 1858 ; ^ it was restored through Mr. 
Carter's and the parishioners' exertions, and I well remember 
how in those days, when church restoration was a novelty, 
the gentle manner of the rector, his consideration for those 
people who were doubtful about any change, got over various 
difficulties. 

''Besides services in the parish church, there were 
services in Dedworth school-chapel, evening service at 
Clewer Green school in the winter, and a mission room 
near where St. Stephen's church now stands, and services 
now and then in another part of the parish. When to these 
were added services at the House of Mercy, and super- 
vision of the many good works which gradually clustered 
roimd it, it must be allowed that the Eector of Clewer, with 
the many calls on his time as a preacher, a spiritual guide, 
an author, the writer of many letters, had much to do, and 
it is pleasant to recall his cheerfulness, his hopefulness, his 

1 This refers to the nave ; the chancel was already re-seated. 



40 ALL SAINTS', DEDWORTH. 

thought that by God's blessing all would go well. like many 
good men, he fortunately had a sense of humour, and after 
the meeting at the Bectory on Monday mornings, when the 
services for the week and the following Sunday were appor- 
tioned, one of his curates thought it his duty at times to 
tell, for the edification of the rector, some passing tale or 
curious event. At these meetings it was often striking 
to find how well Mr. Carter knew many of the poor, how 
interested he was in them ; and in the homes of the poor 
the curates often heard remarks which showed the reverence 
with which the rector was regarded. As the population of 
Clewer rapidly increased, and the parish had not then been 
divided, it would have been impossible for any rector to 
know all his parishioners ; but I think they all knew him, 
and recognized his saintly character. Bishop Wilberforce 
once said, 'Mr. Carter is often upstairs.' He meant that 
often his sermons were very spiritual, his thoughts often 
directed to another world. In the inner minds of many of 
the poorer parishioners of Clewer there was, I believe, a deep 
sense of the rector's sympathy with them, and a feeling that 
his thoughts were often fixed on heavenly things, or, in the 
homely language of the Bishop, that he was ' often upstairs.' 

"At the Kuridecanal Chapters and at the int.eresting 
Clerical Society's meetings Mr. Carter was regular in 
attendance, was listened to with great respect, and though 
subjects with elements of controversy occasionally were dis- 
cussed, he set the good example, which was happily followed, 
of fairness and courtesy, however earnestly differing opinions 
were sometimes expressed and maintained. 

" I have written at longer length than I had intended. 
I might have dwelt on Canon Carter's kindness and sym- 
pathy in times of happiness and in times of sorrow. I might 
have alluded to his beautiful and spiritual sermons, but others 
will do this better. I will only add that I consider it a 
chief honour of my life to have been the curate of so good 
a man." 

The writer of these recollections was himseK a great bene- 
factor to Clewer. He and his family built the beautiful 
little church^ at Dedworth, an early work of Mr. Bodley, 
which was consecrated in 1863. 

1 The inscription in it runs : " To the glory of God, and in memory of 
Mary Sophia, daughter of Andrew and Helen Thynne, and wife of Henry 



CLEWER. \i 

The Eev. G. D. Nicholas, Vicar of Clewer St. Stephen, has 
also kindly given his impressions of these early days, and 
an account of a great event in the history of the parish, the 
foundation of the daughter church and parish of St. Stephen. 

"My earliest recollections of Clewer date from the 
year 1861. I had been ordained Deacon to Holy Trinity, 
Windsor, in the Advent, 1860, and I remember the Eev. H. 
Lanphier, lately come (I believe), as subwarden of the House 
of Mercy, coming to preach at the soldiers' services at 9 a.m., 
and my assisting him. In those days I had an almost super- 
stitious veneration for 'Clewer' and all connected with it. 
I was very proud of being once asked to preach at a special 
evensong, probably in Lent, when I remember we vested in 
a temporary vestry near the small chapel door. In those 
days I used to slip off to the House of Mercy for early Com- 
munion and Evensong on a week-day, when not wanted at 
Holy Trinity. In 1862 I went to Newfoundland, and Mr. 
Carter still gave me counsel and advice when I asked for it. 
He sent out to me a copy of his Lectures preached in 1862 at 
All Saints', Margaret Street, on the ' Passion and Temptation 
of our Lord,' and so he did the next year those on the * Life 
of Sacrifice,' preached in 1864. I returned to England in 
November, and before Christmas saw Mr. Carter, who offered 
me a curacy at Clewer, if I could wait three months. In 
April, 1865, 1 went as assistant curate for Clewer, and remained 
so eight years. 

" A surpliced choir was gradually supplanting the old choir 
of male and female voices who sat behind the pulpit. Black 
stoles only were worn, and, at least in the morning, the 
black gown was used; this was done in consideration for 
some of the parishioners. At first white stoles were used, 
but it was some time before red and green were introduced." 

It was apparently in Lent, 1866, that services began in 
Clewer Fields on Sunday, in the house which is now the 
Mission House (of Clewer St. Stephen). 

The following is in Mr. Carter's handwriting : — 

" On July 3rd we laid the foundation stone of St. Stephen's 
Mission, stiU to be seen to-day in front of the College. Two 
ladies. Associates of the Sisterhood of St. John Baptist, by 

Tudor, who died 10th of June, 1860, aged 58. This church of All Saints' 
was buflt by her husband and children a.d. 1863." 



42 DEATH OF MRS. CARTER. 

two separate gifts placed at the disposal of the Eector, 
enabled him to purchase this site, and also within a compara- 
tively small amount of the sum required to bxdld the school 
and mission house. The site purchased included space suffi- 
cient for a church, proposed hereafter to be built in connection 
with the mission house and schools. Think upon these 
benefactors, my Gk)d, for good, according to all that they 
have done for this people, 

" T. T. Carter, 

" Eector of Clewer. 
"June, 1868." 

The title of St. Stephen was chosen because, as St. John 
Baptist (House of Mercy) was the first in dignity among 
prophets, and St. Andrew (parish church) first called apostle, 
so St Stephen was Christ's first martyr. 

"In 1868, on October 29, St. Stephen's Mission and 
temporary chapel, now the Sisters' Oratory, was solemnly 
blessed by the rector. He celebrated in linen vestments, 
myself and the Eev. E. J. Ives (now Vicar of Eoath) acting 
as deacon and subdeacon, and the boys of 'Bell Farm* 
School^ acting as choir. There were forty communicants. 
At Evensong the rector preached from Isaiah xliv. 3, * I will 
pour water upon him that is thirsty,' etc., and bade none 
think the ground of their hearts was so dry but that the 
floods of the Holy Spirit could yet fructify it." 

In the following spring, after a few days' illness, Mrs. 
Carter was called away. She entered into rest on Quinqua- 
gesima Sunday, February 7, 1869. This is not the place to 
speak of her or of the lifelong loss to her family. " Ask for 
us," Mr. Carter wrote to Mr. Nicholas on the morning of her 
departure, " that the rector and his three children may bear 
their very sore bereavement according to the perfect will of 
God," and please renew it in IrUf at offertory prayer, and let 
it be asked at all services. 

"Thank Gk)d, all was peace, and we are supported and 
comforted." 

^ A preparatory school in the pariah, kept by ladies, in which the 
Hector always took warm interest. 



CLEWER. 43 

For more than a year after thifl heavy blow, Mr. Carter 
worked on, but in January, 1871, he got a chill. The eflFect 
of long overwork and overstrain made themselves felt, and 
the result was serious and prolonged illness. He was hang- 
ing between life and death for more than a fortnight. His 
doctor. Dr. Ellison, when asked by one who was ministering 
to him whether " there was any hope ? " replied that he could 
not say there was no hope in his case (because he knew the 
vigour of his constitution), but he had never known any one 
recover from such a condition. Prayers and intercession 
before the Altar were being offered continually, and they were 
not in vain. In the midst of extreme bodily prostration, his 
mind was clear. After receiving, in the presence of relatives 
who were gathered for the purpose, the Blessed Sacrament 
(which was thought to be by all his last communion), he sent 
messages, through the celebrant, of love to friends ; and during 
his illness he never lost consciousness. His sister each morn- 
ing read the first lesson to him, and it so happened that on one 
of the mornings the lesson was Genesis xlix., which, contain- 
ing an account of Jacob bidding adieu to his children, his 
sister did not like to read, thinking it too touching, and so 
she began chapter 1., when Mr. Carter, raising his head a 
little from his pillow, said softly, *' That's the wrong lesson " 
— so clear was his memory in the midst of extreme bodily 
weakness. For weeks his life was in danger, and when this 
was past, little hope was felt of his return to active work ; 
but by God's blessing, after a rest of nearly two years, much 
of which time was spent in Italy, he returned home in 
renewed vigour, to labour yet for thirty years. 

The following letters refer to this time : — 

"To THE Eev. G. D. Nicholas. 

" Monday, March 13, 1871. 

" I hope all is going well, and that none of you is pressed 

overmuch. It has been a long parting, and I am still but 

slowly progressing. They tell me I shall find a great change 

with change of air, and I hope next week to move to Hastings, 



44 CLEWER ST. STEPHEN. 

where kind friends ^ have provided most hospitably for me. 
I am a&aid it will be some time before I can be of use to any 
one, but I am truly thankful for so many blessings and 
prayers for ma 

" I long in vain to see St. Stephens,^ which I suppose is 
beginning to make your mouth water. 

" I ffidl back on Scott and suchlike for occupation. Will 
you give my loving remembrances and all good wishes to 
Ives, Whitlaw, Harrison, Little (the venerable synod®). 

*' Ever in all Christian bonds of love, 

"Yours, 

"T. C. 0." 



"To THE Same. 

" Tunhridge WeOa, July 29, 1871. 

"Thank you very much for your report. It is a great 
blessing all went so well, and in good time all that remains 
needful will come. You, too, will be strengthened and 
gidded onward as things open. Generally one sees and 
knows little of efifects, and to walk humbly and deal justly, 
and live devoutly and do all things reverently and kindly, 
has its blessings, quicker than one would expect. . . . 

" Would this do for the inscription ? — * To the glory of Grod, 
the most Holy Trinity, and in the faith of Jesus Christ, we 
lay the foimdation stone of this church, .dedicated as the 
Church of St. Stephen, Protomartyr, in the name of the 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost' — with the date and 
any names you think well. I should like your own, of 
course, as mission-priest in charge; no need of church- 
wardens. Bishop should be added ; architect and builder, I 
suppose, also. 

" Thank you for what you say. It is a very great com- 
fort to me to feel the confidence in you that I do entirely. 

" I must close in a hurry. God bless you. 

" Yours ever, 

"T.T. C." 

1 Mr. and Mrs. Charles Randell, to whose constant and affectionate 
friendship Mr. Carter owed much. 

^ The first stone of the chancel of St Stephen's church had been laid 
in the previous November. 

3 The name given to the weekly gathering of clergy. 



CLEWER. 45 

"To THB Same. 

" TuriMdge Wells, Aug. 21, 1871. 

'* I am more than content about the Choir Fund, and am 
much obliged to you for settling about the bill. I suppose 

has his use, as forest flies no doubt do good." (Here 

follow minute directions as to parish charities.) ''I think 
these are all. I am anxious to clear off aU matters. My 
book with account of alms, you will find, I hope, without 
trouble. 

'' I am delighted with the photograph of St. Stephen's and 
yourself in it. How well it looks. And so my long story 
comes to an end. What a number of details compose life. 

I hope and will send in their reports. ... I am 

desirous to have all accounts paid in and out before my 
far-off journey, which is to be on the 30th of this month ; it 
seems an exile, though in a delightsome land. 

" AU blessing be with you and your work. 

"Ever aflectionately yours, 

"T. T. C." 

During the rector's absence, Mr. Nicholas was left in 
charge of the parish. 

" It was," he writes, " an anxious time, for reasons which 
need not be dwelt upon here, and I well remember how, if 
I was nominal head, we aU looked to the Eev. W. H. Hutch- 
ings (who had charge of the Community and Eeligious Works) 
for guidance and real leadership. 

"In May, 1871, a letter signed by Canons Liddon and 
C. L. Courtenay, Dr. Monsell, and Eevs. E. T. West and 
G. Cosby White, was written to the Ouardian, suggesting a 
'thank-offering to God for the restoration from dangerous 
illness of the Warden of Clewer.' It ran thus : — ' It having 
pleased God to hear the prayers of His children (who in 
many churches throughout England asked in the time of his 
trial for the restoration of this good servant of the Lord), and 
life (though, alas! life much shattered) having been given 
to their prayers, we request aU who sought the blessing to 
return thanks. . . . and we venture to suggest that in each 
church where such thanksgiving is, the offertory (which is 
the rendering of our words of feeling into deeds of faith) 
should be devoted to the completion of St. Stephen's Church 



46 PRACTICAL MATTERS. 

. . . oue of the latest of the many good works of the Bector 
of Glewer ; the rembval of the remaining debt and all care 
about it from the mind of one whose Christian offices of love 
have helped so largely to remove heavier cares from their 
hearts, is the purpose of this appeal' " 

On July 25 the church of St. - Stephen's was opened, 
The following letters speak for themselves, showing the 
particularly keen interest which the Bector took in his parish 
and people during his long absence : — 

"To THE Eev. G. D. Nicholas. 

"fibfeZ de Milan, Florence, Nov. 13, 1871. 

*' I did not think it at all likely that the college would 
allow any of the tithe to go. . . . The living is not large, 
and there are two churches on it, so I felt sure they would 
have demurred, and the patronage, if such it may be called, 
still more questionable. But I trust you may not need to 
take a vow of absolute poverty. I trust the commissioners 
may add to the £1000, and when once you are a district, at 
all events grants can be obtained from the Curates' Aid and 
Diocesan Spiritual Help. • . . We must also try and get a 
Clergy House, that you may have a nicer home — Cowley. . . . 
I wiU, of course, as long as I Uve, do what I can to make all 
complete and give help, as I trust you will do what you can, 
as I know you will desire, for the parish church. I will 
give what you think fair for hymn-books for St. Stephen's. . . . 
I am afraid nothing can be done more for Spited till a centre 
in the shape of a school-chapel is got there. This I have 
long had in my mind, and trust to carry it out as soon as 
possible after my return. 

" As to the club-room, you mention coals only. I would 
gladly give coals; but last winter there was also rent of 
room and candles, and Grinnel's services. I had hoped by 
this winter that some free room or other means would have 
arisen to lessen the cost. I should be sorry that it should 
drop, but it is a good deal, inter alia, to keep up alona I 
could see no other way this winter, and probably there is no 
other way now. Is there any one you could think of who 
would help in this matt^? But rather than it should 
fail I would undertake it, if they have a good report as ta 
conduct. , , • 



CLEWER. 47 

"I must leave with you to arrange with the Mother 
about the commencement of the regular services at St. 
Stephen's. ... I could indeed wish I had been with you to 
commune over all this. But all, I feel assured, will be 
ordered rightly. I greatly trust you will be blessed in your 
eventful work. You hold a most important position. . . . 
If there are many adversaries, there are more that are for 
you than those that are against you. Patient steadfastness 
with kind considerateness, large-hearted sympathies with 
lowly-hearted trustfulness, will, with the truth and the Pre- 
sence of our Lord and the spirit of faith, surely win the day 
and triumph at last. 

'* All blessing and strength from above be yours, now 
and ever. My love and best wishes to the brethren. 
*'Ever your very affectionate 

"T. T. C." 

To THE Same. 

<< Eotd de la VUle, Naples, Dec. 12, 1871. 

"Thank you very truly for aU your tidings. A 's 

death is indeed very startling. I could not wish her 
otherwise, for with all her weaknesses she was a truly 
religious and single-hearted woman, so simple even in her 
faults that she was ever as ready for a sudden call as one 
could one's self desire to be. It was a very lonely lot, and 
much trial, and much that seemed faulty or odd was really 
peculiarity of health. I am thankful for all you have done 
for her. She deserved all honour in her last end. 

"As to the new organist — if necessary to give £60 to 
secure a really good man, I would meet it as I have done, 
and leave you to judge. . . . 

" I will do the best I can about the Pastoral. The idea 
of doing it came over me one day in church at Florence. 

" I am exceedingly glad the launch ^ will not be till my 
return for many reasons ; glad, too, there need be no change 
in the chaige of the parish. . . . My love and very best 
wishes and grateful thanks to the brethren. I find this 
place agrees with me. It is colder than I looked for, and all 
say it is exceptionally so, but it is dry, bracing, and generally 
sunny all day. There is very little in the churches here : aU 
ecclesiastical taste very low ; shocking dressed doUs in glass 
^ The formation of St Stephens* as a separate district 



48 ECCLESIASTICAL TASTE—'* OPERATIC MUSICS 

cetses in all the popular churches, with operatic music at the 
High Mass at the Jesuit's Church, on the 8th, Mass lasting 
two hours. The Museum very full of interest. It has been 
too cold to make far expeditions. . . . All truest Christmas 
blessings to you and to all, for I may not write again 
probably. 

" Ever aflfectionately yours, 

" T. T. C. 

"P.S. — I have omitted to say that I wish £1 to be paid, 
if it has not been, to the lingers, for ringing on St. Andi^w's 
Day." 

In 1872 the Sector came home for the summer, and was 
able to celebrate at St. Stephen's on July 25, the anniversary 
of the dedication of the chanceL In the autumn he returned 
to Italy, remaining abroad till July, 1873, when he was able, 
with restored health, to resume the work from which he had 
been laid aside for two years and a half. 

On his homeward way he wrote to Mr. Nicholas, then 
about to be instituted to the Cure of St. Stephen's. 

" Boulogne^ Friday evening^ June, 1873. 

"We have been constantly on the move since I found 
your last at Munich, or I would have sooner written. My 
heartiest best wishes and prayers, as you may well be as- 
sured, are with you in this eventful crisis of your life, one 
that I have so long looked forward to, and which is to me 
the fulfilment of so many anxious searchings of heart May 
you have all needful grace and strength and guidance vouch- 
safed to you. We shall so soon meet that I only send these 
few lines. 

" I have heard nothing from , but had it been other- 
wise, I know you too well and too long to doubt or change 
the uniform confidence that I have ever felt towards you. 
It has always been a great point of rest to me amid many 
anxieties. . . . We have just come here and stay quietly, 
after a long and rather tiring journey, and rest here till 
Monday morning, and trust for a happy meeting on Tuesday. 

" Ever most aJBFectionately, 

«T. T. C." 



CHAPTER IV/ 

foreign travel, italy, &a, 1871-73. 
Notes by the Way. 

''8t.Goar. 

"We were amused one day at watching the parish school- 
boys at their military exercises, armed with long white rods 
in lieu of guns, and afterwards at gymnastics, imder the 
pollarded lime trees in front of the hotel, which run along 
the bank of the Ehine. I found it was part of their school- 
work, half an hour being allowed for it, and it took place 
twice every week. 

''Education in the parish schools was compulsory from 
six to fourteen. Often children are sent to school at five, 
but they do not leave before fourteen. Confirmation and First 
Communion are thus secured before leaving school. Police- 
men look up the absent children, and parents are fined if their 
children are absent long without sufficient cause. The Govern- 
ment Inspector visits the school here twice a year. The 
religious instruction depends on the Priest or Pastor. The 
population here is mixed, part Catholic, part Protestant ; but 
a very kindly feeling exists between them. I was told two 
striking facts as to this. It is the custom to decorate the 
houses throughout the place on Corpus Christi Day; and 
Protestants decorate if even a single Catholic happens to be 
living in the house, and often when there are none but 
Protestants. The same is done when the B.C. Bishop comes 
to confirm. It is made a great and general fete by Protes- 
tants equally as by Catholics. 

" I was told that the only occasion of collision was the 
disposal of children in the case of mixed marriages; all 

1 This chapter is extracted from the Journal (headed "Notes 
by the Way ") which Mr. Carter kept during his two years' travel, supple- 
mented by a few of his letters. 



so MUTUAL FORBEARANCE. 

marriages, as I understood, are made at first as civil contracts. 
The couples thus united are afterwards (if they will) married 
religiously according to their faith. . . . lie importance 
given to civil marriage (if the term can be thus applied) 
must, one should think, deteriorate the view of marriage, 
and so tell most injuriously on the general standard of 
religious life." 

*• TJlm^ September 8. 

'' The cathedral, notwithstanding its bareness (it is in the 
hands of Protestants), is, next to St. Ouen at Bouen, the 
most devotional building I know, as a fabric, from the extreme 
beauty of its architectural proportions. As in England it 
was not the Reformers, but the Puritans, who mutilated our 
churches, so here it was the later, not the earlier, enthusiasts 
who did the savage work. The series of statues along the 
nave were destroyed in the Thirty Years* War. But there 
still remain several remnants of the past. The high altar 
is there, and the tabernacle in the side wall, with its magnifi- 
cent canopy, and a pictorial crucifix on the east wall of the 
south aisle. 

"Beneath this crucifix, as we looked about, there was 
a poor old woman, evidently a Catholic, kneeling on the bare 
stones, and at the close of her prayer she doubly crossed 
hersel£ 

'' It seemed an instance of what I have above mentioned, 
the kindly mutual forbearance that exists here abroad between 
Catholics and Protestants. 

" I would that such a feeling might arise in England. It 
may be urged that it would oidy betoken indifference as to 
any specific ifaith. I do not think it need necessarily be so. 
Real earnest people would equally cling to their own dis- 
tinctive tenets. The best people are always the most lenient 
and forbearing as to differences, yet they do not therefore 
feel indifferent as to their own specific doctrines. The only 
difference would be that the uneamest, unthinking multitude 
would exchange their narrow bitterness for charity and 
largeness of heart. 

" But there are special hindrances to this kindly feeling 
in England. The very nearness of the true view of the 
Church of England to Rome, the divisions among ourselves, 
the aggressive character of Rome, are specialities, in our case^ 
of difficulty." 



FOREIGN TRAVEL, ITALY, ETC^ 1871-73. 5i 

" Coire, Beptemher 11. 

" At the entrance of the cathedral there was a temporary 
arch; wreathed with green and flowers. A similar arch had been 
placed at the gate close by, leading to the seminary. We 
found that the cause of the decoration was a young seminary 
priest having said his first Mass the Sunday before. How 
striking and touching a proof is this of a deep faith in the 
Beal Presence pervading the people I And surely there is 
cause. For what more stupendous and beneficent ministry 
can be given to men ? Will such faith ever again take root 
in England, and be more than it is at present, an exceptional 
belief, the life of a mere party in the Church, not of the mass . 
of the people ? Will it ever be that the first oflfering of the \j 
great Eucharistic Sacrifice will have greater interest attached X. 
to it than a first sermon ? ' n 

" Next to the older churches in Eome, I know none more 
historically interesting than this cathedral. Coire was a 
Boman fort, and on the site of the present cathedral stood a 
heathen temple. On the ruins of this temple was built, in 
450, a Christian church, which still remains. It forms an 
open crypt under the chancel of the present cathedral, and 
Mass is said in it every Good Friday. Its altar has been 
transferred to the chancel above. 

" Coire was converted by English Saints, by St. Lucius, 
king, and the memory of what Coire and this country owes 
to our people is preserved in the splendid triptych over the 
high altar. It is composed of figures in wood, painted and 
gilt. On either side of the Virgin and Child, in the main 
row of figures, are these — 

" (1) St. Gall, from Ireland. 

''(2) Another Saint from Ireland, whose name I did not 
catch. 

" (3) St. Lucius, King of England. 

" (4) The sister of St. Lucius. 

"(5) St. Ursula. 

"(6) St. Florion (Scotland). 

"(7) St. Siegbert (Scotland). 

" (8) Placidus of Coire. 

" St. Lucius and his sisters are said to have been martyred 
here A.D. 173. There are many curious and beautiful relics 
in the sacristy, among the rest a very early tabernacle 
brought from Ireland." 



52 A NATIONAL THANKSGIVING. 

" Vol di Ticino. 

" There are fine old Lombard bell-towers in this valley. 
In two of the churches, which seem mostly to be open, I found 
Vespers being said (by) the people without any priest present, 
and in one case in the dark almost, and evidently said by 
heart. Only three or four women were present in either 
case. But the custom shows the admirable use to which 
open churches may be put." 

" Bdlinzonay Third Sunday in September. 

"To-day is being kept throughout Switzerland as a 
festival of national thanksgiving for national blessings; 
illuminations, and guns firing the evening before, and to-day 
a grand High Mass, military musick interchanged with the 
church music; the church crowded with troops, and cor- 
poration and magistrates present ; a sermon by a good-look- 
ing, earnest priest on true liberty, ' Patria, Liberta, 
Eeligione,' being the burden of it; and he spoke of poor 
France, and its liberty turned into licence, and of Italy 
as using liberty to throw oflf Catholicism. I observed that 
neither officers, nor corporation, nor troops, paid any mark 
of devotion at all to the consecration or elevation of the 
Blessed Sacrament. Probably many of the troops were from 
Protestant villages, and so no general order could have 
been given. Benediction immediately followed, and a Te 
Deum. Service in all about three hours in length." 

" To THE Eev. W. a. Caeteb. 

" L<zgo Magffiore, Stresa, September 25. 

"Thanks for the papers safely come. We have been 
here just over a week, lodged in a comfortable little set 
of rooms on the groimd floor looking on the lake. You 

heard of us, L tells me, up to Bellinzona. We all enjoyed 

our jog-trot journey. Specially two quiet days at St. Goar; 
a lovely afternoon at Heidelberg, where I took the girls a drive 
up the Neckar — how like Switzerland — and round over the 
Castle ; the sight of Ulm Cathedral, which struck me as only 
St. Ouen at Eouen did for its devotional effect as a bmlding ; 
the day at Friedrichshafen and Coire ; and the whole journey 
by Ilanz, over the passes,^ grander far than I had anticipated. 

1 The Oberalp and St. Gotthard. 



FOREIGN TRAVEL, ITALY, ETC., 1871-73. 53 

" Here we found Bishop Harris, Mrs. Monsell, etc. The 
former left the next morning, the latter three days after. 
Bishop H. very flourishing, and greatly enjojring his work ; 
entrenovs, his wandering episcopacy in other people's dioceses 
I could not do ; though, of course, it must be done, and he does 
it very well. We are to meet him again at Eome, where now 
his charge extends, since it has become part of the kingdom 
of Italy. 

"We sometimes wander about the hillside, where all the 
firuitfl are ripe, and the people busy gathering them in; a 
wonderful abundance of com and vines, and figs, and peaches, 
and apples, the grapes not being gathered yet except for eating. 
Yesterday we made a lovely boat expedition to the river at 
the head of the lake beyond Baveno. That part of the 
lake is all covered with nets, and very large and ex- 
ceedingly good trout therein are caught, and sent oflf every- 
where, to Paris, etc. ... I called on Bishop Nixon,^ who 
lives close by, as you probably know. ... He tells me the 
old nobility of Italy are all for the Pope's temporal status, 
and the master here (of the hotel) speaks as if they expected 
France to interfere and set ' humpty-dumpty ' up again. We 
shall probably take a boat to Instra this afternoon, which they 
tell me is lovely." 

" StreMj September 18. 
" I went one day to Pallanza^ and on a bookstall in the 
market-place found both a Latin and an Italian Bible, each 
to be had at the same price, eight francs ; the Italian copy in 
two octavo volumes. At Instra, just beyond Pallanza, there 
is a small congregation of Protestants. It is the only case 
of the kind on the lake. The peasantry here are full of 
enthusiastic praises of the late Mrs. Nixon, for her active, 
generous, considerate charity. The cur6, the chaplain of the 
Duchess of Genoa, and all the village followed her to the 
grave. The two priests went to the house to accompany 
the friends of the family." 

'* September 30. 

" I have just been to see this beautiful house Mr. Henfrey 
is building near Baveno, on a most lovely site, and in the 
grounds an English church, Lombard style, circular. The 
wages of ordinary stonemasons are 2j^ francs, rising for higher 

* Formerly Bishop of Tasmania. 



54 "^ MISERABLE TRAVESTY:' 

workmen to ^ and 5; that of labourers \\ francs. The 
granite pillars in the church cost £8 brought to the spot." 

" Sunday y October 1. 

''It is a great Festa; the second greatest here. The 
greatest is that of S. Ambrogio, the patron saint. This is of 
Santa Maria del Bosario. A large image of the Virgin and 
Child carried in procession through the streets, with cruci- 
fixes, lights, and a great concourse of people from all the 
neighbourhood. It was altogether wretched, shocking, and 
undevotionaL I saw a very few only of the old women who 
formed the procession saying prayers, and very few with 
rosaries, though it is called especially the Festa del Eosario. 
A few women knelt before the image as it returned into the 
church. Immediately outside the church were stalls with 
gingerbread, etc. There were monkeys, etc., playing. The 
town band formed part of the procession, and immediately 
after Benediction, which followed the return of the procession, 
the band played dances, and the people began a polka, a 
hundred or more dancing together, just in front of the 
church. 

" Certainly the exhibition amuses the people, but I could 
see no sign of its stimulating devotion, as must have been 
the case in former days. I suppose the fact is, that a Festa 
is not to be considered as a religious act at all, but as a public 
entertainment, a popular festive representation to gratify a 
national love of scenic exhibitions. But to use such sacred 
symbols for such an end is surely a serious abuse of the 
serious side of things ; nor is it possible to separate off the 
idea of some virtue being attributed to the image, or at least 
to the honour paid to it. At all events, when conducted as 
it was to-day, it is but a miserable travesty of what must 
have been in its best days a very questionable kind of 
devotion. 

"Italy is rising in material activity. There are now 
four war-steamers being built, two at Venice, one at Spezzia, 
one, I thiuk, at Gtenoa, and of these every portion is of Italian 
make. This is the first time such an effort has been made. 
Lately, when a railway was projected in North Italy, the 
contractors planned to get the carriages made in IWice. 
The workmen of Milan rose and complained, the Grovemment 
interfered, and compelled the company to have all made at 
home." 



FOREIGN TRAVEL, ITALY, ETC., 1871-73. 55 

*' Menaggio. 

" I found here the Holy Bible in Italian, French, and 
English in the reading-room, and that they had been left by 
an Englishman. The landlady, an intelligent woman, rather 
apologized for their being there, and said that a good Catholic 
ought not to read it ; timt her priest would refuse her abso- 
lution if she was known to read it, and told me the story of 
Adam and Eve and the forbidden fruit as a warning against 
seeking to read Holy Scripture, and was surprised to be told 
that tMs story was in the Bible." 

**Miian, Sunday, OetdberS. 

" The specialties of the Gregorian (? Ambrosian) Bite at 
Mass are : (1) That the deacon and subdeacon kneel during 
the prayers, one at the north, the other at the south end. Is 
it possible that this is derived from the Cherubim in the Holy 
of Holies overshadowing the Mercy-seat from either end? 
A mark of Eastern connection is the seven lighted lamps 
suspended before the Altar. (2) The reading of the Epistle 
and Gospel from the north ambo outside the chancel, evi- 
dently the primitive use. (3) The presentation of the wafers 
at the Offertory by two men and two women, the former 
coming up to the altar rail, the latter to the foot of the 
chancel step, the celebrant coming down to receive them 
from each. Evidently this is a remnant of the early custom 
of the presentation of oblations by the people." 

•* October 3. 

" The anniversary of the Plebiscite of Eome claiming its 
place in the kingdom of Italy. It was signalized by gather- 
ing together all the children of the Communal schools, 6000 
in number, or thereabouts, the firstfruits of the changed state 
of things. They were assembled at the Palatine, I think." 

" Bologna^ October 8. 

" Church of St. Dominic. The great saint lies buried 
here in an altar tomb. Above the altar a most beautifully 
sculptured work of Nicholas of Pisa, most rich in figures, 
most chaste statues and high reliefs, Carrara marble. The 
two subjects in front are his raising a dead person, and his 
burning the Albigenses. Two of the statues are by Michael 
Angelo. . . . The University very splendid and deeply inter- 
esting. On all the walls shields of arms of different persons 



56 THE PLAN ABOUT ST. STEPHEN'S. 

of all nations who have studied there. The chief rooms now 
form a magnificent library. . . . Three end rooms are filled 
with ancient Etruscan memorials from the necropolis of the 
city that stood 3000 years ago, before Bome was built, close 
by what is now the Campo Santo, about three miles from 
the town. • • . All the bodies were laid as ours are, from 
east to west, the feet towards the east, except a very few 
which lay at an oblique angle, apparently an exception to 
the rule, owing to obstacles in ^e way. . . • Among the 
tombstones was one on which an angel was represented 
grasping the hand of a man, apparently the deceased, as if 
welcoming him into another world ; a remarkable testimony 
to the Pagan instinct of immortality." 

"To THE Eev. W. a. Cabtee. 

" Hold de Milan, Florence, November 3. 

"My deae Brother, 

" I want your good services. You will remember 
my plan about St. Stephen's. We have now the means 
of carrying out the plan of the district. The Bishop accepts 
the sum we have of £1000 as the commencement of an 
endowment, on conditions of our guaranteeing the neces- 
sary addition, which of course we gladly do, and we may get 
something from the commissioners, only it is necessary that 
the papers required should be sent in by the 20th of this 
month. I have written fully to the Provost with formal 
application, and I trust a college meeting may be in time. 
Will you kindly expedite it so that we may not lose the 
opportunity ? it will be an immense gain to the rectory. 

" We have had some cold weather, a second Tramontana 
of three or four days, but it is mild again, and almost every 
day it has been blue sky and bright warm sun ; we have 
only wanted a fire one day, when it was raining. . . . Phil- 
potts,^ who sat next to me in school, is here with wife and 
children, and I passed last evening in his room in a neigh- 
bouring hotel. . . . There is a good deal of active work 
going on, the cathedral being restored by the Government, 
and two of the churches by the Municipality. The people 
willingly bear the tax for such works, and I am told the 
Government mean to complete the fa9ade of the cathedral, 
which has hitherto been shapeless, rude brick. There is a 

1 The late Kev. Thomas Philpotts, of Porthgwidden, Cornwall. 



FOREIGN TRAVEL, ITALY, ETC., 1871-73. 57 

general look of activity, and the higher classes feel the many 
new sources of employment opened to them by the change. 
All works of art are more carefully kept. We generally 
pass our morning at one of the galleries, and wander 
about in the afternoon. I still need my two supports in 
general, but can get on faster and farther, and carriages are 
not dear, eighty cents a course. . . . What a mess S. W. 
and York have made, notwithstanding all that Monsell 
has said." 

Notes. 

" Florence. 

" Mr. Sloane has just died, and is buried in the Campo 
Santo of the Misericordia. He was the initiator of the 
magnificent fafade of Santa Croce. Towards it, I am told, 
he contributed £30,000, and had planned to add a pair of 
brass gates when he died. He was an English Boman 
Catholic, educated near 'Kensham,' came out here to be 
tutor to the son of one of the nobles, and by successful 
speculations in mines, etc., became wealthy ; became a friend 
of the Grand Duke. He would have been buried in Santa 
Croce, but his wife could not have been buried there with 
him.'' 

" November 9. 

" Saw to-day the great poor-house behind Santa Croce. 
It contains about seven hundred — men, women, and children. 
It was begun by Napoleon I., by the suppression of the 
Carmelite convent, since carried on by public and private 
benefactions and bequests. A new wing is about to be 
added, for which plans are ready. It is under the direction 

of Signer as sole manager. He had become noted for 

his excellent management of the prisons, and the king, as 
I understood, appointed him to this post as a lighter task 
after his former laborious work. It is most admirably 
managed. Over the door is an inscription stating the object 
to be to receive poor and sick who scorned the shame of beg- 
ging. Male and female parts of the house are completely 
separated, so much so that in church the women sit in 
closely latticed galleries, while the men and boys are 
below. All are free to come and go, but only respectable 
characters are admitted. There are old and sick, and there 
are boys and girls from three years old, children of poor or 



58 A MODEL WORKHOUSE. 

ill-conducted parents. The destitute may be received free, 
and may enter for a time, as, e.g. for winter, or for life. 
Those who are sent by the Municipality are paid for by them 
at the rate of one franc a day, which covers clothing and all 
expenses. Private persons may place any one there on the 
same terms. Children are kept till eighteen years of age, 
and are regularly taught trades. They chiefly work in &e 
daytime, and are taught in the evening. Everything used 
in the establishment, even bedding and clothing, is made in 
it; only linen, cloth, and leather are purchased. On the 
girls' side we saw some sewing and making garments, others 
at looms making the stufl* for the gowns, otiiers with spindles 
making the thread. The old sick women were knitting. 
On the male side there was the room for shoemaking, other 
rooms for carpentering (excellent furniture is made there), 
other rooms for printing (they print a good deal for Govern- 
ment), other rooms for ironwork. 

'' For teaching, there are separate rooms, one for reading, 
one for writing, one for musick, one for design, drawing, 
etc. There was also an admirable and extensive covered 
court for gymnastics. We saw lads, active, cheerful, in- 
telligent, and well-grown, at various exercises. There are 
foils and masks and military implements for exercise. We 
saw some sets at dinner. The lads came in in military 
order to the sound of the drum, then all knelt down, and 
were very reverent while saying grace. They had semolina 
broth^ looking very thick and good, and meat, bread, and 
wine. They have meat daily, sometimes twice, a good small 
loaf three times a day. Everything in kitchen, dining-rooms^ 
and bedrooms looked beautifully clean. The beds were iron, 
the bedding a mattress of Indian com leaf, a bed on this, a 
sheet, blanket, and coverlet, each soft and warm. . . • Besides 
the church is an oratory upstairs out of the infirmary, with 
windows opening into it, for the sick. Mass is said in the 
church every Sunday and festival. The house and premises 
form a parisL 

''As far as I can learn, there is a manifest tendency 
towards Protestantism. But the chief result that I hear of 
are many of the poorer havii^ become Plymouth Brethren, 
and the Waldenses spreading. The latter have a considerable 
school here. Some persons of mark have joined the Pro- 
testants just lately." 



FOREIGN TRAVEL, ITALY, ETC., 1871-73. 59 

" To THE Eev. W. a. Cae^be. 

«* EoUl de la Ville, Naples, Christmas Eve. 

"This will reach you, I trust, before Christmas week is 
run out, and so I trust my heartiest wishes for all truest 
Christmas blessings and those of another year, may reach 
you and yours. How strange it seems to think of your many 
Christmas works, in our quiet idlesse here by the far-oflf 
sea! We have butchers' broom with beautiful red berries, 
and the pepper tree, like an evergreepa acacia, instead of 
holly, and presents of immense oranges from the hotel-keeper, 
instead of mincepies. We have quite warm weather, and 
one lovely day had a delicious drive to Baise. I think of 
making a few days at Salerno and Amalfi; but this will 
continue our headquarters throughout next month. 

" I can picture your church looking very nice. M and 

Gr are helping to decorate the church here ; it is rather 

pretty, and a real church, built on ground given by Garibaldi 
in 1860, during his reign here. Thank you for the Gumdian 
just arrived. I have not had the copy in which the Bishop 
of London's charge would, I suppose, have appeared I am 
rather anxious to see it. • . . 

"The 'Parish Mass' in the churches at which the 
parishioners communicate is at 5 a.m. in t!he summer and 
7 a.m. in the winter (there are in many churches Masses as 
late as 12 or 12.30). Immediately after the parish Mass the 
catechising takes place in the sacristy, or in the priest's 
house. There is a temporal inducement to attend the cate- 
chisings, for many benefactions, such as marriage portions for 
the girls, are put into the hands of the priests, who give 
them to those who are regular in their attendance. There is 
not much preaching here, not generally on Sundays, only on 
great occasions and special holidays. 

" Government schools are free. Little or no religion is 
taught in them. Private schools for boys are from 3 to 6 
francs a montL The son of the hotel-keeper, three years of 
age, pays 3 francs. Boys pay more than girls. . . . 

" Went into a small church above the Hotel de Ville about 
3.30. Catechising was going on ; about ninety were sitting in 
different seats, all women ; some quite old, some with their 
babies, some only girls. Seven priests (at least seven eccle- 
siastics) were engaged in teaching. Robert Proctor,^ who 

1 His cousin. 



6o A MELANCHOLY SCENE. 

lives in a villa above Fortici, tells me of the rate of wages, as 
follows : — a day labourer, one day, 1*20 francs ; to his coach- 
man, 2 francs a day, and the man keeps himself; his man 
cook, £2 a month, and the man keeps himself ; for his villa, 
with a good garden, £40 and no taxes ; for his horse, £40 a 
year, including food. 

'' His garden is full of oranges and lemons. • . . 

''I visited the old Campo Santo. This a large square 
court, paved with broad square flags and surrounded by a 
high wall, one side of which has a cloister, and is entered by 
high gates. The Stations (of the Cross) are painted on the 
walls. In the stone floor are distributed, at equal distances, 
openings into the pits below, three hundred and sixty-five in 
all, one of which is opened every day. Four o'clock is the 
time fixed for the daily burials, which are thus together. 
Immediately after the burials the pit is closed. The bodies 
are slipped down out of a long trough, just wide enough to 
hold them. I saw one being made ready. The bodies are 
clothed up to the neck, but no coffin is used of any kind. A 
priest officiates so far as this. No service or prayer is said, 
but the priest sprinkles holy water over the body, and gives 
a blessing. Whether the bodies of the poor are ffirst taken to 
a church, I do not know. There is no chapel at the Campo 
Santo that I saw. There were a good many poor women in 
the Campo, apparently gathered for the approaching burial. 
Several were going round the Stations, kneeling on the stones 
before the pictures (it was Friday), no priest with them. A 
few were standing saying prayers at the stone which had 
been closed the day before, over that day's pit, of which the 
cement was fresh. 

"It was a most melancholy scene, and the man who 
described how the burials took place spoke of all as a simple 
matter of course. 

" I saw the wife of the agent of the Anglo-Continental 
Society. The depdt of books is closed, and the books stowed 
away, waiting for further orders. She gave a very discouraging 
account, scarcely any sale of books, though she thought this 
had been the most flourishing depdt. The resident manager 
is one of the excommunicated priests. She told me that in 
1860 as many as one thousand priests in and about Naples 
had joined the movement, and the king had given seven 
churches for their use. There was then no Archbishop. 
When the King and the Pope arranged for the appointment 
of an Archbishop, these churches necessarily fell imder his 



FOREIGN TRAVEL, ITALY, ETC., 1871-73. 61 

jurisdiction, and consequently the excommunicated priests 
could no longer officiate in them. Gradually the greater 
number of them submitted, but three hundred held firm to 
their position, and she did not know what hcui become of 
them. She thought they had dispersed and gone to their 
homes.' Each of them has an allowance of £16 a year from 
the Government. The priest of this depdt has laid aside his 
habit, and attends the English Church, at least the prayers in 
the morning, leaving before the sermon, and never remains 
for the Holy Communion service, and, so far as she knew, 
communicates nowhere." 

^January 13. 

"Saw to-day the first shoots in leaf, on the endmost 
branches of a vine against a wall. The peas are in full 
blossom, some in pods in the gardens. In some very sheltered 
places they are ready for eating. We have had them twice 
for dinner. The early shoots of the orange trees are of some 
length. The thermometer stands to-day, in my room, on 
the side furthest from the south window,| at 55, without a 
fire. The lowest point it has been at is 54, any time from 
7 a.m. 

"Eobert Proctor's coachman, driving me from Portici, 
observed upon the statue of St. Januarius on the bridge at 
the borders of the city, placed there for the saint to ward 
oflf the lava and ashes of the eruptions of Moimt Vesuvius. 
He observed how the saint protected Naples. I asked him 
who protected Portici. He said, ' St. Giro/ And who pro- 
tects Eesina, (the next town). * Oh, Una Madonna.' 

"Above Portici, on the higher ground at the foot of 
Mount Vesuvius, is a statue of St. Januarius, marking the 
spot where the lava once stopped in its course, with an 
inscription stating how it had been stayed by the interces- 
sion of the saint." 

"To THE Rev. W. A. Carter. 

**Ficcola Sentindla^ Casamicciola, Ischial 

"Ja»t«ary, 30, 1872. 

"My dear Brother, 

" We came here last Friday week, intending to 
return to Naples last Thursday, but we are detenus. The 

^ This beautifal place was destroyed by an earthquake a few years 
later. 



62 "A STRANGE MIXTURE:' 

daily steamer leaves at 6 a.m., rather an undertaking, and 
the one boat that goes at a reasonable hour only comes on 
Thursday, calling on its way from P. to Naples. I should 
have gone in a four-oar to Cape Misenum, about two hours 
oflf, where a carriage might meet us from Naples, but the 
weather has been imsettled, so we are hoping to go on 
Thursday next. We had last week three days and nights 
of almost uninterrupted rain, but some lovely days, and 
the thermometer from 58 to 60 generally. • It is no un- 
pleasant imprisonment. The island itself very lovely, 
exceedingly varied, and a lofty volcanic mountain, nearly 
three thousand feet high, rising above us, all the sides and 
crannies covered with terraced vineyards, interspersed with 
orange and lemon orchards and occasional olive trees, and 
houses on most picturesque eminences, all with flat roofs to 
dry the figs on, and arcades here and there along the fronts, 
painted various colours. The churches are domed, the 
general effect wonderfully like the East. The view from the 
colonnade in front of our bedroom windows, here in a very 
'homey' kind of hotel, is most beautiful, commanding the 
whole line of coast of Cumse and Baise to Gape Misenum, 
stretching back northwards to the Abruzzi range, the highest 
of which are covered with soft cloud-like snow; and then 
southward the Island of Procida, with its lofty castellated 
tower ; and behind, all the high ground above Naples and 
Vesuvius. The quiet 'homyness' of the place is delightful. 
All that seems wanting to make it peifect is the spring 
vegetation, and summer sky and bluer sea of a few months 
hence. Our company is very agreeable, but a strange mixture, 
which is one of the odd interests of our wandering life. A 
ritualist clergyman, with his wife and two other ladies, partly 
to visit whom I came here (for he had, though personally 
unknown to me, olBfered me, when I was iU, to make his house 
at Bournemouth my home) ; an elderly Indian merchant (now 
a Suffolk squire) and his wife, who delights to find us able to 
play a rubber in the evening; an English artist and wife, 
come for the baths to cure his neuralgia ; a Danish artist, M. 
Lundgren, who belongs to our Water Colour Society, very 
clever and interesting; a middle-aged German spinster, an 
associate of some Protestant Sisterhood ; and an Irish dissent- 
ing family, who distribute tracts both in and out of the house. 
To the elderly wife of the Indian, a good old body, who reads 
her chapters every morning, his wfie gave 'The Ritualist's 
Deathbed,' to the German spinster associate, 'Out of the 



FOREIGN TRAVEL, ITALY, ETC., 1871-73. 63 

Kt' Last Sunday they went forth and distributed tracts 
broadcast over the whole village. The priests were greatly 
excited. There was a burning of a good many, we were told, 

at the house of the Parrocco, and J saw the people 

tearing them to shreds in the piazza, making quite a snow 
shower, 

" I have been interested to leam about the schools which 
have sprung up under the new Government The people 
were at first indifferent to it, but gradually the desire has 
grown. The boys' school is a very animated scene, the 
master a superior teacher, trained at a normal school at 
Pozzuoli Out of a population of three thousand, of which 
the scattered town of Casamicciola consists, there are one 
hundred and fifty boys at school, and about a hundred 
girls. The normal school for mistresses is at Naples. Every 
province throughout Italy has its normal school. Twice a 
year the Government inspectors come round. They have a 
book with extracts from the Bible, and a lesson-book and 
catechism authorized by the Church ; it rests with the master 
to teach as much of the catechism as he likes ; the priests 
never enter the schools, and are opposed to the movement. 
The chief master here is Liberal and anti-Papal, as probably 
most of them are ; but the master of the former set of boys 
is a Papdle, and so is the mistress. 

" Apparently the Government appointments are accommo- 
dated to circumstances, and they are careful not to offend the 
Church; the issue must be the rising up of a (spirit) in 
the lower classes, as already in the higher, against the whole 
Papal system — with what results time only can show. 
There is an old Catholic weekly journal (in Italian) published 
in Naples, which I see sometimes, well written, sensible, and 
temperate. Another is published in Bologna, said to be 
better. These are the only public signs I believe of this 
movement. . . . 

"The Government seems to be very considerate in 
training the people. Yesterday, when we took our donkey- 
ride to Forio, one of the towns on the other side of the island, 
we saw a notice of the Census, in which it was explained that 
a Census was not a new thing, but had taken place in the 
Soman Empire under Julius Csesar, and afterwards when 
our Lord was bom, and adding that it had nothing to do 
with taxation. . . . Probably we shall not go to Bome till 
after the Carnival. I hardly care enough about it to make 
an effort for it. I suppose you have read Lightfoot on 



64 HOLY WEEK IN ROME. 

the New Sevision. You would delight in it; it is very 
good." 

"To His^ SiSTBB, Mbs, Balston. 

** 32, Qa/po It Ccue, Borne, 

" Tuesday in Holy Week (1872). 

"... It is very strange to feel Christmas and Easter 
passing in a foreign land^ and not easy to realize them 
in the circumstances under which they come. The sight- 
seeing in the midst of this season is very incongruous^ and 
yet &ere is nothing else to do, and attending the B.C. 
services is partly only another kind of sight-seeing. Happily 
we have a very nice church here, and the services are really 
all we could desire — hearty, and fully attended, and very nice 
music, and all reverent. The Chaplain is very earnest and 
active ; daily celebrations this week, morning and evening 
services always, three celebrations on Easter Day. 

" Our weather here all through March has been trying ; 
constant rain and scirocco wind, soft and warm and some- 
times rather depressing. We have, of course, had occasional 
delightful days. . . . We hope to be at the Tenebrse services 
to-morrow at St. Peter's, and the Thursday Mass there, which 
I believe is a very striking service, and at part of the 
* Three Hours ' on Good Friday (at the Gesil). There have 
been beautiful evening services on Friday, with singing, 
through Lent, and only on Fridays, except Sundays. Yester- 
day, as a counterpoise to these Papistical ways, we went to 
hear Pire Hyacinthe lecture. He is giving a series of 
lectures on CathoUc Eeform. The room was crowded, but 
very few Bomans there, as far as we could see. . . . Could 
follow him well, and were delighted with his eloquence. 
However, it is only a 'pleasant song,' as far as Eome is con- 
cerned, though after generations may be diflFerent. There 
seems no manner of likelihood of reform here, as far as can 
be seen. 

" Our lodging arrangements go on very steadily, our cook 
a great success, and occasionally we have something like 
English joints, and it is certainly more economical than 
hotels, and the quiet of it pleases after the babble of tdble 
(Thdtes. I get about better, and have laid aside my second 
stick, and thankful to say I have escaped cold. . . . 

" Mrs. C. has just been with Pere Hyacinthe, and while his 



FOREIGN TRAVEL, ITALY, ETC., 1871-73. 65 

words are fresh in her mind, she came to tell me what he 
said, viz. that he believed Eome to be the centre of unity, 
and that the Episcopate was formed and organized at Eome I 
as its centre, and that our best hope of reunion was with the I 
Greeks rather than with Eome, and any hope of reunion with I 
Eome was only in the distant future. Her impression was, 
that what Hyacinthe looked for is the reunion of the old 
Catholics with the Eoman body by a change of feeling and 
opinion in the latter. , . . 

"I talked with William Palmer. He acknowledged that 
the East was right as to the Filioque ; that what determined 
him against the Greek Church was its subjection to the State 
and its anathemas against opponents ; that no one can by his 
reasoning decide on the question of the Church which he 
should join, but can only take some leading idea and follow 
it out — in his case the principle followed was that of a 
visible church ; that men's predispositions and circumstances 
determine their judgment, and that they are guided mainly 
by their egoisms. 

"At the French Church on Palm Sunday, being the eve 
of the Feast of the Annunciation, the preacher stated * that "^ 
our Lord was the principle of grace, but Mary the channel ; v 
that God had made Mary the depositary of grace, the Holy ( 
Spirit bestowing all graces upon her for this end, and that 
she was the dispenser of grace as she pleased comme elle 
veut: " 

" Good Friday. 
"At the Tre Ore at the Gesii to-day the preacher of the 
meditations on the Third Saying said, ' I see two altars, one 
the Cross, the Altar of Blood, the other the Heart of Mary, 
the Altar of Love*; and he went on to parallel the two, 
saying ' that our Lord gave up His life, Mary her soul.' " 

Mr. Carter came home for some months in the summer, 
and returned to Italy in the following autumn. 

"To HIS Brother. 

*' Via delle Oarrozze, Borne, December 17, 1872. 
" We have been here just over a fortnight. I found com- 
fortable lodgings close to the Corso, in a narrow street running 
out of the Piazza di Spagna. . . . Canon Gregory ^ is here, 

* The present Dean of St. Paul's. 

F 



1 



66 THE INFALLIBILITY QUESTION. 

and I have been about with him some days ; also Dr. Coates, 
a Torquay acquaintance, with whom I have walks. I have 
been making expeditions with Parker (of Oxford), who is 
the great authority among the visitors here on archaeology. 
I have been to three of his lectures, after which he takes 
parties to see the things he has been lecturing about, and 
really very interesting it is. One picks up a good deal, 
though perhaps some stuff with it. The Forum is being 
gradually cleared out, and a great quantity of old work in 
fragments has been found. Immense building plans are 
going forward. Three large building companies have been 
formed, $nd a vast extent of the high ground above S. 
Maria Maggiore is being covered with large houses and broad 
streets. . . . We are going to see the rope shortly. Our 
weather has been delightfid for a few days, like late October, 
bright and fresh. One lovely evening, the moon very bright, 
we went to the Coliseum, and wtdked about it and the 
Forum ; most enjoyable. We have had no need of fires 
except the last two or three eveninga 

" We came from Florence by Siena and Orvieto ; about 
four hours of the journey between Orvieto and Eome is by 
diligence. Some very fine country we have passed through, 
crossing the Apennines. Both the towns are most interesting, 
and finely situated. Siena, besides its cathedral, is most 
picturesque, fine palaces, quaint streets, and ox-carts going 
about them such as the old Bomans would have used. . . . 
I think of staying here till the middle of February, and then 
going to Capri and Ischia for a few weeks, quiet country and 
economical. . . . 

" I have the Times lent me occasionally, and have just been 
reading of Stanley's victory. It must have been a mistake 
and done harm, though Goulbum's letters are touching and 
weighty. Pusey, Liddon, etc., have well kept out of it. I 
had made up my mind that nothing else could have been 
done with the Athanasian Creed ; every other proposal is full 
of objection, but what will be the effect on the laity ? . . . 
A very happy Christmas and New Year to you all." 

'* Borne, December 4, 1872. 
"A Talk with Bishop Howard on the InfaUibUity 

Qv£8ti07l. 

" His line of argument was that the Council of Chalcedon 
was not valid till ti^e Pope had approved it; that it was the 



FOREIGN TRAVELy iTALYy ETC., 1871-73. ^7 



^'- 



same with all Councils ; that it was a general belief of theo- » 
logians that even a majority of a CouncS. was no avail against *- - 
a minority if the Pope sided with the minority. 

" (He spoke of the Council of Eimini, had affirmed this, 
but on my pressing him on this, withdrew it, and said it was 
a generally accepted belief), that if a Pope had condemned a 
doctrine as heretical, there was no appeal, according to 
general belief; that therefore the principle of infallibility 
resided in the Pope, though hitherto exercised in union with 
the Church or Episcopate ; that the possible difficulty of con- 
vening a Council in consequence of opposition of States 
might be a reason for affirming the truth now ; but that it 
was always held as a truth ; that undoubtedly the promise 
was given to the Church to be guarded from error, and kept 
in the truth ; that it was as easy, indeed easier, to Almighty 
God to keep one man, than to keep a hundred ; that the in- 
fallibility gift was a thing to be exercised constantly and in 
the intervals of Councils, and therefore could not depend on 
Councils. 

"He said that the late Council had been promulgated 
sufficiently according to technical rules, that its decrees had 
been proclaimed publickly here at Kome, as well as individu- 
ally by bishops in their sees. 

"He explained the infallibility gift as an overruling 
guidance, not an inspiration, because this implies a means of 
imparting new truth ; that infallibility was only a guarding 
against error, and directing judgment in the use of means 
equivalent to the promise to preserve the Church in exist- 
ence ; that the Pope would be speaking infallibly whenever 
he pronounced a judgment in such a way as to make it clear 
that it was binding on the Church and on consciences ; that 
it would be assured that he had used all means to improve 
his judgment and weigh the questions andtthe opinions and 
decrees of the past ; that it was a matter of faith that God 
would take care that he should not speak unguardedly, or 
falsely, or ignorantly ; that it concerned the Pope as a matter 
of conscience how far he had used proper means of informing 
himself ; but that whether he had done so or not, God would 
take care that only truth was declared by him ; that he 
would be hindered from any erroneous utterance ; that infal- 
libility was in fact unerring ; that thus any one might rest 
assured and trustful that God would be frue to His own 
promise, and would assure to His Church the truth only as 
ascertainable in this way. 



68 A ROMANTIC STORY. 

''He considered that infallibility as to morals was as 
necessary as to the matters of faith, because of the connexion 
between faith and morals ; and that false views as to morals 
might prevail as well as to faith, as if false definitions as to 
murder might be declared. 

" The following is told by Mr. , who had the story 

from a cousin of the lady in question. 

" It runs as follows : — 

" ' The Pope, when a layman in the Guardia Nobile, fell 

in love with a Miss , daughter of Sir Fitzgerald of 

Ireland, was engaged, and the day fixed for the marriage in a 
church in Borne; he parted from his JiancSe the day before 
the intended marriage to go to make his confession. He 
confessed to a Jesuit, to whom he told his engagement. The 
confessor said, "It must not be; that the Lord had other 
designs for him." On remonstrance being offered as to how 
to save his honour, and that of his family, the confessor said 
he would arrange that ; that it must be left wholly to him. 
That evening Count Ferretti was sent off to Civita Vecchia, 
and there put on board a ship, and sent to Bio Janeiro; 
there he was ordained, and worked hard among the sick 
during a time of cholera. Nothing had been said by the con- 
fessor to the family to apprise them of what had been done ; 
and the next day the bridal party, the bride, the bride- 
groom's best man, all assembled at the church, and finding 
no bridegroom, returned. Miss Fitzgerald never saw her in- 
tended husband again till one day she was in Bome ; it was 
the election of a new Pope. She was in the square of St. 
Peter's ; she saw the bricked-up window broken through, and 
heard the Dean of the Sacred College declare that Ferretti 
was Pope (tu es Petnis), by the name of Pius IX., and saw her 
intended husband entluroned behind the peacock feathers.' 

" Talking with Monsignor Stonor, he spoke of the question 
of union having been considered, but determined to be im- 
possible, except by absolute submission ; of the position of 
the Papacy and Boman Church against the revolutionary 
spirit of the age, as finally fixed, waiting for a reaction which 
was to be expected; and of his amazement at the progress of 
Church restoration in England, of his great preference for 
our style of architecture, etc." 

''A.D. 1873. 
"Conversion of St. Paul. Dined at Mr. Marsh's, the 
American minister; Bishop Strossmayer and his secretary^ 



FOREIGN TRAVEL, ITALY, ETC., 1871-73. 69 

Mamiami, Vice-President of the Senate, and Borghi, were 
present ; also Dr. Pantaleoni, Mr. Langden, Mr. Walpole, Mr. 
Meira, and Hemans. Dr. Pantaleoni spoke of the mixing of 
different nations tending to union of ideas on religion, which 
he thought manifestly increasing ; of the hope for Italy and 
the Church of Eome being in bringing the clergy more under 
the influence of the State, and restoring the old system of 
electing the bishops, and so getting the present state of abso- 
lutism in the Papacy modified ; and of infidelity being the 
great hindrance to progress towards reform- and that of 
500 Members of Parliament, not above 60 could be counted 
as believers ; of the difference of mind in our races and the 
Latin, we, starting from the sense of individual responsibility, 
the Latin races, from allegiance to a central body, in our case 
working from individuals to a centre, in the other cases working 
outward from a central authority to individuals ; of the error 
of the Church of Kome in thinking a reaction would ever 
come, or its present position of antagonism ever being made 
good. He said, on my referring to the Bible as the guide or 
ground of stability, that if Italians could ever be got to read 
the Gospels, it was as much as could ever be expected ; they 
would never read the Old Testament. . . . 

" Mr. Langden spoke of the different phases of belief, of 
the sections of the Church being complementary to each other, 
and of the strong line of division between the clergy and 
laity in Italy ; the clergy never giving credit to the laity of 
being in earnest or believing; the laity never giving the 
clergy any credit of having any liberal ideas or desire of 
improvement of the state of the Church. 

" The papal view is that the king has been forced on by 
revolutionary violence to enter Eome and remain against his 
will. 

" They fully expect a reaction, and wait for it, possessed 
with the conviction that absolutism is the sole remedy against 
rationalism and politicalism. 

" Mr. H told me that in the late census, out of the 

26,000,000 of Italians, 19,000,000 could neither read nor 
write. He said he was at the promulgation of the dogma of 
infallibility ; that at the very time the thunder pealed, and 
the lightning struck one of the cupolas of St. Peter's, and that 
it became quite dark ; that the Pope seemed struck by it, but 
recovered himself; that the account appeared in one paper, 
speaking of the event as the giving of the Law on Mount 
Sinai in thunder and lightning ; that it was suppressed and 



70 CONVERSE WITH DOLUNGER. 

did not appear in others . . . ; that he travelled to Florence 
the next day, and some one with him said the Pope would 
lose his temporal power before the year ended . . . and it so 
happened ; immediately after the promulgation of the dogma, 
France declared war against Austria." 

" TalTc vnth Mondgnor Nardi. 

'^He considered that union was impossible, that the 
dogma of infallibility had been in his opinion inexpedient to 
enter upon ; but once started, necessary to be affirmed that 
the devout laity would side with the bishops ; that the more 
the State resisted the Church, the more the bishops would throw 
themselves back on the Papacy; but that a great struggle would 
come, and it would be a terrible time for the Church. 

" He considered that we held only two Sacraments, and on 
its being urged that there was a difference, separating the two 
from the five others, he did not admit it. Said also that the 
Fathers were no rule, that they varied too much." 

*' Talk with Father Douglas. 

" He considered that the dogma made no difference in the 
faith of the Church, only brought it out that the practical 
difference was that, now Gallicanism was impossible, it would 
be ipso facto heresy. He considered that the Pope could decide 
of himself alone with, or without, counsel or advice of any 
one ; that if a Council were called, and the majority -went one 
way, he could rule it a contrary way ; but that the head was 
not to be viewed without the body ; that it was not therefore 
to be expected, or morally possible, that he should thus act, 
but that all subjects are according to iudividual rule weighed 
first by congregations appointed for the special purpose, and 
come before the Pope only after all possible sifting, often 
heard and reheard, before his final decision. 

" He explained that the difference between a Beatification 
and a Canonization was in this : that a Beato was revered and 
invoked by a particular order or Church; a 8anto by the 
whole Church. 

^ Munich^ June 13, 1873. 
" Had an hour's converse with Dollinger. 
"He said that their object was to act upon the upper 
classes ; that more would be done to spread their views, but 



FOREIGN TRAVELy ITALY, ETC., 1871-73. 7^ 

for the fewness of the priests who had joined them> two only 
in Munich, fifty in all Germany; that he did not expect a 
change of Popes to make any difference in the line of Boman 
doctrine, but that a new pope would probably come to some 
terms with the Italian Gk)vemment, and that this would 
modify the state of things ; that Strossmayer had not sub- 
mitted, only had given his priests permission to publish the 
decree if they desired, but without implying his sanction or 
approval, and that he had not published it himself, and it only 
circulated in his diocese as a matter of Church news ; that he 
paid his visit to the Pope only on condition that the dogma was 
not mentioned, and that the Pope accepted him thus, though 
the Jesuits had stated that it (was) otherwise, but that this 
statement of theirs had been withdrawn. On my asking 
about the election of Beinkens to be Bishop, he said that, 
having been once excommunicated, Bome could do nothing 
more; that his Episcopal acts would be valid, his ordina- 
tions, etc., so much so, that a priest ordained by him would 
be accepted by Bome without farther ordination if he seceded 
to Bome ; and I understood him to say that his acts would 
be like the acts of our bishops. He added that, after examin' 
ing the question of our orders, he was satisfied of their validity, 
and accepted all our Sacraments, etc. ; he impUed throughout, 
as we should, that the validity of ordination depended not on 
any link with the Boman See, but on the Canonical Bules (etc.) 
bemg observed. 

" On my asking as to the prospect of reunion with the 
Alt CathoUcks, he said, not while we were in union with 
the State, in consequence of the false doctrines and defects 
in the uncatholic part of our body (this he did not say, but 
acceded on my saying that I remembered his having expressed 
such an opinion as to our being committed to such errors and 
defects while in union with them), but that whenever we 
were separated from the State, which he thought eventually 
must happen, then the Low Church section would form into a 
distinct body, and the Catholic part of us into another body, 
and then the latter could unite with the Alt Catholic. He 
spoke strongly of the State alone now keeping us together ; at 
the same time he said we ought to hold on to the State as 
long as we could, that it would be unwise to hasten the 
separation, unwise to surrender a certain benefit which it 
gave us for an uncertain one. Observing on the amount of 
difference existing in the Alt Catholic, he spoke of time 
modifying and changing, the difficulty of altering long usages 



old V 
in- \ 



/' 



72 THE ROMAN CONFESSIONAL. 

and ideas, etc. On my observing that the cultns (of the) 
Blessed Virgin must be a great difficulty, he said that this 
would, and ought to be, modified, that the cultus was ' un- 
natural,' that what was said (ordinarily) was 'no calumny 
but a truth,' that our Lord was put into the shade, that there 
really was a contradiction between the books of divinity 
and the common popular usage, the former saying that there 
was no necessity to pray to the Saints, and for consequence 
not to the Blessed Virgin Mary ; and these devotions of the 
people (are) cast entirely upon the principles of such worship. 
On my alluding to Pere Hyacinthe and the Swiss movement, 
he said that the French Swiss would attach themselves to 
the French line of thought, the German Swiss to the German, 
difference of language hindering combination; that Pere 
Hyacinthe was putting forward such questions as of the 
marriage of priests, etc., naturally; but that the Germans 
considered it quite a subordinate one, that it would follow on 
any change; and he alluded to the Greek Uniat — ^priests 
allowed to have wives — and he implied the same as to other 
purely disciplinary matters. He then went on to speak of 
Confession, and alluded to the discussions now rife in England. 
He gave his opinion freely on some important points . . . 
that confession ought not to be pressed or over encouraged in 
little matters; that it was more for serious, deadly sins; 
/ that he had in his own experience observed that English ladies 
were disposed to make too much of little matters, getting up 
a case for confession without need. He thought this very hurt- 
ful, and a misuse of the Sacrament of Penance. He denied that 
Eoman priests required some deadly sin to be recalled in order 
to give absolution, and spoke of the evil of such an idea ; 
that Eoman priests always gave the same form of absolution 
whenever they absolved. He spoke very strongly of the evil 
consequences of what universally prevailed, of giving absolu- 
tion on the mere promise of forsaking sin, so that what was 
charged against the Boman Confessional of leading persons to 
sin on from the easy obtaining of pardon, making, as he said, a 
' safety valve ' for sin, is strictly true, everywhere prevailed. 
I asked how it had arisen. He only repeated it was certainly 
the fact. On my suggesting it might be from the difficulty of 
keeping up a stricter view of Confession in case of such 
numbers, he put this aside, as not being the case, from the 
numbers of priests and of persons neglecting confession. He 
said half the people in Munich kept away from Confession. 
It would be diflferent, he said, in villages, where the parish 



FOREIGN TRAVELy ITALY, ETC, 1871-73. 73 

priest knew everybody. On my asking whether all these 
were therefore debarred communion, he said no; that in 
towns it would not be known who went to Confession or not ; 
that it could not but be left to every man's own conscience, and 
that it was equally so in villages where there were monas- 
teries, the monks being Confessors; and as he seemed to 
imply, they acted without concert with the parish priest. On 
my askiQg particularly on the point, he said all parish priests 
were, of course, from their position, empowered to confess, that 
their assistant priests also had no difficulty, but were in fact 
equally empowered ; that other priests lite himself had to 
arrange this with the parish priest, but that it was readily 
agreed to. 

" His parting words to me were, that while Kussia would 
have her influence in the East, Germany and England 
would be the leading nations influencing the West ; that we 
on our side must work towards a future union, which would 
come after our day." 

In June, 1873, Mr. Carter returned home with strength 
restored, and again took up his work in the parish and 
Sisterhood. 

He was warmly welcomed by parishioners and friends, 
and to the address in which they expressed their hope that 
he might " long be spared to watch, as you have always 
done, over our best and highest interests, and to minister to 
our spiritual necessities," he returned the subjoined answer: — 

*' Olew&r Rectory, July 8, 1873. 

"My dear Friends, 

" Your kind welcome to me on my return home 
has deeply affected me, and can never be forgotten by me. 
To have been restored to the hope of being useful in my 
appointed duties is a blessing for which I heartily thank 
Almighty God; but you have added to this the happiness 
of feeling that I have your affectionate goodwill, which is 
the greatest possible comfort and encouragement to me. 

** In the long period that I have been permitted to 
minister in this important parish, I am very conscious how 
imperfectly I have fulfilled what I have desired to do, but 
your expressions of sympathy lead me to trust that you 



74 THE WELCOME, ON RETURN. 

accept my desires^ and regard kindly what it may please God 
to allow me to do. 

" My children wish me to express their sense of thankful- 
ness to you for your kind thoughts of them, and their delight, 
in which they unite with me, in being again amongst you. 

'' I heartily pray that in whatever trials of sickness and 
infirmity it may be your lot to share, you may have a large 
measure of that Idndness and those consolations which have 
been richly and most mercifully granted to me in my time 
of need. 

" Believe me to remain, 

'' Your obliged and faithful friend 
" and servant in Christ our Lord, 

"T. T. Cabter." 





#^-* 






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Y' 









THE REV. T. T. CARTER, M.A. 
{Front a Drawing in Chalk by Mks. Newton.) 



CHAPTER V. 

PENITENTIARY WORK. 

One of the first, if not the first, of Mr. Carter's writings was 
his memoir of " John Armstrong, D.D.," at one time Bishop 
of Grahamstown, To this book Bishop Samuel Wilber- 
force contributed a preface, in which he refers to a special 
feature of Mr. Armstrong's labours, in the following eloquent 
language : — 

"He, above aU, awakened through God's blessing those 
efforts on behalf of the most miserable class of outcast 
women, which have led to the exercise of so much of that 
skilful and affectionate care for such penitents, which surely 
ought especially to mark the followers of Him Who, in spite 
of the jeers of the Pharisee, suffered the woman *who had 
been a sinner' to 'wash His feet with her tears, and to wipe 
them with the hairs of her head ! '" 

It is impossible to read this memoir without seeing that 
Canon Carter and Bishop Armstrong were kindred spirits. 
The former, writing in 1857, says of penitentiary work, that 
he regarded it as " one of the greatest and most hopeful efforts 
of the century, and one calculated far more than can now be 
estimated to influence the penitential discipline and practical 
condition of the Church." What T. T. Carter says of J. Arm- 
strong might well be transferred to himself. ''The secret 
source of his untiring ardour in this cause was the exceeding 
warmth and depth of his love for any object that excited his 
compassion." Mr. Carter became a pioneer in penitentiaxy 
work ; that is to say, effective penitentiary work. There had 



76 THE CLEANSING OF THE CONSCIENCE. 

been previous efforts^ but these on the whole were weak and 
defective. These were well meant, but the cure seemed chiefly 
to be sought in the change of external surroundings — separa- 
tion from the " occasions " of sin ; not enough in the inward 
change of heart and cleansing of the conscience. Mr. Carter, 
with his quick insight, saw the impotency of such efforts. 
Dr. liddon, too, at once grasped the difference. " The one," 
he said, *' is weeding a garden with your hands, and leaving 
the roots in the soil ; the other, extirpating them with the 
proper implements." The future Warden of the House of 
Mercy, Clewer, threw himself heart and soul into this cause, 
with a zeal and self-devotion which were requisite for over- 
coming various hindrances. There are never wanting those 
who attempt to throw cold water upon the flame of charity, 
especially if connected with personal outlay. It was urged 
that penitentiaries only increased the evil; that it was a 
question of supply and demand ; and that by lessening the 
number of these wretched beings the gaps would be filled by 
the seduction of fresh and innocent souls. Again, the evil 
was pronounced incurable, and St. Paul's doctrine that 
''where sin abounded grace might much more abound" 
denied or distrusted. In fact, the Penitentiary cause was 
represented as either hurtful or impotent, but the cause 
prospered. An appeal for funds appeared in March, 1849, 
and *' in June the House of Mercy at Clewer was commenced," 
and other similar institutions were built, where penitents 
were received, and not only separated from their past evil 
life, but brought into a new and pure atmosphere, and 
gradually transformed by the operation of Divine Grace, and 
restored to communion with God. 

In Canon Garter's great attraction towards Penitentiary 
work one grand feature of his character may be traced — his 
inexhaustible sympathy. This may be regarded on two 
sides — the Divine and the human. In the former, his devo- 
tion to Christ, as the Good Shepherd, prompted him to seek 
and save the lost ; in the latter, his keen realization of human 
misery and helplessness. A perusal of two sermons preached 



PENITENTIARY WORK. 77 

in 1856, and published by Masters, together with an appeal 
for the completion of the House of Mercy, would at once indi- 
cate this estimate of the character of the Founder of " Clewer." 
In the first discourse, upon the words, '* He hath made Him 
to be sin for us. Who knew no sin ; that we might be made 
the righteousness of God in Him" (2 Cor. v. 21), he touch- 
ingly describes our Blessed Lord's dealings with sinners. He 
loved to trace how human sin and infirmity were allowed to 
cast their shadows upon our Lord's parentage. 

"When the first Evangelist traces the lineage of the 
Messiah, he is careful to note — as facts important to recall, 
though but for such a cause our better feelmgs ever seek to 
veil the dishonour of our parentage — ^the more than ordinary 
stains of sin that marked some members of the chosen family. 
Secording how 'Juda begat Pharez and Zara,' he states 
specially that it was ' of Thamar.' Eecording how ' Salmon 
begat Boaz,' he adds ' of Rahab,' elsewhere known as ' the 
harlot' And mentioning one of the choicest names of the 
sacred line, ' David the king,* he reminds us how he ' begat 
Solomon of her who had been the wife of Urias.' " 

And the preacher goes on to show how Christ submitted 
to circumcision — the "sinner's mark" — and how "His 
Blessed Mother was purified," as though she had contracted 
defilement from the bringing forth of the Sinless One ! In 
the same way the " Temptation," the eating with publicans 
and sinners, " the breathing the peace of His healing absolu- 
tion " into the soul of the fallen woman, and rebuking her, 
not guiltless, accusers, show his love for the lost ones of His 
fold. 

Then Mr. Carter's sympathy was excited by the circum- 
stances of the poor and sufifering outcast. 

" It should, moreover," he says, " move us to think that 
all this misery may have arisen from causes to which the 
poor alone are subject. For their children suffer, in a manner 
imknown to others, from exposure, from too close contact in 
cottages, with insufficient space to separate the sexes and 
preserve the veil even of common decency ; from too great 



78 SYMPATHY FOR THE FALLEN. 

familiarity in the times of labour, in the field, where all ages 
and both sexes mingle without restraint; or in the way 
homewards, unguarded amid the contaminations of the 
hamlet, or along the crowded street, etc." 

At the close of the discourse he revealed his intense pity 
for the fallen woman, " often much more sinned against than 
sinning." Later in life, and from a larger experience, he was 
led to modify in a degree this estimate of relative guilt. A 
study of these two sermons, from the former of which we 
have made extracts, will clearly show the thoughts and 
feelings which lay at the root of that sympathy for the fallen 
which was ever a characteristic of the Warden of Clewer. 

He felt the Church had failed to extend her ministry to 
those sinful and degraded beings, and that the world's esti- 
mate of the degradation was one-sided. 

'* Certainly the hard distinctions which the conventiona- 
lities of society have drawn can have no place here. As 
there can be no limit to the sympathy with which ' Christ's ' 
Sabred Heart yearned towards the fallen, or to His power of 
restoring them, there can be no ground for excluding from 
the range of our compassion, or the possibilities of complete 
renovation, any even of the deadliest sins. 

*' Tet such exclusion has been made in the case which we 
are now especially considering ; for though fallen woman has 
not sinned alone, how entirely in the world's eye has the un- 
divided burden of guilt fallen upon her f While the partners 
of her sin pass in and out among us, unnoticed, save by the 
sleepless Eye of Gh)d, on her has lain the blight of a hopeless 
excommunication. Even theiChurch has failed in its love 
towards her. The ministerings of the Son of Man have 
through us been straitened in her case. This is said de- 
liberately; for though some penitentiaries have long since 
been established amongst us, it has not been by the direct 
action of the Church, nor has the love and self-devotedness 
of the Grospel in their highest forms animated the work." 

Canon Carter's name will ever be intimately connected 
with the rise and progress of penitentiaiy work, in the 
English Church, and with the infusion of new life into it. 



PENITENTIARY WORK. 79 

In the memoir of Bishop Armstrong (which was dedicated 
to *' Robert Gray, Lord Bishop of Capetown, who planted 
the English Episcopate in South Africa"), Mr. Carter 
devotes more than fifty pages to the history of the rise and 
progress of the " Church Penitentiary Cause," and to the part 
which Bishop Armstrong took in it. This book was his 
earliest effort at portraiture, and it seems to have been written 
in accordance with those comments upon biography with 
which Bishop Samuel WUberforce begins his preface to the 
memoir, and which we think well worth quoting. He says — 

*' Biography depends for its interest and usefulness upon 
that answering of heart to heart which makes one man, in so 
far as he is thoroughly human, an exponent to another of his 
own inward being. It is not, therefore, in depicting singularity 
of character, or in relating strange adventure, that the highest 
merit of biography consists. Such narratives as these can at 
best but move the mind to wonder, or excite it to a passing 
interest. But the revelation of the depths of the heart and 
spirit of another, even though the outward incidents of his 
ifie be in themselves ordinary and commonplace, may be full 
of the highest dramatic interest for one exercised by the same 
inward trials, and engaged in a like outward struggle." 

The great bishop requires in the biographer, first, the 
capacity of understanding the character he is to draw ; and 
secondly, truthfulness in his narrative ; and in the subject, 
"thoroughly human traits of character;" of course, in a 
spiritual biography, those "human traits of character," 
purified, illuminated, and transformed by the Spirit of God. 

Mr. Armstrong had already observed, in a volume of 
sermons which were preached at Exeter, the shallowness of 
repentance, in the methods of recovery at that time adopted ; 
when notorious sinners were subjected to no penitential dis- 
cipline, in order to deepen their sorrow for sin, and to form 
humility by any course of humiliation, with the result that 
spiritual cUsease was not eradicated, and relapse was but a 
natural consequence of such laxness. Though without any 
experience of such necessities at the time, he saw^ for such an 



8o THE CHURCH PENITENTIARY ASSOCIATION 

evil to be grappled with and overcome, the need of relieving 
the burdened conscience from the load of past transgressions, 
and of absolution through the precious Blood of Christ, before 
drawing near to the Altar of God. Mr. Carter — " from private 
intercourse with Mr. Armstrong" upon this godly dis- 
cipline, the restoration of which, was annually said, " is much 
to be wished," ^ though there the momentous matter rested — 
knew Mr. Armstrong's mind. They both perceived the great 
difficulties of penitentiary work, which experience has since 
confirmed. But Mr. Carter had practical experience of the 
subject. If Mr. Armstrong is unquestionably to be regarded 
as the originator of the Church Penitentiary movement, and 
if the sermon preached by the " then Archdeacon Manning," 
entitled " Saints and Penitents," also gave an impulse to it, — 
Mr. Carter carried out into practice on a large scale the 
penitentiary system. In fact, in point of time, he was 
already occupied with it, for " the works," he says, " at Clewer 
and Wantage arose independently of those plans and con- 
sultations" referred to in the memoir; they were "remark- 
able instances of a concurrent quickening of many hearts, 
without mutual commimication, which is one mark of 
Divine influence." It has been written, — " It is remarkable 
how seldom, if ever, the works of Grod spring from one 
Fountain." 

Mr. Armstrong was an enthusiast. When the " Church 
Penitentiary Association " was formed in the Metropolis — a 
Society which from that day to this has been doing excellent 
work in this great cause — and there was a service and meeting, 
he was almost overpowered with joy. He says, " Glorious inter- 
view with the Bishop of London ; he has given his hearty con- 
sent ; promises to bring it before the Archbishops and Bishops. 
The matter is clenched, thank God. My joy is tremendous." 
AU will delight in the naturalness and charm of such a 
character. Mr. Carter's joy would be quite as great, and deep 
and calm, if less demonstrative. He knew more of the work 
by actual experience of its difficulties, and of the need of 
1 Commination Service. 



PENITENTIARY WORK. 8r 

hopefulness in those who would build anew " the walls of 
Jerusalem," when they had been reduced to ruins. 

There were, it seems to us, three features of Mr. Carter's 
teaching which marked off this new era in penitentiary 
work from those " well meant " attempts for the recovery of 
the fallen which had preceded it. One of these relates more 
especially to the past ; another, to the present ; and a third, to 
the future. First, confession he certainly regarded as almost 
a necessity in such cases for the restoration to purity. It 
was about this time he brought out his treatise on ''The 
Doctrine of Confession in the Church of England," and there 
can be little doubt that his experiences in penitentiary work 
had forced the subject especially upon his attention. The 
book, of course, excited much criticism, but the criticism was 
unable to controvert any doctrinal or historical position which 
the author had taken up. Moreover, he turned the edge of 
the opposition by the gentle reminder in his preface to a 
second edition, that " confession, not being a purely doctrinal 
matter, forms no exception to the axiom of modern philosophy; 
that in order to arrive at a reliable judgment on a practical 
question, some personal acquaintance with its actual work- 
ing is requisite. Such adverse criticisms are not advanced by 
those who use confession." Mr. Carter's advocacy was of 
voluntary, not compulsory, confession. He regarded this as a 
'vital distinction." But he did feel that a Penitentiary 
could not cure those extreme cases without this medicine. 
Yet even in such an Institution there was no rule to enforce 
this ministry of reconciliation. No such rule would be 
necessary. The Warden of Clewer felt that an absolute rule 
might " tend to produce a formal and forced use of what 
especially requires the full surrender of the renewed will, in 
order to be a living and acceptable service." In this, we may 
note a feature of Mr. Carter's character, frequently recurring. 
Ma dislike of hard and fast rules. He says, " At the time of 
the Seformation the compulsory system of confession had 
been fairly tested by a long experience. It is but fair to 
attribute considerable weight to the practical judgment of 

G 



82 CONFESSION, NOT ENFORCED. 

those who had witnessed its operation, and decided against 
it apparently with general consent/' Further, he does not 
regard our later experience of its working in foreign 
Churches '' as calculated to create a desire to return to tiie 
compulsory law binding every one alike." He thinks, too, a 
compulsory rule may '' drive the heart into resistance," and 
so justifies the Church of England in her preference for an 
unforced confession, even at " the risk of a relaxed rule." 
That the relaxed rule does not deter people from seeking 
this help may be evidenced by Mr. Carter's words in his 
preface to the second edition of his work. He says — 

" The rapid increase of the practice of confession during 
the last four or five years, among persons of all ages and 
classes, and both sexes, notwithstanding all attempts to dis- 
countenance it, is a sufficient proof that this prolonged and 
anxious controversy has at length found its solution in the 
happiest and surest way — in the witness of souls innumerable, 
contorted, guided, strengthened, in the paths of Christian 
faith and virtue. Those who have been the objects of attack 
and suspicion, because of their advocacy of confession, have 
no need to retaliate. They have already their sufficient 
revenge in the gratitude of the great multitude, whether in 
heaven or on earth, ascribing to their ministry, under Grod, 
the peace and joy into which they have entered, if not the 
very salvation of their souls." 

The second step in advance in penitentiary work was the 
forming of a Sisterhood for the care of penitents. This was 
the first purpose of the Sisterhood of St. John the Baptist 
Clewer was a good place in which to begin such a work. It 
'' embraced within its limits one of those sin-stricken spots too 
often found in the purlieus of our populous towns and the 
neighbourhood of barracks." " It pleased (xod," writes Mr. 
Carter, " that within sight of this haunt of vice our first Church 
Penitentiary should arise." Tbx)ugh the infiuence of the widow 
of a clergyman, Mrs. Tennant, and the zeal of Mr. Johnson 
(afterwards Archdeacon Furse), a few fallen women had been 
drawn to give up evil ways, and, through her great kindness, 
found a temporary abode in Mrs. Tennant's house. These 



PENITENTIARY WORK. 83 

formed a nucleus, and then others gathered round them, and 
so began the penitentiary work at Clewer. From this loving 
work of Mrs. Tennant, the idea of working this Eescue Home 
by means of a Sisterhood began. We wUl leave Mr. Carter 
to relate this touching story himself. In a pamphlet entitled 
" The First Ten Years of the House of Mercy, Clewer." he 
says — 

" Our first intention was only to house these women for a 
while, till they could be transferred to a London Penitentiary. 
But as the numbers increased, and they became fondly 
attached to their benefactress, and she urgently desired ta 
devote herself to their care, the idea arose of forming an 
institution, to be carried on in the same spirit in which the 
work had been commenced, by women devoting themselves 
for the love of God, as Mrs. Tennant had done. 

"It was an anxious question. We were entirely inex- 
perienced in penitentiary work. No precedent in the Church 
of England was known to us of a Penitentiary of the kind 
proposed. Strong popular prejudice would certainly have to 
be met. The prospect of finding persons able and ready to 
devote themselves was wholly uncertain, and without such 
fellow-helpers the design was impracticable. In the present 
day, when the hearts of so many have been stirred to such 
works, it is not easy to realize the doubts which then 
suggested themselves as to the probability of such a spirit 
arising. Moreover, the mere cost of founcfing and maintain- 
ing such an institution could not but be very great, and we 
hi^ no fund to which we could look to meet our expenses 
from day to day." 

The Clewer House of Mercy was founded in 1849, and 
*' indissolubly connected with the Church of England," and 
by its constitution the bishop of the diocese is appointed the 
Visitor, if he will act. A Council, clerical and lay, in equal 
proportion, held, and still holds, an important place in the 
organization, whose duty it is, not to interfere in the internal 
arrangements or management of the House, but control ex- \ 
penditure, attend to the finances, and to take such matters into ^ 
consideration as may be rightly brought under their notice. \ 
In all this Mr. Carter exMbited certain practical qualities 



84 THE NEED OF ''REGULARS:* 

which are not commonly combined with a meditative or 
contemplative turn of mind. There are not wanting those 
who would have left the whole working of such an institution 
in the hands of Sisters, but the plan of the founder of Clewer 
was a wise one. It is not meant that there are no Sisters 
who can keep accounts. There are some who would be a 
credit to any finance committee, or place of business, but 
perhaps they axe "few and far between." Still, such are 
needed (even where there is a finance committee) to keep 
accounts, and prepare the balance-sheet for the meetings. It 
is wished here to call attention to this feature of the organiza- 
tion, which emanated from the brain of Mr. Carter, who, 
although he was often absorbed and absent, yet could be 
very practical. Bishop Samuel Wilberforce used to say of 
him, " He is often upstairs; " and so he wjis, but he was not " in 
the clouds," he W£is beyond them ! And he could quickly 
come down and transact business with a clear head, and a 
strong grasp of the subject. 

The demands of penitentiary work led to the formation of 
the Community of St. John the Baptist, Clewer. The Sister- 
hood was founded in 1852, three years after the House of 
Mercy was founded ; it was not only ^os^ hoc, but propter hoc. 
The few women gathered in by Mrs. Tennant's labours, it 
w£is found diflScult to manage. There are three ways of 
trying to manage a body of so-called penitents — by the paid 
services of a matron and staff, by the oversight of ladies who 
gratuitously give their time and labours, and by Sisters of 
Mercy. Mr. Carter quickly saw, though, we believe, without 
previous experience, which of the three was the best. We have 
experience of aU three methods of working a Penitentiary 
tried upon the same class of women; and the two former 
failed, whilst the latter succeeded. The trained Sister, simply 
by her influence, aided by her habit, soon brought order out 
of chaos. New forces seemed to be at work, and the same 
women became orderly and restfuL The Work in question 
was raised from the moral to the spiritual sphere ; and the 
Sister was sent to it by Mr. Carter. 



PENITENTIARY WORK, 85 

This, perhaps, requires some explanation. Two reasons 
may be suggested as helping to bring about this change. It 
is a common idea that the women who are admitted within 
the walls of a penitentiary are penitents, as they are called. 
Those who have any practical experience of this work know 
that this is a fallacy. They are often removed thither by the 
strong influence of relatives, or of the clergy of the parish. 
Many of them have not tasted the misery of sin. Even those 
who are weary of an evil life have often little penitence when 
they come and ring at the gate and ask for admission. Peni- 
tence has to be formed after they are admitted in a very great 
number of cases, and Sisters — trained Sisters — become experts 
in teaching and training these inmates in the path of peni- 
tence, and in preparing to lay down the burden of their sins 
at the foot of the Cross. Mr. Carter saw with quick eye the 
advantage over the old Penitentiaries in " the employment of 
self-devoted women, serving for Christ's sake, instead of paid 
matrons." " Sisterhoods," he says, " arose out of the Church 
Penitentiary movement from the very necessities of the case." 
But when these ideas were at first ventilated, they were 
considered more than quixotic. The idea, it was thought, 
would be enough to deter young ladies from offering them- 
selves for Sisters, and families from allowing them to enter 
Sisterhoods, where such a work was carried on- It aroused a 
complex objection, first to Sisterhood life in itself, and then 
to the work for which Sisterhoods were being formed. 

But Mr. Carter's idea went further than this. He did 
commit the teaching and training of the penitents to the 
Sisters. So strong was he on this point that the clergy had 
little communication with the penitents, except of a sacra- 
mental character. They were usually in training for a year 
before they were prepared for Communion. Nothing was 
"rushed" or hurried at Clewer. And it was to the Sisters' 
influence that Mr. Carter looked as a transforming power. 
The Clewer Sisters have under their training now more than 
three hundred and thirty penitents ; of these about one hundred 
and twenty are at Clewer. It was not merely the individual 



86 THE ''MAGDALEN"* LIFE. 

influence of a pure and refined lady upon the poor de- 
graded soul, but the atmosphere, which a number of such 
devout ladies generated. It was a counterpoise to the atmo- 
sphere of evil which a gathering of degraded women is apt to 
produce. A well-known fellow-worker in the same field, 
rather given to make use of trenchant terms, when asked 
how many penitents he had in his House of Mercy, replied, 
"So many, and I would not have more if I could;" and 
when asked to give the reason for this, he replied, " It would 
make the devil too strong." There was common sense iu this, 
and so it was a part of Mr. Carter's idea in creating a Sister- 
hood, whose primary work should be penitentiary, to counter- 
balance the power of evfl by a collection of pure, devout, 
dedicated souls, from whom would emanate a victorious power 
for good. Such, then, was the second difference between the 
old and the new penitentiary work, by the employment of 
"regulars " to overthrow a terrible and established social evil. 
A third difference may be found in the enlargement of 
the possible vista which now opens up before a penitent, that 
of a devoted life after the course of penitence is ended, the 
life of a Magdalen. There are instances in every penitentiary 
of the truth of St. Paul's words, " where sin abounded grace 
did much more abound," where souls have not only the grace 
of repentance, but have drawings to a higher and holier life — 
wonderful formations of virtue, which derive some of their 
strength from the memories of past and forgiven sin. Those 
who seem capable by God's grace of rising to a dedicated life, 
have at Clewer the opportunity of making the attempt. There 
is a foundation, and, we believe, endowment, for a certain 
number of Magdalens, who enter upon a course of training 
for a higher life than that only of the penitent. And these, 
when faithful, are of the greatest service in a large peni- 
tentiary, by good advice and high example, bringing by their 
self-dedication and separateness from the world, hope and 
encouragement to those who shared their sins, but have not 
yet quite overcome, and risen out of, the past. It has been 
said that in the new education system, any poor boy in 



PENITENTIARY WORK. 87 

town or village, if he has a gift, will be able to use it and to 
rise to some position of rank and honour ; so in this com- 
paratively new penitentiary system any soul, however degraded 
in the past, may, if persevering, still recover some genius for 
holiness, rise to the demands of a dedicated life, a dedication 
in a different form from that of the Sister of Mercy, yet 
having a beauty of its own, as a rose differs &om a lily. 

Besides this, Mr. Carter saw the necessity of widening 
the Bodcd area of repentance. " One crying want is a separate 
department for penitents of a higher grade." Of old, only 
those who came from what is called 'Hhe lower classes" 
entered the Penitentiaries ; now a part of the Clewer building 
is used for the reception of "lady penitents," who are alto- 
gether separated from the rougher elements, and put under 
rule — quite as necessary in their case as with those who had 
not the same privileges and safegoards. 

Inebriates also are received, whose cure is a most diflScult 
work, Mr. Carter did not hold any extreme views upon 
the temperance question. The subject was naturally very 
much in the air at Windsor, where the honoured Founder of 
the " Church of England Temperance Society " resided. In 
early days teetotalism, in its absolute form, was very much 
insisted upon, and Mr. Carter, seeing how much drunkenness 
was to be found in his parish and in the neighbourhood, 
wishing to be an example — and always ready to take up with 
anything which was designed to ameliorate the condition of 
the masses — became a total abstainer, and persisted in this 
course until a breakdown in health obliged him to yield to 
medical advice. But although he practised teetotalism for a 
time, he was never a convinced teetotaler. A hard-and-fast 
line in this, as in other things, did not commend itself to him. 
He was amused about a doctor recommending total abstinence, ^ 
*' when he employed rectified spirits in making his tinctures." 
In the early days of penitentiary work it was found impos- 
sible to cut off all stimulants at once, when many of the 
women had been for years very heavy drinkers, some almost 
upon the verge of delirium tremens when they were admitted 



88 TOTAL ABSTINENCE, WHEN NECESSARY. 

into the Penitentiary ; and, perhaps, had hard work in the 
laundry at once to do, with which they may not have been 
previously familiar. Yet Mr, Carter would be fully alive to 
the importance of, and even necessity for, total abstinence to 
effect a cure, if possible, in many chronic cases of inebriety, 
but he could never regard teetotalism as the aim of all people, 
whether tempted to excess or not. After a while, too, in the 
neighbourhood more moderate views were current, and rash 
utterances in the early zeal for the temperance cause were 
no longer heard ; and the dual basis of the Church of England 
Temperance Society became a more recognized part of the 
movement. We might venture to say, that one prominent 
feature in Mr. Carter's mental equipment was a well-balanced 
mind. This is not always to be found, as in his case, com- 
bined with intense eagerness and ardour for moral and 
spiritual reforms. He was quick to detect anything extrava- 
gant or one-sided ; and this combination of zeal and wisdom 
(amongst other qualities) made him to be regarded as a leader 
of the Church movement. In the matter we have under con- 
sideration, he would feel a want of balance in some of the 
temperance advocacy of the day. He would know that from 
jthe days of St. Gregory, four virtues have been called 
" cardinal " — prudence, justice, temperance, and fortitude ; and 
he would regard as unbalanced the teaching which centred 
j only upon one of these. Further, he would know that 
I temperance must be exercised not only in checking excess in 
I drink, but applies also to food, and generally to the delights 
I of the senses. Mr. Carter was no great student of the School- 
: men, but he would probably know what Aquinas has said in 
the " Summa " on the question, " Whether the use of wine is 
totally illicit ? " And Mr. Carter would certainly have come 
into contact in his spiritual work with those who declined 
the use of the chalice, on the ground of extreme teetotal 
views. And above all this, our Lord's institution of the 
Blessed Sacrament, the first miracle in Cana, and St. Paul's 
advice to Timothy,^ would to his mind be Scriptural grounds 
1 1 Tim. V. 23. 



PENITENTIARY WORK. 89 

for a moderate judgment upon this topic, and for a sensible 
line in dealing with this evil in penitentiary work. 

Whilst zeal for the recovery of the lost had been stirred 
in the hearts of Armstrong and Carter by mutual intercourse, 
the prevalence of the sins of lust and intemperance was con- 
tinually impressed upon Canon Carter by the sights in his 
own parish and district. This was also a moving cause of 
the creation of the Clewer House of Mercy. 

" There is," says the late Eector of Clewer,^ " the continued 
sight of such misery close to our own homes, and in the sphere 
of my pastoral care, that has led me to form a retreat where 
penitents coming forth &om those depths of debasement may 
share, if it be possible, the merits and virtues of the all- 
sufi&cient Sacrifice of the Cross, which is (ait only hope, and 
is surely thdrs also. There is a haunt within my parish, 
such as, alas ! is not uncommonly found in the suburbs of our 
towns, whither, as to a sink of shame, flow in from all the 
villages around, and from the great city, the outcasts of many 
a saddened home. They stray away from the scenes of their 
childhood, and are lost amidst the crowd which wanders 
through our lanes and courts. My frequent walk is among 
sights of degraded womanhood, which, God grant, may never 
darken the hearth of any one of you." 

To such as these, — but delivered from the thraldom of 
Satan, — besides the Sisters, Canon Carter ministered to the 
very end of his protracted life, for a period of more them fifty 
years. He preached on Sunday nights to such a gathering 
as this, first in the old chapel, and afterwards in the present 
large and beautiful structure. It might be thought by many 
that his depth of thought and meditative style, and long sen* 
tences, would be far beyond the reach of mind and of devo- 
tion of these fallen women, and be only appreciated by the 
Sisters. It may be admitted that occasionally the length of 
the sermon would try some of them. But on the whole, the 
sight of his face, its radiant look at times, and the sweet 
gentleness of his delivery — likened, by one who heard him 
often, to the dropping of honey from his lips — could sustain 

1 " Mercy for the FaUen," p. 21. 



90 CANON CARTEF^S PREACHING. 

their attention, and their great reverence for him wonld pre- 
serve their patience, when his thoughts were gone up beyond 
their reaclu It is a mistake, however, to imagine that a 
congregation of women called penitents is necessarily an 
obtuse audience. There would be in a large penitentiary 
such as Clewer a considerable variety of grade, capacity, 
and education, a few familiar with other countries and quick- 
witted, most of them intelligent. Here is a brief outline of 
a sermon preached before this assembly on November 25, 
1866, by the Warden. 

Text — St. Luke v. 31 : " They that are whole need not a 
physician ; but they that are sick,'' etc. 

(i) What was the difference between St. Matthew and 
the Pharisees ? One just healed ; the other not feeling need 
of healing. 

(iL) The felt need of healing, a mark of God's elect All 
Sacraments a purpose of healing — ^Baptism, Absolution, Holy 
Eucharist. 

I. Four different states — 

(i) Somve never on a bed of sickness — unfallen angels. 

(ii) Some healed or being cleansed far Oad^s Presence — the 
Holy Dead. 

(iil) Some on earth being healed, wrestling against their 
faults and using all remedies. 

(iv.) Som^ being perfectly healed, not only coming to the 
physidan in a great emergency, but again and again, to be 
healed of the faults that arise, seeking perfect health. 

IL The great Physician — 

(i) comes when you call Him — need of prayer. 

(ii.) The more you call Him, the more He comes. 

(iii) The doctor bears his cases in mind, studies the 
causes, remedies, treatment ; the great Physidan bears each 
one in His Heart. 

(iv.) The earthly physidan has limited powers; the 
Heavenly, infinite — ^no case so bad He cannot cure. 

Lessons: cultivate the sense of need — sprayer; cure always 
possible. 



PENITENTIARY WORK. 91 

It will be seen from this outline that there are several 
points eminently suited to excite contrition and call forth 
hope in sin-laden souls^ and to remind dedicated souls of the 
need of going on to perfection by the avoidance of the least 
sins. 

The following is a sermon which was preached on the 
Second Sunday after Easter, by the Eev. Canon Carter, when 
in his ninety-third year — his last Easter sermon. It is said 
to have been taken down ve/rbatim by one who heard it. 

" Text — ^Eph, iv. 14, 15 : * That we be no more children, 
tossed to and fro. . • . but speaking the truth in love, may 
grow up imto Him in all things." 

" Speaking the truth — that is to say, become ' true chil- 
dren,' not 'tossed to and fro' — ^implies we should become 
steady — growing on. 

'' Characteristics of childhood, instability. . • • Our Lord 
came to give us a standard life, and we are not right, if the 
desire is not within us, to rise higher ! He gave us a high 
example, and the Holy Spirit works within us to carry out 
this high example. 

*' He came to raise us above ourselves, and our life should 
be passed in the thought of Him. ... I would leave with 
you two thoughts — 

" 1. Our Lord, as our Head and as our great Example. 

" 2. Our own growth towards it. 

" 1. His example. His Spirit within us raises us to it. 

" ' I am come, that they may have life.' We may have 
different aims and many varied examples set before us ; but 
our Lord's is the truest example set before us, and He likens 
us to it, if we keep Him ever in mind, and lose not His 
Presence with us. 

"2. Our sold is formed to grow, and we have a sense of 
power in God raising us. 

"'Speaking the truth in love.' Try to combine these 
two graces — else truth may be too stem. Many of us are 
quick of speech, and fail to measure our words, and by our 
words may quickly fall or rise. Our Lord would have us 
connect these two virtues, truth and love, and so daily riscj 
overcoming our faults in the daily use and daily exercise 
of them, daily remembering our Lord's Example and the 
Presence of the Blessed Spirit — that in our consciousness of 



92 PRESSURE FOR ADMITTANCE OVERPOWERING. 

His Son, we may rise more perfectly above the faults we so 
often commit. . . . 

" We grow more faithful, as we keep our Lord's Pattern 
and Example in our mind. The aim we take governs us, a 
high aim raises us, a high sense of our Lord's Presence is 
important, and should regulate our tempers and conversations. 

" The higher aim we have, the truer we become, and our 
whole beings are regulated by it. 

"And in this we have God's Blessing. So may His 
Grace ever be with us, raising us ever more and more as we 
seek to rise, and grow after the Pattern He has set before 
us." 

Canon Carter preached for the last time in his life in the 
House of Mercy Chapel, at Evensong, on Sunday, August 18, 
1901. During all those years his zeal for the salvation of 
souls had an attractive force, and the numbers of the fallen 
who sought admission to the House of Mercy soon exceeded 
the capacities of the building, so that soon another wing had 
to be added to the Penitentiary. The Warden's zeal also 
stirred up others in the neighbourhood, and the Provost and 
several Fellows of Eton became members of the council. The 
buildings for penitents were completed in 1855, and opened 
by the Bishop of Oxford. " The pressure," writes Mr. Carter, 
"for admittance was overpowering." It was found that 
more than half the applications came from London, which 
led to the establishment of " reception " houses, or refuges, in 
the metropolis, which supply a test and a preparation for 
entrance into the Penitentiaries. To show how this beneficent 
movement, which owes so much to Canon Carter, has ex- 
tended, it may be mentioned, that according to the " Guide " 
of the Church Penitentiary Association, just published, there 
are now two hundred and thirty-eight Penitentiaries, Preven- 
tive Homes, and Eefuges in London and country, besides a 
" Continuation Home " and " Central House " for the training 
of rescue workers. Of course, we do not intend to attribute 
this vast movement to the solitary influence of Mr. Carter; 
but he certainly took a leading part in the movement, and 
without an equal in length of years ; and " Clewer " alone at 



PENITENTIARY WORK. 93 

the present time is in charge of more than one hundred peni- 
tents at the Mother House ; thirteen at the Befuge, Pimlico, 
and " higher class " penitents, four ; about fifty at the Manor 
House, Oxford; ninety at Bovey Tracey, Devon; about sixty 
at the House of Mercy, Highgate ; thirty, St. Michael's 
Home, Leamington ; thirty at St. Mary's Home, Salisbury ; 
fifty at the House of Mercy, Maplestead ; and in addition to 
these institutions, there are several "Preventive" Homes, 
one " for children under eleven," where fifty-five have been 
received. We give these numbers to show the width of the 
penitentiary work under the rules of Clewer, and so immedi- 
ately connected with Canon Carter and animated by his 
spirit. Whilst treating in this chapter of the Warden of 
Clewer as the head of a great network of organized efforts to 
save the lost, those who know the " inner life " of these in- 
stitutions will bear witness to the wonderful change which 
the discipline and atmosphere of devotion, by the grace of 
God, bring about in those who had led lives of sin. All that 
was coarse and degrading seems, as a rule, to be dispelled by 
the genivs lod. Of course, there are exceptions, which are 
usually to be foimd in the case of those who have not tasted 
the bitter fruits of sin, but have been sent into such Home 
by parents and clergy, with little or no penitence in their 
hearts. Perhaps we may venture, in order to have directly 
Canon Carter's thoughts in dealing with penitents, to quote 
some portions of "ofl&ces" composed by him for use on 
special occasions in the Chapel. In the book are " ofl&ces " 
for " the reception of a penitent," for " a blessing " on her 
departure, for "the admission of a Magdalen on proba- 
tion," for "the consecration of a penitent." Here is a 
prayer " for a penitent about to be received " — 

" Lord Jesus Christ, Who didst suffer the woman from 
the city to kneel at Thy feet, and wash them with her tears ; 
look favourably upon Thy servant, that being i-estored to the 
Ordinances of Thy Sanctuary, she may persevere in the ways 
of true repentance, may obtain of Thee peace and a renewed 
life, and being cleansed from all her sins, may abide steadfast 



94 THE " SERVICE OF DISMISSAL."* 

to the end, through Thy merits, Who with the Father and 
the Holy Ghost, livest and reignest for ever. Amen/' 

Here is the final prayer said at the Service of Dismissal, 
which is still more touching ; as in the form of Admission 
it is a stranger, but in that of Departure one well-known in 
the House. The penitents are all assembled in the chapel, 
whilst the one who is leaving stands before the altar. The 
hymn, " Jesu, grant me this, I pray, ever in Thy Heart to 
stay," is sung, after which the priest is instructed to pray as 
follows : — 

" Almighty God, Who orderest all our ways, we beseech 
Thee to watch over this Thy child with Thy special and increas- 
ing love. Show her the way wherein she ought to go, and keep 
her steadfast therein, even to the end. Uphold her, Blessed 
Lord, with Thy mighty arm in all her temptations and weak- 
ness, lest she sink into the deep waters. Give her grace to 
bear her cross, and remove from her all evil thoughts and 
desires. May she carry in her heart the image of Jesus 
crucified. Teach her to love Thee, God ; to be thankful 
and contented in all Thy appointments for her ; to endure all 
things meekly ; and may she be preserved pure and blameless 
in body, soul, and spirit, and, all her sins being blotted out in 
the Blood of the Everlasting Covenant, may she be saved for 
ever in the merits and mediation of Jesus Christ our Lord. 
Amen." 

We would call attention to Mr. Carter's reference to the 
Atonement — " All her sins being blotted out in the Blood of 
the Everlasting Covenant." His strong grasp of this doctrine 
was a marked feature in his belief, to which we shall have 
occasion to refer presently in another connection. 

Two extracts from the solemn ofl&ce " for the consecration 
of a penitent " as a Magdalen must suffice. 

The Warden is thus instructed to address her : — 

" My child, we trust that you are called by Almighty God 
to make the choice to which your long preparations have been 
leading you, and that He has given you courage and a good 
will to devote yourseK wholly, your body and your soul, 
to His service," etc. 



PENITENTIARY WORK. 95 

Then she makes her promise in the presence of Grod '' to 
pass a life separated from the world, in penitence, obedience, 
and quietness/' to accept the penitential role, and faithfully 
serve God, " after the example of St. Mary Magdalen, the chief 
of penitents, by whose name I am called. Amen." 

Mr. Carter, with the Western Church, identified St. Mary 
Magdalene with the imnamed sinner mentioned by St Luke.^ 
A quotation from a published sermon will show this. 
Preaching on the words, " Now there stood by the cross of 
Jesus, His mother, and His mother's sister, Mary, the wife of 
Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene," he says — 

" There is yet a fourth, standing by the cross, near as the 
others, Mary Magdalene. She had been known in early life by a 
far different course from that of her companions, by a notoriety 
which has clung to her name through all ages. She is known 
as ' the sinner from the city ; ' so imclean that seven devils 
had entered into her. But she had learnt to loathe her sin, 
and had knelt at the feet of Jesus, washing them with her 
lears, and wiping them with the hairs of her head, once the 
snares of accursed love, but now offered to Him Who in mercy 
had drawn her to Himself, to love Him only. She had heard 
Him pronoimce her forgiveness, and from that hour had cleaved 
to Him as the life and joy of her soul, and followed, ministering 
to Him of her substance. She is the pattern of all those who, 
having fallen and become dead in trespasses and sins, have 
heard in the depths of their souls the voice of (rod calling 
them, and have torn themselves from their entanglements in 
which they were bound, and sought a perfect cleansing 
through His redeeming love in following His holy ways, 
giving themselves, and all they have, to Him." 

The work which Canon Carter began in the House of 
Mercy, Clewer, for penitents, did not end there. The Sisters 
now numbered hundreds, and their work has extended into 
many parts, both in England and abroad, and is of different 
kinds to meet different needs. The following list will give 
some idea of the extent of their beneficent operations, and 
the perpetuation of their founder's influence : — 

^ Gh. viL 47. See Qutobiflgs, "Sermon Sketches" (Longmans), 
second series, p. 17^ 



96 CLEIVER WORKS AND INSTITUTIONS. 

St. John's Home, Clewer. Established in 1885. A 
Home and Industrial School for girls of respectable parent- 
age, accommodating 68 children. 

St. Andrew's Convalescent Home, Clewer. Established 
in 1861, with beds for 85 men, women, and children. 

St. Andrew's Almshouses. Opened in 1868, for poor 
ladies. 

St. Stephen's College, Clewer St Stephen. Established 
in 1867. A Private Boarding-school for the daughters of 
gentlemen. 

St, Stephen's High School for Girls. Begun 1881. A 
boarding-house is attached. 

St. Stephen's Mission, Clewer St. Stephen. Comprises 
National School for boys, girls and infants, and an Inter- 
mediate School for girls ; and mission work is extensively 
carried on. 

St. Augustine's Home for Boys, Clewer. 

St. John Baptist's School, 105, King Henry's Eoad, 
South Hampstead, for daughters of gentlemen. 

St. Barnabas' Orphanage and Industrlax School, 6, 7, 
and 8, Bloomfield Place, Pimlico, S.W; with branch at 
Chislehurst, for 70 orphans to be trained for service. 

St. Barnabas' Mission, 17, Pimlico Eoad, Pimlico, S.W. 
Mission work among the poor, Sunday-schools, Guilds, etc. 

The Eefuge, 21, Commercial Eoad, Pimlico, S.W., for the 
reception of fallen women ; and at 23, Commercial Eoad, for 
higher-class penitents. 

Home of the Good Shepherd, Leytonstone. Established 
1861. For 65 girls and children to be trained for service. 

All Saints' Home, Hawley, Blackwater, Hants. Opened 
1881. Same as last-named. 

School for Church Embroidery, 72, Gower St., W.C. A 
Home for girls who earn their living by Church embroidery. 

The House of Charity, Greek St., Soho, W. Established 
1864. For the temporary relief of the homeless. 

St. Albans' Mission, 26, Gray's Inn Eoad, Holbom, W.C. 
Work among the poor and sick. Night Schools, Bible Classes, 
Guilds, etc., etc. 

All Hallow's Mission, 127, Union St., Borough, S.E. 
Work commenced in 1875 amongst the poorest in London. 
Similar to the one above. 

The Home for Working Girls, 47, 48, 49, Nelson 
Square, Blackfriars Eoad, S.E. Begun 1880. Accommodate^ 
70 girls. 



PENITENTIARY WORK, 97 

St. Fridbswide's Mission House, Lodore St., Poplar, E. 
Mission work begun in connection with the Christ Church 
Mission, Oxford, in 1882. 

St. Mary's, 35, Vincent Square, Westminster. Mission 
work amongst the poor, begun in 1890. Bible Classes, Girls' 
Clubs, Sunday-schools, Band of Hope, etc. In 1893 the 
Sisters working here at the request of the Major-General 
of the Home district undertook the visiting of ''Married 
Quarters," Brigade of Guards at Chelsea, Wellington, the 
Tower, Windsor Barracks, and Caterham. 

House of Mercy, North Hill, Highgate, N. Penitentiary 
for fallen women. Undertaken in 1901. 

The Oxford Penitentiary, Manor House, Holywell, 
Oxford. Carried on under the same rule as at Clewer. 

House of Mercy, Bovey Tracey, Newton Abbot, Devon. 
Founded in 1863. A home for fallen women to accommodate 
90 penitents to be trained for domestic service. 

Mission House, Bovey Tracey, Newton Abbot, Devon, 
where the Sisters carry on work among the poor. A mission 
house was built in 1879, and a branch mission was opened 
at Bovey Heathfield in 1889. 

St. Eaphael's Home, Torquay. Established 1866. A 
Convalescent Home for Women. 

St. Luke's Home, Torquay. Established in 1883, for 
men patients. 

St. Barnabas' Home, Torquay. Established in 1892, for 
incurable and permanent patients, men and women. 

Cyprus, a small addition to the above for patients not so 
helpless. 

St. Lucy's Home of Charity, Hare Lane, Gloucester. 
Girls are here trained for service. There is also an incurable 
ward for women and children. 

Newark House, Hempstead. A training home for girls 
exposed to evil influences. 

St. Lucy's Free Hospital for Children of the Poor, 
Gloucester. 

St. Andrew's* Convalescent Home, East Cliff, Folke- 
stone. Established in 1875, for 130 patients. 

St. Eanswythe's Mission, Folkestone, where, since 1875, 
the Sisters have carried on various mission works under the 
clergy of the parish. 

St. Saviour's Mission, Folkestone. Work amongst ex- 
clusively poor people in a large parish. 

St. John Baptist Mission, Newport, Mon. Begun in 

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CHAPTER VI. 

THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 

Mr. Cabtee's first great work, besides his parish work, is to 
be found in that of "Mwcy for the Fallen." The Peni- 
tentiary really began in 1849 ; the Sisterhood was founded 
in 1852. The one work was not only after the other, but 
also in consequence of the other. We must, even at the 
risk of repetition, mention again the achievement of Mrs. 
Tennant in taking into her own house girls from the worst 
quarter of a garrison town, and the zealous service of the 
Eev. Wellington Johnson, better known now as the late Arch- 
deacon Purse, who combined with Eton duties some of the 
labours of an additional curate, and took the deepest interest 
in what may be called the venture of Mrs. Tennant, as after- 
wards he was always interested in everything to do with 
penitentiary work. We also are informed that Mrs. Tennant, 
after resigning the care of her refuge, first in Clewer village, 
and after on Clewer Hill, continued some form of rescue 
work in Bier Lane, Windsor. It was about this time the 
germ of this great Sisterhood appeared in the persons of Mrs. 
Monsell, the future Sister Elizabeth, and Sister Ellen. It 
was foimd impossible to cope with the increase of peniten- 
tiary work without trained oversight in the House of Mercy, 
or rather in that part of it which then existed. We have 
letters which describe the immense powers for work which 
Mr. Carter possessed, and how love for God and man set 
them in motion. He worked in his parish, or was writing 
in his study, frqm 8 a.m. to 6 p.m. daily, when he had a meat 



loo THE PURPOSE OF THE SISTERHOOD. 

tea. This was soon done, and he went off quickly after it 
to the House of Mercy, coming home at 9, or later. He 
did this latter when far advanced in life, but he was 
always supposed to come home to dine at 7 or 7.30, yet, 
through pressure of work, he was frequently later. Not- 
withstanding the burdens of his life, and notwithstanding 
his absorption in spiritual work, always serious, and often 
sad, his face was like a sunbeam when he entered the family 
circle or joined his guests. His work was evidently his joy. 
He could write or revise proofs, whilst at tea, and in the 
midst of conversatioD, perfectly undistracted. 

About this time, when the penitents still attended the 
parish church services, and had no chapel of their own, the 
Sector was engaged in forming a new hymn-book, which was 
used until it was supplanted by '' Ancient and Modem.'' As 
to the order of events, Mr. Carter writes — 

'' It should be observed that we did not plan the formation 
of a Sisterhood and then seek a work for it ; but the work 
came to us to be done, and a Sisterhood was the only prac- 
ticable instrument for carrying it on." 

It is probable that in the case of other Sisterhoods the 
order of events was much the same. It is our English 
way of doing things, for the practical element is commonly 
stronger than the devotional in the English character. More- 
over, it must be remembered that a Sisterhood was a novel 
idea at this date, and, by means of utility, had to justify its 
existence in our land. Dr. Pusey said of Sisterhoods about 
tfbif^ time^- 

" Why should we not also, instead of our desultory visiting 
societies, have our bcbutb de la cJiaritS, where spotless and 
religious purity might be their passport amid the scenes of 
misery and loathsomeness, carrying that awe about them 
which even sin feels towards undefiledness, and impressing 
a healthful sense of shame upon guilt by their very presence ? 
Why should marriage alone have its duties among the 
daughters of the great, and the single estate be condemned 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. loi 

to an unwilling listlessness, or left to seek, undirected and 
unauthorized and unsanctified, ways of usefulness of its own ? " 

Yet we regard penitentiary work rather as the occasio than 
eatisa of the Sisterhood. We have early traces as to Mr. 
Carter's mind about the Beligious Life. " One deep calleth 
another" — the deep of sin and wickedness in penitentiary 
work — to the height of hoUness and religious bliss. The 
vision of a higher dedication was not only as an instrument 
for creating and calling forth " shame upon guilt/' but as a 
higher service to God. He had before him a vision of a life 
of holiness, apart from the distractions of the world and the 
ordinary conditions of human existence ; a life caring " for 
the things of the Lord," "holy both in body and spirit." 
Thus, in the forefront of the Constitutions of the Community 
of St. John Baptist, stands the Warden's conception of what 
a Sister's life should be — 

" The Community of St. John Baptist is instituted for 
the promotion of the honour and worship due to Almighty 
God for the cultivation of the counsels and graces which 
He has taught as the way of perfection, and for active 
service, both in spiritual and corporal works of mercy. The 
Sisters voluntarily offer themselves to Almighty God, that 
through the sacramental power of a life thus dedicated to Him 
in poverty, charity, and obedience, they may in lowliness, 
detachment, and hiddeuness of heart, cherish Christ in them- 
selves, and reveal Him to others, after the example of St. John 
Baptist, that He in them may increase, while the ' self-life ' 
decreases, ever seeking to bear witness to the true Light, even 
' the Lamb of Grod that taketh away the sins of the world. ' " 

Thus a motto of the Community is, "Dlum oportet 
crescere, me autem minui." 

Any one who has read Mr. Carter's "Life of Bishop 
Armstrong" wiU remember how in those pages there is a 
sort of dim foreshadowing of what came actually into exist- 
ence at Clewer — "Warden, Sub-warden, Sisters, Statutes, 
visitatorial power of Bishop of the Diocese, etc." In later 



102 THE ''RELIGIOUS LIFE^ 

days Canon Carter published a series of addresses which had 
been delivered before the Sisters in the Chapel of the Institu- 
tion, in which he clearly set forth what was in his mind as 
to a Sister's vocation. The book is entitled ''Spiritual 
Instructions on the Beligious life." In the preface of the 
book he is careful to explain that the technical expression, 
"Religious Life/' does not necessarily imply superiority of 
religiousness, bat '' a life of rule and devotion, unlike that 
of ordinary social life, founded wholly on religion, and 
directed wholly to religious ends." Among the sixteen 
addresses wiU be found '' The Principles of the Beligious 
Life," "The Sealing," "The Inner Spirit," the Laws of 
"Obedience," "Purity," "Chastity," "The Virgin State," 
etc. The author is careful to tell his readers what not to 
expect in this volume, viz. that be does not treat the subject 
"scientifically," or "under a strict theological aspect" He 
was no student of the Schoolmen, nor did he concern himself 
with subtle distinctions or too finely drawn definitions ; but 
he would be master of devotional and practical considerations, 
and impart to his teaching touches of spiritual power and 
beauty, uplifting and entrancing those whose hearts were 
prepared to receive his teaching. 

We remember Mr. Carter at the Church Congress at 
Stoke-on-Trent in 1875, when, speaking on " Woman's work 
in the service of the Church," he gave a full definition of 
" what a Sisterhood is." He said — 

" A Sisterhood, as distinguished from other kinds of asso- 
ciated communities of women, implies a vocation to live and 
work wholly and undividedly for God, as a permanent state ; 
an aptitude for devotion and useful service ; a religious rule ; 
fellowship in prayer and work, binding aU together ; a grada- 
tion of offices with recognized authority ; rights and customs 
carefully guarded; and a systematic way of adapting the 
capacities and dispositions of the different members of the 
Community to the necessities of the work undertaken. The 
organization becomes complete when through the Bishop's 
sanction the seal of the blessing of the Church is set 
upon it." 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 103 

It will be observed in this very clear and detailed descrip- 
tion of the religious vocation and religious work that Mr. 
Carter's idea in founding a Sisterhood, whilst training the 
Sisters in the pathway of holiness, was also that the best 
Christian work may be done by them for the sinful, suffering, 
necessitous. 

" Sisterhood work, therefore, realizes the highest idea of 
Christian work, for it is founded on self-sacrifice, and sacrifice 
is the noblest principle of work. It is also dependable and 
constant, because a Sister's service is a lifelong dedication to 
God, and as love to her Lord induces a woman to become a 
Sister, her work is thoroughly animated by love, and love 
gives to Christian work its overmastering power and attractive 
influence." 

Mr. Carter united with his great devotional power a very 
practical turn of mind, and kept a practical aim before him 
in the revival of the Beligious life. It has often been said 
that there was a difference between him and Dr. Pusey in 
this respect. We cannot say how far this was true, but we 
do know from his own lips that he had no intention of form- 
ing an enclosed or contemplative order, when an idea of this 
kind was at one time suggested as a development within the 
Sisterhood. It may be explained that there are differences 
amongst religious orders, and these as regards both means and 
enefo. Mr. Carter wished to revive in the English Church 
the " common " or " social " life. He did not aim at estab- 
lishing a contemplative order, but a life partly contemplative 
and partly active — ^what the French call me mixte—& blending 
of the elements of Mary and Martha. Such a life, one full 
of external works of mercy and the like, and not entirely 
shut off from intercourse with relations and the outer world, 
though a considerable time daily to be devoted to prayer — 
offices, meditation, intercession, and the like — is still described 
as an active life. It was not Mr. Carter's way to turn to 
foreign ideals either in quest of technical distinctions or for 
models in forming a rule. Without being at all insular, he 
greatly appreciated English character and English ideas, and 



104 A LIFE-LONG DEDICATION. 

desired that these should be retained and transformed by 
grace, as a solid and sterling raw material capable of true 
spiritual greatness. He was not attracted by things or 
practices simply because they were foreign, but rejoiced in 
the development of the latent capacities of his own Commu- 
nion. We know from his habits and from his library that 
foreign books of devotion and theology were not much studied 
by him. But he had great admiration and reverence for the 
Saints, in whatever district of the Church they were produced. 
In the early history of the Clewer Community the ques- 
tion of vows was one which very much occupied Mr, Carter^s 
attention ; and also that of parental permission. The follow- 
ing letters written to an old personal friend, and the oldest 
surviving member of the Council, showed Mr. Carter's mind 
in 1863 in regard to vows, and exhibit what has always 
seemed to be a marked feature of his character : — 

"January 2, 1863. 

"My dbab H , 

" I will write without reserve on this, as I could 
on any subject to you ; and you are quite free to make any 
use you like of my reply to this question. The rule which 
says no vow or engagement is to be understood by the service 
which confirms a Sister, but only an obligation of obedience 
while in the Sisterhood, is read out to the Sisters once a week, 
and the service itself is also clear on the same point. If, 
then, as is alleged against us, we impress on the Sisters the 
idea of ' a vow, or insert dedication,' we should be ourselves 
liars, and make all the Sisters liars, and place ourselves and 
them in this enviable position weekly. There is, indeed, 
hand fide no such thing done, or attempted to be done. But 
I will tell you what may not unnaturally have given rise to 
such an imputation. 

'' It has always been the feeling of the Sisters that their 
purpose and conviction is a lifelong dedication of themselves. 
I never knew any one during the last ten or twelve years 
apply to be admitted who did not view what she believed to 
be her calling of God in this light. We have no need to 
teach it, if we desired to do so. They assume it as a pre- 
liminary ; that if thought worthy to be a Sister at all, it must 
be for life. They have taught it me, not I them. The idea 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST 105 

of going back and returning to the world, mairying, etc., is 
thought an impossibility by every one of them, 

''No case has arisen of such thinking otherwise. If it 
should arise, I feel that the mind of the Sisters is such that 
they would not vote for one who was thus, as they would 
think, half-hearted. The idea of being a Sister for a time, 
and then going away to be as though she had never been a 
Sister, is foreign to the animus of the whole body, and to 
the view of a Sisterly mind, as it is understood. 

" But, then, observe this. It is equally strongly felt by 
the Sisters, and ia taught both by the Superior and myself, 
that if any real call of distress should arise in the Sister's 
home, a real gap which none but herself can fill, and the 
matter becomes a real call of duty, that then the Sister is 
bound to leave the Sisterhood and go home. She would, 
however, still regard herself as a Sister, and be doing a 
Sister's work, and leading a Sister's life, in her home as 
before in the Sisterhood. She would not only be free to go, 
but would be felt right in going under such circumstances. 
Observe the true view of their dedication of themselves to a 
devoted life, as God may call them : in the Sisterhood^ if no 
more constraiuing call arise ; to return and serve God at home, 
if such a call should come. The question of going under such 
circumstances is left to the Sister's own conscience. So far 
from anything being done or said to fetter or overrule her 
conscience on such a point, we should all, as I say, encourage 
her to follow it. If this answer does not satisfy your question, 
will you let me hear agaia ? 

" You may have heard of what I urged at the Oxford 
Congress about the permanence of a Sister's dedication. I 
meant what I have here said. I was charged with wishing 
for vows. I do not so wish or think it practicable, and 
doubt of its expedience if practicable, vows, i.e., as binding to 
a community and made the security of permanency, but 
I meant simply that the animibs of a Sister, as I understand 
St. Paul to say, is for good and all. 

" Your ever affectionate 

" T. T. C." 

It was at this time the shadow of a great sorrow fell upon 
the founder of " Clewer " by the death of his mother, '* pre- 
served far beyond ' the days of our age ' with undiminished 
faculties and the untiring solicitude of early love." To this 



/ 



io6 THE QUESTION OF THE VOW. 

his friend alluded in his reply to the above letter, and Mr. 
Garter rejoined — 

<' CUiwet Bectory, January 19, 1863. 

"My deab H , 

** Thank you for your kind words. It has been 
the first great loss I ever knew, but after so long a period of 
such blessing as I (we) have had with my dearest mother 
so near at hand, the thankfulness of what has been given 
exceeds. My father is comfortably cheerful. I am afraid 
I complicated matters by speaking of the vote. My thought 
in doing so was to show that the question rested with the 
Sisters themselves, and depended on their own mind, the 
power in their own hands. But I do not see the difficulty 
which appears to you. Granted that the Sisters have such 
an animus, their vote would of course follow their animus. 
They would only vote for one who comes up, as they suppose, 
to tlieir standard. But their voting for one, because they 
have such a view of the Sister's life, does not bind the one 
they vote for. 

" But I do not see how this voting sets aside the Statute, 
etc. The stated Eule leaves them free to depart if their 
mind ever change. All that we have to guard against is the 
possibility of a Sister being constrained to stay by any 
outward bond pressing on her when her own conscience leads 
her to go. This is the evil j?£a .YOW^thaLit-ia-aJaQnd. bejopd 
the conscience, whicE remains aifter the mind has changed, 
which is then a shackle hindering free action. There is 
nothing of this. Should any Sister at any time feel called 
by some more constraining duty, or change her mind as to 
the life, she is able fully to depart. 

'' It appears to me that we have now just what is most 
desired, an animus to remain devoted, and likely to be a 
permanent animus; and at the same time full power to go, 
if ever the animus in any case changes ; and though, if a 
Sister left for a light cause, she would go under the reproach 
of the others ; if she went for a real, advisable cause, she 
would go with the consentient feeling of the others. We 
should not wish our Sisters to be an unsettled body, though, 
on the other side, we should not wish to see it a fettered 
and enslaved body. The matter so seems to me. I should 
like to know what your further thoughts may be. 

" Ever your affectionate 

"T.T. C." 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 107 

Oar bishop knows exactly how our Sisters feel and 
think, and sees no incongruity between it and the rulea 

We have the following letter of further explanation on 
this subject : — 

''Eton College. 

" My dear H , 

" You mistake my meaning when I said, ' They 
have taught me, not I them.' I meant the same as if one 
said, ' A medical man is taught by his patients.' He gains 
by studying medicine in hospitals on living subjects what he 
would never learn of his own mind or from books. In the 
same way, led as I was to be concerned in Sisterhoods, I 
have learnt what I know by bringing the best judgment 
I could form in experience of the actual lives of Sisters, 
learning the practice of Sisters' life by work among Sisters, 
as the medical man among patients. 

" This explanation may answer your question, ' Whether 
they would instil the same view of a Sister's life on the 
Probationers.' There is, indeed, no such attempt made, no 
such teaching. It is simply that Probationers come with a 
similar view of giving themselves to the life as their life, if 
they are found useful, etc. They come without any idea of 
anything than remaining, as I said, unless some home call 
should require them. 

" The difficulty you feel is * of one rejected because her 
animus does not come up to that of the election.' Such a 
case has never arisen. Persons who can only be free to help 
for a time are welcomed, but they do not ask to be Sisters. 
I do not suppose the case you put ever can arise. It is not, 
in the case of a club which makes an additional private 
restriction beyond the rules, — it is not that the Sisters make 
this new private rule, but that in this and all like Houses, 
those who come, come with the same mind that those have 
who are here. They do not, I think, set aside the rule which 
says they are free, but only view this freedom cls intended to 
enable them to leave if some call of superior duty come. I 
shall be glad if any explanation I can give may clear away 
doubts in one so generously true as you have been. 

" Ever your afiTectionate 

"T.T. 0." 

In these letters we can trace ideas which have made 



io8 DIFFICULTIES ABOUT DISPENSATION. 

" Clewer " to be what it is ; the idea of an absolute, entire, 
abiding self-oblation to the service of God from the first 
possessed Mr. Carter's mind ; to become a Sister needed a 
distinct vocation, a call to the viigin-Ufe. The essence of 
a vowed life was clearly grasped by him ; but, as may be seen 
from the above correspondence, the external act of taking a 
vow at a particular time and place was a gradual attainment. 

''The question of vows has been a most anxious one. 
They have always, almost from the very commencement of 
Eeligious Communities, been identified with them. They 
may be periodical or lifelong, renewable or permanent. In 
either case, the principle is much the same as to their 
obligations, while they last. The Clewer Community began 
without vows, but under the idea of the life itself implying 
a permanent dedication. Bishop Wilberforce was strong 
against vows. His ground was that he could not dispense 
them." 

This, we believe, was a mistake, at least so far as 
" simple " vows were concerned. Other bishops entertained 
the same notion of inability to give release. A lady, not a 
Sister, who had taken a vow, and years after wanted to be 
married to a Church dignitary, sought, through the inter- 
vention of a priest, to get a dispensation. He tried three 
bishops ; the two first not only declared that they had no 
power in the matter, but found serious fault with the priest 
for advising the lady to take such a vow, which, as he had 
nothing to do with her taking it, was not pertinent; the 
third gave a sort of dispensation, nervously guarded, and — 
they were married. When the " Clewer Eule was formed, 
the bishop insisted on its being inserted in the forefront that 
the Community was formed without vows. It was not long 
before Sisters came who desired to take vows, in the con- 
sciousness that they would be a support to their life and 
a true expression of a religious vocation. As soon as these 
cases occurred, the bishop was consulted." This was the 
principle upon which the Community of St. John Baptist 
acted in everything. Mr. Carter was accustomed from the 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 109 

bj^iiming to be entirely open with him. Mr. Garter said, 
*^ I see no reason to refuse them/' and " the bishop left me 
free to do as I thought welL" But to the end of the con- 
nection of Bishop Samuel Wilberforce with the Community 
as the '' Visitor/' he would never allow the slightest change 
in the provisions of the Bule, but would have it framed as 
at the first. ''The consequences were very trying. The 
Sisters for years had to hear their Bule read with this 
disclaimer of what many, gradually all, were doing. Ques- 
tions were continually being asked how to reconcile with 
their Bule the Sisters' action." Mr. Carter's reply will have 
already been seen in the above letters. He used to say, 
''while it was true that the Community was formed quite 
independently of vows, that they were not required as a 
Bule, that these were not thought of when the Community 
was formed; yet that 'use and wont' were stronger than 
rule, and that they were now commonly taken as matter of 
free allowance, when desired, and that they were generally 
desired, and that the bishop knew of it, and left the matter 
thus free." It was most unsatisfactory, but it seemed the best 
that could be done xmder the very awkward circumstancea 
Bishop Mackamess, who succeeded the first Visitor, was a 
man of very different mind, straight and simple as a man 
could be — ^"honest John" as he had been caUed from boy- 
hood — ^not adorned with the splendid gifts of his predecessor, 
but fairer and simpler all roxmd in practical matters, less 
prejudiced, and more open to reasonable considerations, and 
bolder when he saw his way clearly. He was very particular 
as to the age when vows were taken, but he recognized the 
claim. And when some circumstances arose which brought 
the matter before him in its personal bearing, he let the Bule 
be altered, only requiring that express words should be used 
which implied that Sisters freely and voluntarily offered 
themselves, as, indeed, they always had done. There has 
been progress in this as in all other matters. Bishop 
Mackamess's successor. Bishop Stubbs, allowed it to be in- 
serted in the Bule the fact that vows are taken. Practically 



no EARLY SELF-DEDICATION. 

no difference of feeling has arisen in consequence of this 
difference of role. From the first a Sister's profession 
was held to be lifelong, and vows are but the utterance of 
such an intention. Mr. Carter felt the inconsistency between 
the Bule and the practice ; but his gaze was so fixed on the 
essential and interior oblation of the life to God, that we 
venture to say that the absence of any verbal or written 
contract would not be so great a trouble to him as to many. 
Technical or scientific divinity, we repeat, would hardly be 
an attractive study to him; he would seize the essence. 
The life is consecrated ''by means of a promise which is 
made to God." The view of the life in relation to the 
Community or Order, and the necessity of covenant or 
contract, "as between man and man," would, we imagine, 
enter very little into his thoughts. It would be with him, 
" Solus cum solo." 

Two of Canon Carter's writings bring out very clearly his 
convictions about the Beligious Life, written some fifteen 
or eighteen years later in his life. We refer first to a pamphlet 
entitled, "Are Vows of Celibacy in Early Life inconsistent 
with the Word of God?"^ The Bishop of Lincoln, Dr. 
Wordsworth, had laid down the remarkable limit that no one 
under sixty years of age should be allowed to take a vow of 
celibacy ; that is to say, at an age when there would be little 
life left to dedicate to God, and when a vow of celibacy would 
be hardly needed at all. Mr. Carter, not content with demolish- 
ing the bishop's interpretation of 1 Tim. v. 9, by pointing out 
that the " primary object in the enrolment of widows was 
eleemosynary," not a question so much of dedication as of 
becoming an almswoman — ^the view, as Mr. Carter remarks, 
taken by such an unprejudiced authority in this matter as 
Smith's Dictionary — ^the Warden of Clewer fills twenty-four 
pages with setting forth clearly what the Holy Scriptures 
teach about vows, particularly in St. Matt. xix. and 1 
Cor. vii. He points to our Lord's virgin life and that of His 

1 1878. 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. in 

Mother as stitnalating examples, and adds, '' The viigin life 
is not instituted, indeed, Uke marriage, as a law of nature, to 
be sanctified by grace ; but it is announced as a special gift 
of grace, to be impressed upon nature, in those who are able 
to receive it." 

Mr. Carter, in argument, has a way of cutting off a retreat 
from his antagonist. He does this here. '^ It is important for 
the argument to make clear that when the Apostle speaks 
of the virgin state being 'good for the present distress,' this 
expression, according to the most approved interpretation, 
is not to be understood as limited to any temporary troubled 
condition of society." Mr Carter quotes St. Augustine as 
putting quite a different Ught upon the passage, and to him 
may be added St. Jerome, St Chrysostom, and St. Anselm ; 
still the words are rather obscure. 

The other published source from which may be gathered 
Mr. Carter's mind on the Eeligious life is a volume to 
which we have already referred, with that title which was 
brought out in 1879. Yet, although it runs into one hundred 
and sixty-seven pages, it hardly gives so much definite infor- 
mation as the pamphlet which we have just quoted. "The 
Beligious life " is a work which consists of a series of addresses 
delivered to the Sisters. They are in the style of meditations, 
full of beauty, a portrait of what a Sister's life ought to be. 
In these addresses a high strain of devotional thoughts and 
affections is maintained. Perhaps a secular mind passing 
judgment upon the book, would say with Bishop Samuel 
WUberforce, " Mr. Carter is much upstairsy His meditations, 
to use plain terms, often ran up into contemplation. Thus 
he is speaking of religious growth — 

"Keep the Blessed Vision of your Lord steadily before 
your eyes. While you gaze on this Vision as the standard 
and pattern of your inward life, you cannot but be faithful. 
Cherish earnestly, therefore, this inward grace of contempla- 
tion of the Sacred Form into which your life is to be 
moulded. And this not merely at stated times of meditation, 
when you have gone apart from outward things, and ordinary 



112 '*A JOY BEYOND ALL EARTHLY JOYr 

claims upon your attention are suspended ; but as a habit, 
feeding upon it, thinking, speaking, acting in the power of the 
contemplation till it b^mes a second nature, for the soul, 
however busily employed, may be ever looUng at Jesus, 
ever listening to Him, ever joyous in embracing the impres- 
sions through which, whether consciously or not, the growing 
Likeness is being ingrained into the substance of the soul, 
whilst yet its plastic activities are going forth in appointed 
duties." 

With a wondrous power Canon Carter could scale the 
heights of spiritual life and attainments, and, on the other 
hand, explore the depths of sin and wretchedness. The follow- 
ing letters were written to those who were already Sisters or 
about to embrace theBeligious life. 

The following prayer was written for a young lady who 
had drawings towards the Beligious life, and subsequently 
became a Sister of Mercy. It was composed in the 
year 1858 :— 

" Eternal Lord, I bow myself before Thee. I adore Thee 
within my inmost soul. Thee the source of my life: the 
Beginning of my being and its End. Though I see Thee not, 
feel Thee not, I believe that Thou art more truly present to 
me than any of those outward things which I behold. 

"Thou hast called me, O my Lord, and in my inmost 
soul I recognize Thy Voice. What I now feel within me, 
drawing me to more entire devotion, I believe to be of Thee. 
I accept it, O my God ; I embrace it with my affections, with 
adoring, thankful love. Lord, in mercy Thou hast shown 
to me the vision of a joy beyond all earthly joy, a sweetness 
that this world can never give, a love that will draw me into 
inner depths more than any human love I ever knew, a union 
inconceivable, unchangeable, ever increasing, ever absorbing, 
filling all the desires of my mysterious being. 

** Lord, I come to Thee, and I would be wholly Thine. I 
would offer to Thee a pure, an entire offering. I would strip 
myself of all that I must surrender. Oh for a heart willing 
in the day of Thy power, a heart to embrace a Divine life, to 
live on pure, unearthly love. Oh ! Thou Who hast drawn me 
so that I venture to look up to Thee, to be the very husband 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 113 

of my soul. I would give my all, as Thou hast given Thy 
all to me. Accept me thus desiring to come unto Thee. 
Lord, Thou knowest what will come on me, what I shall feel, 
what I shall shrink from, how I shall fear and shrink and 
doubt. But Thou knowest all my weakness, and in weakness 
Thou hast caUed me. The future I commit to Thee, and cast 
the burden of my coming trial wholly on Thee. Give me 
perfect trust. Give me rest in Thy Almighty care, Thy 
xmchanging love. 

" Lord, I need of Thee singleness of heart. Many cares 
and doubts, and fears and wishes, have long distracted me. 
I have been tossed to and fro, drawn hither and thither. 
Thou knowest, Lord. Thou canst pity. If Thou wilt give 
me peaoe, my soul shall bless Thee : but with the utmost 
fervour I implore of Thee a singleness of purpose, a simplicity 
of mind, a trustful heart of love. 

^' To Thee, Lord, I commit myself, and all the thoughts 
and feelings that throng within me. Do Thou as Thou 
wilt, and when Thou wilt : justify in the eyes of others the 
purpose of Thy handmaid, only keep me within the light of 
Thy Presence, and shed around me the shadowing of the 
glory which is to be revealed. Draw me onward, fix me, 
bind me, enthrall me with all that is pure and lovely, and 
saintly and Divine. I would be no longer myself ; but even 
as Thou wilt have me be. I resolve, my God, to seek this 
blessedness, that I may think and speak, and act and endure, 
as Thou wouldest have me. Direct, move, animate, uphold 
every movement of mind and spirit, of heart and understand- 
ing in this perfect union, and give me grace to persevere in 
this resolve, for Thy goodness and tender mercies' sake, my 
Lord, my God. Amen. 

" My Lord, Thou hast called me, hast drawn me to Thy- 
self, to Thy inmost heart, for Thee to rest in me, and I to 
rest in Thee ; and Thou wouldest have a oneness of sympathy, 
a closest union of thought and aim, and love, and desire, and 
resolve, and this must be, my Lord, my God, my loved 
One, to make this union true and real and living. There- 
fore drawn by Thee, and by my own longings, I do yield my 
whole self and lose myself in Thee, and embrace as I am 
embraced, and would melt into Thee as Thou into me, to be, 
God, a perfect oneness. 

"And I desire this, God, to ask of Thee, as Thy gift of 
love, Thy mercy to my soul, and I resolve by Thy grace to 
give myself entirely to Thee, to be Thine only, for ever. Amen. 

I 



114 " WHOM HAVE I IN HEAVEN BUT THEE f" 

' " Eternal and most Blessed God, my own God, Who hast 
sealed me for Thy own, and bound me, unworthy, to Thyself, 
by Thy own will, by Thy love, by signs and Sacraments, and 
die cross upon my brow, and all Thy inspirations of love 
within me, drawing me, and by ever-renewed callings and 
my own renewed self-dedications which were Thy merciful 
inclinings of my will and heart to Thee, my Joy, my Happi- 
ness, my Life. Hear me now when I pray, for to Thee in this 
continued and repeated act, in union with the offering of Thy 
Adorable Son, my Lord, I offer myself, I devote myself as one 
already Thine own, devoted and consecrated by Thine own 
adorable mercy, and Thy choice of me, worthless, unspeaJcably 
unworthy of the least of all Thy mercies as I am, and ever 
must be in myself, unless Thou in me make me acceptable 
to Thee. 

« " And in thus beseeching Thee to accept me, O Lord my 
Gk)d, I earnestly pray of Thee to shed on me ever-renewed 
grace, that I may be holy in body and soul, and thus accept- 
able. Give me to feel the awfulness and mystery of thus 
offering myself more and more, and the solemn call which is 
upon me for increased sanctity, heavenly mindedness, meek- 
ness, obedience, submission of will, patience, faith, love, and 
all supernatural, unearthly giffcs. Give me as Thou hast 
given the desire for them, give me these gifts, endue, con- 
secrate me with these graces. 

" And as I am unworthy, after so many years of wander- 
ing, and vanity, and self-seeking, and wavering, now to seek 
Thee and Thee only, to be fixedly and purely Thine, give me 
grace to wait in patience, while Thy Holy Spirit punfies me 
more and more, to be the meek sacrifice that I desire to be, 
to be duly consecrated to my Lord in soul and body. Give 
me a firm, calm patience to wait as the betrothed waiteth, 
and hath long patience for the object of her love, and to 
whom the waiting is joy and sweetness in the assurance of 
the love of the Beloved, and the certainty that He knoweth 
the heart's love : so give me grace to rest in Him Whom my 
soul adoreth and loveth. Help me to bear meekly for Him 
all delays, all opposition, all La.ck of sympathy, all coldness, 
all hardness, all doubts and suspicions, meekly, holily, un- 
repiningly, that I may be worthier of His love, more like 
Him Whom I would love better than all else — better than 
myself, with a pure, most sacred union of love, and not to 
count the time of waiting long. 

'' Give me grace for His saJce to do my duty to all around 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 115 

me, ungrudgingly, that my Lord may be pleased with me 
and love me more. Give me grace to leave nothing undone^ 
and to be ever ready in daily self-sacrifice, ever to offer my- 
self, doing to others as Thou wouldest have me to do, as unto 
Thee. 

"And, my God, my life, my gracious Father, my 
Eedeemer, Thou, Holy Spirit, my Everlasting Comforter, 
through Whom my Lord is present to me and dwelleth in me, 
and I am one witii Him in Thee, Blessed Trinity, keep my 
inward life as Thy own sacred treasure. Watch over and in 
me. Make me watchful, earnest, unceasing in my struggle 
against sin, cherish in me every true and holy thought, and 
preserve me from falling for the merits of Jesus Christ, 
Amen." 



To a Lady rather Impatient aJxmt Delay. 

" Clewer Rectory, May 28, 1856. 

*' My DEAB , 

"I have been sorry to have delayed so long 
writing to you about yourself. I have been concerned to see 
how much you have been under the influence of wrong feel- 
ings. Your position is a very trying one, and I had hoped 
that what had passed before your return home would have 
had a different effect. It may be brought to pass what you 
long for, in ways that you cannot now see. While you treasure 
the longing which God has given you, you must wait His 
time. As He Who stirred your soul to seek is the same Who 
alone can open the way. You want, I think, this trust, very 
greatly, and you must earnestly seek it. The evident feeling 
3iat you are afraid to resign yourself to circumstances and 
appear at peace, lest it should lessen your hopes of leaving 
home, is a false feeling ; it can make no difference, for it 
must come from God to turn the heart of your father, etc., 
and to open the way. It is sin ; and therefore, whatever the 
consequence, must not be allowed. 

" I think you must dismiss from your mind the thought 
that you can be a Sister as yet. Feel only the hope for the 
present that you will be allowed to come here again for a 
visit, and ask it when you think it would be convenient, 
limiting your hope to that for the present. And do not 
think of more, or desire to talk about (Clewer) to your 
papa. Keep that within your own bosom, and offer it to 



ii6 AN ACT OF SELF-OBLATION 

GkxL Tou can sjpeak freely to others of your own kin, and 
he would hear of it from them. 

"Be very cautious of observing your resolutions on 
Sunday. It is an exercise of patience which Gk)d will accept 
to hear preaching on anything, in the manner of His priests, 
which may yet jar and pain. View it as an exercise of 
patience, and only be anxious to obtain all that you can of 
God through the Service. Tou should not have kept away 
from the personal regard you spoke of. 

" You need not confess all the details again. Tou will 
remember sufficiently the general line and habitual faults, 
the prominent features. That only will be needful. 

'' Cannot you set yourself some home work ? E.g. can you 
translate anything ? I must close now. 

'' Ever your affectionate father, 

"T. T. C. 

" Sister Ellen came home yesterday." 

A Form of Sdf-^iblatum on the Day of Profession. 

" I do here, in the Presence of Qod, accept the call which 
has this day been called upon my soul in eh its fulness, — ^to 
live in the new bonds of spiritual union with my Lord, my 
Life, my Joy, seeing Him in and above all, separate from the 
world, to live and serve those who are dearest to me in the 
flesh, only as one dedicated and set apart to a higher love 
and service. To this, praying for grace to overcome all my 
natural weakness, I give myself with all my heart, desiring 
through the love of my Lord, that this may be a whole and 
undivided offering of myself, and beseeching Him to sustain 
me in this mind in all purity and simplicity, and in con- 
formity with His Blessed Will; even as my Lord, the King 
and Lord of Saints and Virgins, has given me an example in 
His perfect Ufe, through His merits and mediation. Amen." 

The PossHle Need of Sharpness. 

" My dear , 

" On this point there is really little to say. The 
only definite ground of difference is the idea that you are 
too lenient, and that the discipline is not strong enough. I 
cannot tell how this is. But indirectly I gathered the same 
impression from another. I suppose a certain want of sharp- 
ness (in a good sense of the word, if it is allowable) would 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 117 

be likely to be one of your infirmities. No doubt a quick, 
ready, decided, authoritative discipline is needed with children, 
though, of course, with all loving-kindness. God bless you 
always. Think dispassionately and carefully on this point. 
May God specially give you the truest happiness of His new 
grace." 

Two Hesolutians suggested at the Close of a Betreat. 

" I resolve with the help of God these two things : (1) to 
live more in recollection of my union with God, with the view 
of overcoming mere personal or natural feelings that hinder 
me ; (2) to check wanderings in prayers and meditation more 
quickly, to make more devotion, more true to God." 

" WkW)y, September 8. 

"My dearest , 

" I hope you are inwardly in peace, and can com- 
mit all trials to God, and commit the future to Him all trust- 
fully. I am sorry to hear is still so disturbed. I shall 

be anxious to do all I can to quiet her. She has a deep life 

underneath. There is a fancifulness in in these strange 

kinds of dreamings ; she wants the quiet ballast. We go back 
by Greta Bridge and Helmsley. The mother is here ; she is 
very weakly. 

" God bless you, 

"T. T. C. 

, " Cleufer, August 17, 1876. 

" My DEAE , 

" It is not that you are not much in my heart 
that I have not written. But there is much pressure. I 
trust your way is being smoothed, and that you feel a good 
angel, or One better than an angel is helping you on, and 
opening the future. The more you trust, the more it will be ; 
and do not look on anxiously, ' one step enough for me,' and 
in very truthfulness cleave on to duty's call and the all- 
absorbing demand of Divine Love, and you will, dearest 
child, find peace. 

" I have heard from your brother about his child, and I 
have written to him, and to her, and to the mother about it. 

I have begged Mr. to bear in mind her profession, so 

as not to press overmuch for her staying away. I am afraid 
of things drifting on, so that her religious life should be 



118 BLESSING THROUGH TRIALS 

endangered Tonr work with the dear children will be well 
cared for, with every child, by those whom you have loved 

and trained for it. Tell dear her Altar is cared for as 

she would wish, and her traditions kept. Gbd will give you 
all needful strength. 

" Ever yours, 

"T. T. C." 

** Ckwer Redory, Windsor, Deemher 20, 1876. 

"My DBAB , 

" I would that I could see you before Christmas 
— ^the only year since we met that this has failed, save when 
Gk)d took one away for a time; now He has taken you. 
But I hope to go and see you before long. You will keep on 
trustfully, will you not ? liviug from day to day, enough to 
see the steps onward as they open— the one thought of 
giving glory to Gkxi as you seek to bring all things under 
you into more and more accordance with His purposes, and 
knowing the instruments cannot but be imperfect, and to be 
borne with by you as they are by Him, and feeling each thing 
gained to be cause for thankfulness, and each thing left imper- 
fect a cause for prayer ; and believing that He can work for 
Himself under things which are yet very imperfect and faulty. 

" May you have a bright and blessed Christmas, and sdl 

with you, and especially . They tell me God has given 

you increased strength, and that you can do more. This is a 
blessing. May He give you a yet greater one in renewing 
your Profession, advancing you in maturity in His love and 
His work for souls, and for perfecting His elect — ^yourself to 
be perfected that you may lead others. 

" What will become of poor ? I hope all was done 

that could be done to draw her back. We must pray for her 
to be led rightly. 

«T. T. C." 

•* February 16, 1877. 

*'My DBAB , 

" I have heard of your trials ; but how, without 
trials, could there be any chastening or any drawing out of 
the higher principles and powers of the better life, and how 
give glory to God, and how gain further grace ? And you 
have been blessed, dearest cMld, through these trials, I am 
sure, and by the grace of God have been enabled to rise 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 119 

above them. I am hoping to see you in the coarse of Lent, 
and all the Sisters. 

^ Ever yours, 

"T. T. C." 

" My DEAE , 

*' All truest blessings be with you and the Sisters 
with you. I earnestly trust you may know the outward as 
well as the inward brightness. There is no more happy 

time, and you may live in the joy of it Dear came 

back to be at home this evening after three months' absence. 

*' Yours, 

"T. T. C." 

•« Whit Monday, 1877. 

" My DEAB , 

" I am sorry if my letter tried you. I think she 
settled right at last. She hardly realized the circumstances. 
. . . That was a sad outbreak. But do not dwell on it. 
Such things are to keep us humble, if possible. Yes, God 
leaves certain infirmities, faults even, in the good ; and this 
good Sister may have suffered sore and long for her giving 
way. I fear some of those mixed results of body and spirit 
acting on each other are more trying than we are at all 

aware of. Good dear Dr. , one feels his difficulties in 

the questions which must arise for one in his responsible 
position, and I honour him for his simple truth. It is a 
troublous time, but I do not see that the Judgment can ever 
be accepted by the Church, but must some day be reversed 
by the action of the Church. 

^'He need have had at least no such scruples in our 
chapels, to which the new methods of law do not apply. 

" Ever yours, etc., 

"T. T. C." 

" VerUnor. 

"My DEAE , 

" I remain here till the Retreat. It is very quiet 
and pretty, and delightful walks — flowers and shrubs most 
flourishing, and the colours are beautiful. You have heard 

of our sorrow; dear suddenly apprised that she has 

cancer. I went to see her on Monday. It will be a very 



I20 INCREASE OF A " TERRIBLE CALAMITY,'' 

grievous cloud of distress, happily not now much pain, and the 
hope that there may not be much. What a mysterious in- 
crease there is in this terrible calamity I I went the other 

day to Manchester to see , who is sinking under it, 

having had two operations, and another not possible. 

" I am so glad, my dear , that your present home 

looks brighter to you. My heart has been with yours in 
feeling the trial, and have shrank from it for you. I sought 
to look at it all round, and there seemed no way to doubt 
but that it was the Will of God, and a sphere in which you 
had so many qualifications for glorifying Him in it, that 
though feeling tried about it, still I am at rest in the thought 
that you will be blessed in your service there ; it is a very 
momentous one, and you will yourself advance in strength, 
I feel sure, and be at last able to say that it has been good 
to have been there. Do not scruple to be firm, and have 
confidence in what Gkxi shows you. You need not fear, 
acting lovingly and kindly; for Gk)d has surely given you 
this grace, and speaking the truth in love, you will persuade 
and win others to God, and by love rule hearts. 

" Your loving 

«T. T. C." 

" BaheweU. 

" My DEAB , 

"I felt it would be a trial — so much that is 
different and uncongenial. But you will feel the good after- 
wards. It is a blessing to have the opportunity of this 
endurance, bracing up the will, etc. It is the fulfilment of 
many a wish of your own, which can only be carried out 
through outward changes. It is the inward life maintaining 
itself, and holding on through these changes that secure 
progress, elevation, and power, and closer union. Better go to 
after three weeks. I mean not to let a month pass with- 
out confession when within your reach. Go quite simply, not 
mentioning more than definite facts and wrong feelings that 
lasted any time. We came here yesterday, and stay a week 
with the B.'s. Very pretty and quiet in a varied valley, 
half up the side of the hill. Haddon Hall is in the distance 
down the valley. My plan is to go to Whitby and stay there. 
May God give you peace and put away all evil and special 
faults. Try especially to put away despondency and im- 
patience, and guard forbearance and humility, and feel, ' I 
am among you as one that serveth.' * The Son of Man came 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST 121 

not to be ministered unto, but to minister and give His life a 
ransom for many.' 

" His blessings be with you, 

" T. T. C." 



A Meditation on the wards, " If thou wUt he perfect, 
sell all that thou hast, etc'* 

''The infinite distance between God and the redeemed 
creature struggling to rise and return to Him : (jod alone 
desiring this hS» return ; yearning after him ; stretching forth 
to win him ; preparing an innermost place of Bliss and Peace 
for him in His own Bosom. 

'' The soul responds to the blessed call and seeks to rise. 
Along the infinite interval separating her from God, the soul 
begins to move upwards : she fulfils natural duties, follows 
the first pure instincts of nature, feels the joy of conforming 
to the earliest laws of her life without fear and shame and 
constraint, or consciousness of sin — a blessed childhood, free, 
imburdened, full of hope ; life advances ; other duties respon- 
sibilities, calls of service, arise. The commandments of God 
become more constraining ; their depth, their breadth, open 
before the eyes. Temptations come ; evil stirs within : passion 
becomes strong ; and many thoughts and desires pass to and 
fro through the soul. It is a time of struggle, and fear, and 
weakness, and falling . . . the grace of God prevails ; His 
inward voice is secretly heard ; the beauty of the law of love, 
of purity, a^d obedience, is perceived more and more. The 
soul strives ; she seeks to follow each path of duty as it opens. 
There have been marrings and imperfections and fallings, 
but more and more the soul has risen towards her God. 

" * All these things have I kept from my youth up ; what 
lack I yet ? ' An inner light dawns upon the soul's vision. A 
Form of Beauty unutterable appears ; a Voice of power and 
constraining love is heard such as was never heard before ; 
the melodies of heaven are faintly arising ; a Face, a form of 
various loveliness, begin to come forth and fill the circles of 
light, one within the other. * If thou wUt be perfect, go and 
sell all that thou hast and give to the poor, and thou shalt 
have treasure in heaven, and come and follow me.' 

" UnspeiJkable desires are stirred within the soul, the 
springing up of fountains of hope out of depths unfathomable. 
Drawings from blessed creatures, thoughts, instincts of union 
with the Sacred Form — the express image of God, the Incarnate 



122 DANGER OF RELAPSE. 

One, felt pressiDg on the soul ; an eternity of Bliss in perfect 
fulness of joy begins to be revealed. 

** The soul sinks beneath the weight, fears arise, its weak- 
ness trembles at the cost, * Sell all Uiat thou hast, and take 
what I give;' 'cast the earthly treasure away, and the 
treasure of the heavenly thou shalt find/ 

" Lord ! my Lord 1 my soul's life, the end of my being, 
the Beauty after which my soul longeth, the Everlasting 
Fulness, the only Best, only satisfying of the soul, in Whom 
Alone all other love unites, all duty ends, all joy becomes 
imperishable, help me, counting the cost, to rise yet again, 
higher and higher, till I am perfected in Thee. 

'' Collect. — God, Who makest all things profitable to them 
that love Thee, grant to our hearts an invincible power of 
love, that the desires which have been conceived by Thine 
inspiration may not be changed by anything opposed to it, 
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen." 



A Meditation, 

" ' I have somewhat against thee because thou hast left 
thy first love' — the love which was kindled in my soul 
when the first deep impression was received, when my soul 
chose Thee for its portion. 

" Can such love decline ? In the midst of trials and labour 
feelings are awakened, irritation produced ; old faults revive 
under new forms, infirmities remaining, and then aroused 
into activity ; love, a supernatural gift, then often is over- 
borne, or it has not been cherished, and without cherishing 
it declines. Love sustains not its own flame ; it needs to be 
fed and fostered. It is given to be tested and disciplined by 
use, and cherished by exercises of devotion and sacrifice and 
meditation. 

" The Saints of Ephesus failed in this their first love ; the 
love of their espousals had declined. Has mine declined ? 
Has anything come between me and God, between me and 
my Lord, Who has wooed and won me, and to Whom I am 
bound for ever. * I will come unto thee quickly and remove 
thy candlestick out of its place;' the soul's inward light 
removed, its place in the sanctuary lost. 

" Does not St. Paul say the same : ' Though I speak with 
the tongues of men and of angels, and have not charity, I am 
become as sounding brass or a tinkling cymbal. And though 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 123 

I have the gift of prophecy, and understand all mysteries and 
all knowledge, and though I have all faith, that I could 
remove mountains, I am nothing/ Must not the light of such 
a loveless life be soon extinguished ? Is there, then, hope for 
such a soul ? Is there a return ? What does my God say 
to such ? What to me who have thus failed ? 

** ' Bemember firom whence thou art fallen, and repent and 
do the first works.' Sevive the fondness, the self-sacrifice, 
the delight, the perfect trust, the absence of all complaining, 
the fulness of satisfaction, the joy of service, the deep thcmks- 
givings, when the soul first received the deep impression and 
confidence of His love. 

" But He says, * Do the first works.' Feelings may change, 
warmth of feeling may vary. God will give such sensations 
as He will. They come and go. He alone knows why. I 
trust all this to Him. I trust to Him that the sensible 
warmth and consolation of my love, and His love in me, may 
vary as He will — only that I repent and do the first works — 
the loving spirit, the self-surrender in thought, the ever-kindly 
Word, the gentle act, the ever-kindly judgment, the ever- 
ready forbearance, the long-suffering tenderness, the patient 
bearing of all things, the quickness to help — this spirit, for my 
Lord's sake, to be all around me, especially those nearest, my 
6wn Sisters of the same Community ; and this spirit embrac- 
ing ever a higher object and responding to a higher love; and 
lost in more entrancing mysteries of blissful communion in 
my Lord Himself, the one true object of all purest love. 
And what is my Lord's recompense to me ? * To him that 
overcoraeth will I give to eat of the Tree of life, which is in 
the midst of the Paradise of God.' To him that overcometh 
the obstacle of love, the drawings of self which are contrary 
to love, the faults which have marred the first fervours of 
love — to this effort of repentance, patiently made, and faith- 
fully persevered in, is the promise given. 

" And what is the * Tree of Life ? ' What but God Him- 
self, giving out of His fulness to feed His creatures, perfect 
bliss, the life of sacraments now veiled. Himself hereafter 
unveiled, openly Face to face. What but love can feed on 
that * Tree of life,' for He is Love ? 

" Lesson, — ^To consider what the first warmth of early love 
would dictate, and to seek to do all its works more and more, 
and to remove all hindrances as soon as seen." 



134 " WANDERINGS JN PRAYERJ* 

A Few Spiritual Directions (1855). 

** Observe the ' Horns/ as nearly as possible the right time, 
or else any time during the interval before the next Hour. K 
unable to go and be alone and pray, make a pause, and say a 
short prayer commemorating the Hour. 

" Accustom yourself to meditate on some grace for a few 
minutes in connection with each Hour, as, e.g., at the Third 
Hour — Love ; at the Sixth Hour — Patience ; at the ninth — 
Perseverance. After a week, change them, and take other 
graces ; as meekness, humility, forbearance, self-sacrifice. 

" Make an hour every day for devotional reading ; partly of 
the Bible, partly of some devotional book. Take two hours 
for instructive reading or writing. If possible, before 10.15. 
Before dinner make an act of self-devotion, and renewing 
your vows, and surveying the acts of the day, judging 
yourself. At night, write down shortly any faults of the 
day. 

*' Try to discipline yourself as to thoughts in the following 
respects : not dwelling on differences of opioion ; forgetting 
past offences, those of others ; not inwardly contesting your 
own opinions with theirs ; never aiming at victory in dis- 
cussion ; remembering how you wish to be with any one, 
specially a parent or other near relative, in the hour of their 
death ; remembering the sacredness of domestic duties, and 
affections, even passing and little acts of kindness ; watching 
specially your motives — all acts before God depend on the 
motives ; to rise to do, even for nearest relatives, what you do 
out of love to God, more than human affection. 

" Hdps to conquer Wanderings in Prayer. — To make efforts 
to recover in Service at each * Gloria Patri' and 'Amen*; to 
cross one's self frequently and secretly when tending to 
wander ; to call up before the mind the idea of ' One upon 
the Great White Throne,' immediately before you, at Whose 
feet you kneel. 

" To call up the vision of angels and glorified saints in the 
act of adoration. 

" To make a rule of remembering His Presence before 
kneeling. 

" Every Friday to use for a quarter of cm hour a book of 
self-examination, in order to help the conscience to discern 
between sins, and to take a larger view (of the depth cmd 
width of the Commandments), and of the sin to which one is 
liable, and the grace one needs. 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 125 

''Books to use. — 'Aids to Holy living/ * Steps to the 
Altar/ Burridge and Scudamore respectively/' 

In reply to a question whether the Sacraments might be 
received from a clergyman, who had secretly joined the 
Irvingites, Mr. Carter gave the following reply : — 

" There is nothing to prevent you receiving in full assur- 
ances from his hands. The Irvingites do not at all question 
our Orders and Catholicity, as far as I know ; and they have 
a very high sense of the Sacraments and of the Beal Presence. 
Though their altars can have no Presence, apart as they are 
from the Church, but this does not affect this case of a clergy- 
man believing their claims while he ministers among us. It 
is a very serious question, I should think, for himself, but does 
not affect those who receive Sacraments through him/' 

Mr. Carter adds in a postscript : — 

" I had a long conversation yesterday with an ' Evangelist ' 
of the Irvingites, and he told me that they recognize our 
bishops as having true Apostolical succession, and do not wish 
to interfere with them, but encourage clergymen, strangely 
enough, to remain and obey their bishops." 

It may be observed that the words " apart as they are 
from the Church " are not intended to apply to those who were 
already priests, and became ministers amongst the Irvingites. 
In this connection we may record the fact that when a priest's 
child was dying, who was vicar of a parish and also an Irving- 
ite, at his express wish Mr. Carter anointed the child in the 
presence of several clergymen and relatives, with a view to 
its restoration, following the teaching of St. James. 

'* Clewer Rectory, September, 1866. 

"My deab , 

"I can hardly say what seems best as to your 
parents coming to Clewer. In general, I think, people who 
come here have their prejudices softened, if not removed, 
(renerally also, what is unseen is more terrible than what is 
seen, and I should have felt that it would not have increased 
even if it did not tend to remove their prepossessions. But I 



126 A SISTER AT HEART IN HOME LIFE. 

would advise yon to follow what seems the natural guidance 
of Providence in the matter, not force it, but rather incline to 
their coming, if it fall in with their wishes and plans at alL 
If they come, I should have much interest in speaking to them, 
and would say anything I could, without forcing, to draw 
them towards it. I suppose I might imply that I knew your 
wishea I think that you ought to feel that you have given 
yourself up to God, and wedded yourself solemnly in heart, 
as hearts can be bound to the love and service of your Lord 
undividedly, and that the cross you have received is the token 
and pledge of your vows and consecration. The thought 
makes me jealous of whatever might be the least break in the 
sanctity of your devotion and separateness from earth. That 
has passed over you, and has been accepted by you, which has 
changed the current of your life, and with it should have 
changed the whole tenor of your thoughts, aims, wishes, 
impulses. What you should try to feel is that all in the world 
is nothing, and that you in the midst of it are nothing, except 
an instrument in doing the will of God, moment by moment. 
I mean that you should feel that you have quitted everything 
in heart, and that you are then given back to it all, to do what 
is God's will in it as though you were indifferent to it, except 
so jfar as God gave it to you to do ; that you should look at 
everything in this fresh light and take fresh interest in it, on 
this new account, because it is not home and relatives and 
friends any more, but the place of God's vocation for you, and 
the sphere of your work for Him ; that you are happy to stay 
or happy to go, as He shows His will ; indifferent otherwise, 
having a holy indifference in doing all, yet a hearty zeal and 
love in this, because it is His Will now. You would then be 
happy at home, because you would feel that it is your vocation ; 
it would fill your heart in a new form, and you would feel that 
so viewing everything and acting, you are fulfilling the call 
which is now upon you. It is only in this feeling that you can 
rest ; you cannot rest in mere home duties or social claims, or 
even in doing good of itself, for you have in you the conscious- 
ness of a call as yet imfulfilled, and this makes you restless 
and dissatisfied, and you will continue so, unless you separate 
yourself in heart, and realize your consecration of yourself, 
then give yourself back as a new creature to former duties, 
now become new calls. . . . Then you would be prepared to 
leave, if God opened the way, or you would still be His where 
you are, with an equally undivided heart. You will see by 
this where I think you are wrong. I think the wrong lies 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST 127 

veiy deep ; it is the conflict of these deep feelings, and one 
must yield to the other before you can be at rest. You feel 
you cannot give yourself unreservedly to your home, while 
you have the consciousness of the call and vow which is on 
you ; and yet you feel that must as yet be your portion. 
You must then reconcile these two conflicting feelings, and 
then you would be at rest. You must view home as the con- 
secrated vocation of a consecrated life, ceasing to regard it 
merely as a home. I have spoken of your consecration — I 
mean as far as may be ; that is, in will and heart, and as your 
own secret act before God ; but in result, it might be as true 
to you as if outwardly sealed. God bless you. 

" Ever yours, 

"T. T. 0." 

" My dear , 

" I would wish you to go on as quietly as possible, 
persevering as you have begun. Self-reflection is tlie thing 
that you need most to overcome, and simplicity of soul to 
obtain. You greatly need also recollection of spirit, and to 
seek to draw off your mind from dwelling so much on others 
— I mean the anxiety you have about their feelings toward 
yourself. 

'' Make those points special objects of prayer and watch- 
fulness, and use earnest care to check what is thus besetting 
you. I think it would be blessed to you if you would say 
two of the penitential psalms every cUty on your knees, in 
special reference to those sins. 

'' But take courage and good hope, because I feel that 
God is drawing you on more and more. May God bless 
you. 

" Your affectionate 

"T.T. 0." 

A Rvie, Christmas, 1857. 

" 1. Each morning offer yourself to God to live for the day 
only.^ 

" 2. K you fail in this by indulging dreams for the future, 
say a portion of Ps. cxix. for each such failing before the 
evening. 

" 3. Entirely avoid arguing. This allows quietly to discuss 
} In the aense — ** Give us this day our daily bread." — En. 



128 RULES FOR INTERIOR MORTIFICATION. 

religious truth, but requires to stop at once if it turn to 
anything of arguing antagonistically. 

'' 4. Stop talking whenever it turns to bringing forward 
self — watch specially for this. 

'* 5. Fray each evening for rest in God simply and un- 
dividedly, accepting every single appointment of God for 
you, and say with this prayer Ps. cxxxi Write each fort- 
night to say what failing in this rule has occurred/* 

" dewer Rectory^ January 29, 1858. 

" My dearest , 

" The great lesson I would have you learn now 
is that of interior mortification, in controlling, subduing, and 
correcting thoughts ; and the end to gain, purity of intention, 
so as to put away whatever is of self, and suffer only what 
is simple and obedient to the law of love and truth, or what- 
ever it be with which the thoughts are concerned. This 
exercise involves a good deal beyond itself in its effects on 
the inner life. I wish you could make that which I have 
mentioned the one main aim of your inner effort, and try to 
realize how much it involves in its branching, as it were, into 
all kinds of thoughts and feeUngs. You will be fitting your- 
self thus in the very best way you can for your future life. 

"Make, as a second rule, the solemn resolve to be as 
much as possible compliant, yielding, self-sacrificing as to 
the least daily occurrence, wants, etc. In looking back on 
family life, what one is most thankful for is for every such 
yielding up of self and such kindness which gives the 
deepest satisfaction and rest, so far as family life goes ; and 
what is family life, if justly viewed, but an image of the love 
which binds to God the communion of saints ? Bemember 
how much you may gain in God's favour, and it may be of 
future degree of glory, by exercising yourself, when privately 
occupied, in ruling and mortifying inward thoughts and 
bringing them into obedience to Chnst's Blessed W&L And 
when with others, how much you may gain by acts of self- 
surrender and self-sacrifice in speaking and doing as the law 
of pure love dictates. I wish every day you would say the 
Lord's Prayer onceiwith the special intention of offering your- 
self to your Lord in the utmost simplicity. 

" Do you think the enclosed woidd at all help your sister 
(in sickness) ? I would send her some more some day, or 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 129 

shortly. I could send her some heads of prayer. God bless 
you. 

" Ever yours, 

"T. T. C." 

" OlewtT Rectory, July 31, 1868. 

" My dbabest , 

'' It is good, and I am thankful that you should 
feel the solemn nature of the coming separation, and antici- 
pate the tartness of it. There is no doubt that you will have 
to meet a searching trial. It would be far worse if you had 
not ; if you could take such a step without feeling it deeply. 
To face it in something of its reality now will lighten the 
after trial. It will help you for the future, to sit down now 
and count the cost. This does not make it less God*s Will for 
you, or less blessed, only natural ties, bound as yours are, 
cannot be loosened to loving hearts without sorely feeling 
the wrench ; and to look to it in all its solemnity for your- 
self and for the others is a duty, and makes the step at once 
more religious, and more easily borne in its consequences. 

" It is well to view the point of action irrespectively of 
the feelings, however keenly they may be felt. The question 
of acting is not to be one of feeling either way, but how the 
way of high service opens to one, and how it will appear in a 
day when the full light will shine ; in His Countenance we 
shall read the motives which have swayed one. I think you 
do feel that aU has been weighed and long weighed, so that it 
is the trial of feeling which remains as the most momentous 
to be met, and this not of your own feeling only, but of what 
you know it will cost others. It is what so often accompanies 
such acts. Happy is it for those who are spared it, if at 
least we are to count those happier who escape keen trials. 
It may be that, as the trials of each differ, coming in the way 
most wisely fitted for the perfect discipline of each, so for 
some such a form of trial is the most fitted to work a higher 
sanctity, and therefore suffered to come in a higher mercy 
than sparing them woiUd be. 

" My dearest child, may God sustain you and guide you 
in it will be now a frequent prayer, and through any trial it 
may cost you may be advanced to a higher inner Ufe. 

" There is but one view in which you can look to find 
support in passing through the coming change, and that is, 
the highest aspect of self-devotion out of pure love as things 
will appear to the illuminated eye in God's Presence, the 

K 



I30 THE PAIN OF LEAVING HOME. 

thought of simple union with God, and of the undivided 
claim He has on the soul when He inspires the thought and 
opens the way to its accomplishment, that all natural love 
and ties pass on to this diviner aim and give way to it, 
while yet the feelings remain true and fervent towards the 
old natural ties. 

'^ One does not love them less, because one sacrifices them 
for what comes in the progress of life and the working out 
of one's destiny as the more absorbing call for action and 
service. 

'' I think it would help you if you would take for medita- 
tions now the course which was taken by the Apostles and 
the women who followed from Galilee ; the callings at the 
sea of Galilee of the fishers; of St. Matthew; the inward 
feeling of St. James and St. John when they said, * We are 
able to drink of the cup,' etc. ; the drawings of the soul of 
Mary, sister of Martha, of Mary Magdalene, of Salome, of 
Anna in the temple before, of Mary the wife of Gleophas, etc. 
Mark the different points of their several historiea Mark, on 
the other hand, the loss sustained by those who drew back ; 
of the souls who were not prepared to follow because the Son 
of Man 'had not where to lay His head'; of the rich man 
who went away very sorrowful, because he could not leave 
his riches. Take both sides, those who could and those who 
could not follow Him in the closer fellowship and more 
entire self-sacrifice. Consider the points on Saints which 
bring out the inner workings of feeling, the difference of 
character, the age, as of the little boy who had the few small 
fishes to give for the miracle to be worked. Mark the conse- 
quences of what seemed small acts and changes, but which 
must have involved in each great trial of feeling, and thotigh 
Scripture speaks so sparingly, and, as it were, slightly of them. 
Dwell on each of these and think of the working of God, 
working out His Will in each, and notwithstanding the 
trials and the high effects that waited on each change or 
point that seemed so small. Do this as you have done some 
cases before, fully work them out in meditations, and let me 
know what you have chosen and what you have done. I will 
in a day or two send you a prayer for present use. 

" I think you would do well to have confidential com- 
munication with your brother as much as possible. You will 
know what you can do, and how far you are able to help 
and influence your family and let them see, that in devoting 
yourself to God, it is not a selfish thing, but in hope to be 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 131 

more a blessing to them all ; and that any opening to be a 
blessing to any one at home would be your brightest joy, and 
that in putting aside natural loves in one sense, you are bind-: 
ing them around you more closely in another. God bless 
you. 

" Your very aflfectionate 

"T.T. C." 



lAst of Letters, etc., in this Chapter. 



Act of Self-dedication. 
Ditto. 
Ditto. 
A Lady impatient of Delay. 
A False Feeling. 
AUowable Sharpness in Buling. 
On Trust. 

Ditto. 
A Forfeited Vocation. 
On Trials. 
A Meditation. . - 
Ditto. 



A Meditation. 

Ditto. 
Spiritual Directions. 
Wanderings in Prayer. 
Sacraments from Irvingites. 
A Visit to Clewer. 
How to wait at Home. 
A Rule. 

Interior Mortification. 
The Pain of leaving Home. 

Ditto. 
Suggested Meditations. 



The practical turn of mind in the Founder of the Clewer 
Community is manifested, in that, while he was setting forth 
a religious ideal and the spiritual " laws " of a lifelong dedi- 
cation, he evidently was not forgetful of what the laws of the 
country might have to say upon the subject, and what would 
be the position of one who had taken a lifelong vow. He 
accordingly wrote to one of Her Majesty's judges upon the 
matter, and the following was Sir John Coleridge's reply : — 

^'Bawlish, November 9, 1862. 

"My deab Mr. Carter, 

" I was not here when your letter came ; it followed 
me to Ottery, and I have been so much occupied since I 
received it that I have been unable to answer it. I am afraid 
now that, for want of books, and from a very imperfect 
memory, my answer to your question will not be worth 
much. 

" I presume the question to be twofold — are the vows you 
speak of unlawful, i.e. do they subject to prosecution those who 
take or those who impose them; secondly, are they binding, i.e. 



132 THE LEGAL VALUE OF A VOW. 

could they in law oblige the party who, having taken them, 
repents of the step, or would they have an answer to a writ 
of Jiabeas corpvs, where under them a person was restrained 
against her will ; or supposing her to be non sui juris, but 
willing to abide by them, would they be an answer if the 
father or husband or any other guardian sued it out ? 

'' As to the first, I am not aware that our statute law does, 
as our common law does not, certainly, recognize a power in 
any one to impose such an oath. For want of this authority, 
the oath would be in law merely ntU, A magistrate, who is 
authorized to impose a judicial oath, is guilty now of a mis- 
demeanour if he imposes an extra-judicial and voluntary oath. 
Such an oath might be supposed to be something when imposed 
by such an oflBcer, but the breach of it was not punishable, 
and therefore it is now made unlawful to impose it. Declara- 
tions, not on oath, are substituted in those hundreds of cases 
in which oaths were formally required. But in the case you 
suppose all falls to the ground for want of the original 
authority ; and / am n/)t aware that, as to Protestant Sister- 
hoods, any law has taken notice of the matter, and made it 
penal either in the imposer or taker. You see, I underscore — 
for I am not familiar with the modem statute-book. As to 
the second, it is clear that no detention of the person could be 
justified, by reason of an oath, against the force of a writ of 
habeas corpus ; it would be still unlawful imprisonment, if 
against the will of the party ; the oath would be inoperative 
against the right of the father, husband, or guardian, to the 
custody of the body ; but if the person is willingly restrained, 
were of an age to elect where or with whom she would be, 
the writ woiSd, without regard to the oath, be inoperative for 
the father, or mother, or guardian. The Court would ask the 
young lady whether she wished to stay or go, and decide 
accoidingly ; of coarse, not so for the husband. 

" If these remsurks answer your questions, I believe they 
state the law correctly ; the oath or vow, in short, is nothing, 
except as it binds the conscience, and with this the law will 
not interfere. 

" I may not have understood your question. I heard that 
you had mooted some such point at Oxford, but I am not a 
great reader of newspaper reports of speeches, and so it has 
escaped me. If I have misunderstood you, and you think it 
worth while, pray write again. 

" Tours, very truly, 

"J. T. COLEBIDGE." 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 133 

The following letter, written by Eev. J. Keble, discusses 
vows from another stjmdpoint : — 

'* Eursley Vicarage^ Winchester^ 

''June 30,1862. 

"My dear Mr. Carter, 

" I am sorry to write so tardily, and more sorry to be 
of no real use to you, as I am conscious must be the case. 
The poor little scrap which I send with this contains a few 
references such as I have been able to make out, being myself 
rather behindhand in engagements of my own at present. I 
should suppose (1) that there were professed Virgins — ^whether 
under perpetual vows or not does not seem clear — from the 
beginning as a kind of class, not order, in the Church (see 
Nos. 1-8, 10, 12) ; (2) that vows of Virginity were allowed, 
and were binding (13, 15, 19) ; (3) perhaps there were Sister- 
hoods, much more probably than not (11, 13, 18). 

" On the whole, celibacy was greatly encouraged, but great 
caution required in professing it. But vows once made, 
whether in public or in private, were binding, and the breach 
of them is sin. Of, St. Matt. xix. 12, and, by way of limitation, 
the principle in Numb. xxx. 

"I fancy a great deal might be gathered out of St. 
Augustine and the Post-Nicene writers to show the secondary 
uses of the ascetic, for works of charity, etc.; but these hints, 
such as they are, seem all to relate to its primary end as a 
counsel of perfection ; which doctrine all those ages appear 
to have accepted most unreservedly. 

" Forgive this meagre note, and believe me always, dear 
Mr. Carter, 

" Truly and aflTectionately yours, 

"J. Keble. 

" What a case this is of coals to Newcastle ! " 

We regret to say that we have been unable to put our hand 
on " the poor little scrap " to which the figures in this letter 
evidently refer. 

It may be observed, in reference to the vow of poverty — 
we believe that we are correct in stating, that in the Clewer 
Community the obligation only extended to the personal use 
of money. This was all the " simple " vow so taken required. 



134 " BLESSED ARE THE POOR IN SPIRIT. 

With regard to possessions or capital, it was recommended 
to the Novices on the eve of Profession (if they had not 
done so before) that they should make their wUls under 
the legal advice, not of the Community, but of their family 
lawyer, and they were free to dispose of their property as 
they liked. They were in xio case bound to leave money to 
the Community Fund, though, of course, they were free to do 
so. They did what they liked with their means, and were 
often reminded by their spiritual adviser of the claims of 
their family, especially when there might be special need. 
There would be no desire to become a rich Community, know- 
ing from history how such a condition had sometimes proved 
perilous to spiritual advancement, and had invited the hand 
of the spoiler. The Sisters would be like the Apostle — 
" having all things, and yet possessing nothing." We are quite 
aware that there are Communities where the vow extends to 
capital ; but at present we sure only concerned vdth the con- 
ditions of the Eeligious Life at Clewer. 

" C7tfM«r, 1886. 

" My deab S 

" I should much like to know what you think of 
this proposal of mine. Some, you may know, have wished 
something of the kind of the 8acr6 Cceur (second Novitiate). 
Without at all thinking this possible, I have often wished 
for some further teaching of the Professed Sisters. I am 
much struck (in some cases) by the want of a sense of 
obligation to Community, or vagueness of obligation alto- 
gether except as to vows. Professed Sisters are, as you know, 
sent out after being in leading strings^ without anything to 
help or guide them except what they get accidentally from 
happening to fall in with companions able to help them, or a 
Superior who is able and willing. 

" I have thought that something of the kind would deepen 
sense of responsibility, and also make a time for some in- 
structions after the difficulties of Professed Life have been 
experienced. But my own view is, difficulty arises from the 
variety of minds, and the very different ways in which things 
appear to them. 

" Perhaps you have heard that the Bishop of C has 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 135 

offered us Miss Hoare's work, and that new call is a fair 
opening for native work. The Chapter on Saturday accepted 
it. Best love. 

" Tour most affectionate 

"T. T. C." 

The following meditation upon " Heaven/' written a great 
many years ago, is a fine specimen of Mr. Carter's method 
and thoughts in the treatment of Mysteries. It seems to 
contain traces of the Ignatian course, yet it is unlikely that at 
so early a date he had tbecome acquainted with the Ignatian 
Exercises. These are his exact words : — 

" The Fulness of God, the Perfectness of all being, all life, 
all happiness. Himself the combination of all that we can 
conceive, or fail to conceive, of Love, Sanctity, Beauty, and of 
Attributes which are inconceivable. The Source and Origin, 
the End and Object of all possible existence, complete and at 
rest in Himself. 

" God not solitary — the overflowing of His Perfect Attri- 
butes out of the fulness of love, the unfolding of the Perfect 
Life into the several Persons. One with the Father in a per- 
fect unity, yet separate blessedness and separate consciousness 
of Perfect life, in a mutual rest and joy and sympathy, acting 
and reacting, loving and beloved, moving and resting, ever 
the same without variableness, and yet ever in the flow of a 
perfect energy of life. 

" The WiU to create. Behold arising a world of ineffable 
beauty and variety, yet harmony inconceivably glorious, in 
matenal but spiritual forms, the expression of the Divine 
Mind, embodying of the first perfect idea of inanimate glory, 
having a life of its own, though unintelligent, the outward 
dweUing-place of all orders of intelligent and glorious 
creatures, the first and most beautiful, forming the innermost 
circle of the material world, nearest to God. 

" The Will to rise in the order of creation. 

" Behold the coming forth of blessed creatures, of highest 
intelligence, power of mind, beauty of form, energy of life, 
capable of knowing, loving, glorifying God. 

'^ The nine orders of blessed angels arise, manifestations of 
separate perfect ideas of God, reflecting different Attributes 



136 NINE ORDERS OF HOLY ANGELS. 

of God, and different forms of joy, happiness, rapture, beauty, 
power; each divided into their several choirs — 



Seraphim. 


Cherubim. 


Thrones, 


Dominations. 


Virtues. 


Powers. 


Principalities. 


Archangels. 


Angels. 



" Behold the mutual, responsive blessedness between God 
and the angelic creatures, acting and reacting, flowing out 
and returning back, shining in and reflected, ever at rest, but 
ever increasing in an endless flow ; ever the same, yet ever 
new; ever undying, yet ever fresh like the motion of the sea, 
and the repose of the mountains. Still the Mind of God wills 
to create a yet more perfect life, a new nature, in itself less 
than the angels, incapable of standing alone, as they, but 
capable of union with God, as they are not, capable of 
mysterious wedded closeness with the Divine Nature, and in 
that union attaining their perfection and surpassing the 
angels. 

" Behold the wondrous type and pattern of this new and 
more perfect creation, in the entrance in the heavens of the 
one indissolubly united nature of God and man in the One 
Person of the Eternal Son, taking His place beside the Father 
on the Throne of Glory, ever adored by perpetually blessed 
praise and thanksgivings. 

" Behold, arise, after Him the several orders of the new 
race, after the same image, created natures, but having their 
fulness, their complement in the Divine Nature, one with 
the other blessed creatures, one with the One Unapproachable 
Godhead, humanity sustained by Deity, shining with the light 
of Godhead, the lowliness and nothingness of the creature 
owing all to God, and yet made greater than any other 
creature because of God. Wedded earthly love, the strong 
and the weak made one flesh, being the type of this blissful 
oneness of the nature of man, partaking of the Divine 
Nature. 

" life of redeemed man made perfect in God, in its full 
energy in heavenly light and glory, its sympathies of joy, its 
ministries of love, its sweetness of gentlest kindness, its 
depth of reverence, increasing knowledge, its rest ever 
advancing, growing with the infiniteness of God, ever resting 
in what it is, yet ever advancing into what is beyond." 

In the following we have a specimen of the way Mr. 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 137 

Carter brought such high and ecstatic thoughts as those 
in the contemplation of " Heaven " to bear practically upon 
the daily life : — 

" Monday. 

" Unite yourself in spirit with the Eternal Father, and 
meditate on Him as the end of your being, and a conformity 
of will to His Will £is the highest happiness. Make resolu- 
tions of entire trust to his all-overruling Hand, as though 
you were a mere planet moved every moment on your course 
without will of your own. 

" Tuesday. 

"Unite yourself in spirit with the Eternal Son, and 
meditate upon the marvellous Incarnation, and how the flesh 
has been taken up into God, and all its affections and desires, 
to be united with Himself in His Flesh, to His Deity, and 
the closeness of the bond that is to conform all life to Him. 
Make resolutions on His indwelling as the centre of the 
truest life, and of the unspeakable bliss of following the 
Lamb whithersoever He goeth. 



*' Unite yourself in spirit with the Eternal Spirit, and 
meditate on the Mission of the Comforter, on Himself as 
the bond of the circle of love, which encircles and inter- 
twines the Blessed Trinity, and which love descends, binds 
the children of the Lord, is their bridal union, and is the 
unction of the true Sister's life (and Christian's). 

" Make resolutions of a loving spirit, a spirit of union, a 
spirit of joy in the Love of God, a spirit of sweetness in 
converse. 

" Thursday. 

" Unite yourself in spirit with the nine orders of holy 
angels, each separately manifesting some high expression 
of glory, and light, and purity, and beatitude, and ecstatic 
joy, and fervour, and speed in ministering to the Eternal in 
all the vastness of the creation of God; and meditate on 
humility and ready service, and a pliant will and a sweet 
submission, and a lively tender forbearance. 



138 SISTERHOODS AND CHURCH ORDER. 

'* Friday. 

"Unite yourself in spirit with the Passion, with the 
agony, the humiliation, the abandonment, the loneliness, 
the utter self-mortification of the Eternal Sacrifice ; and 
meditate on the crucifixion of the flesh with its aflfections 
and lusts, and the endurance of pain and self-abasement 
as the approach of the inner shrine of Godhead in Christ, 
and resolve to be conformed to it. 

" Saturday, 

" Unite yourself in spirit with the Saints now with Christ, 
their growing lights, their deepening visions, their restful 
enjoyments of God, their repose from trial, their abounding 
thankfulness, their longings for you to be with them, their 
increasing intercession for your perfection. 

'' Meditate on the blessedness of the end, and of a holy 
death, full of good works, and love and trust, and partial 
suflfering, and fervent striving of self-discipline. 

" Sunday. 

" Unite yourself with the whole hierarchy of Heaven, God, 
the Angels, the Saints, the Human Nature of Christ, the 
Blessed Virgin-Mother, and with all orders of boundless 
light, and rejoice that you are called to the higher order of 
service on earth. 

"T. T. C." 

** Sisterhoods and Chu/rck Order. 

"My deab , 

" I strongly feel that Sisterhoods should be kept 
in harmony with Church order. They will occasionally 
have their own special days of observances, and these ought, 
I think, to have a bishop's sanction ; and, further, they ought 
not to interfere with Church services, at least so far as 
Sundays and Holy Days, for which a special service is pro- 
vided, are concerned. If an octave of any special observance 
is appointed with bishop's sanction, it ought not to override 
the Sunday or Holy Day service, unless it might be that two 
celebrations could be had, one for the special observance 
after the Church office has been said. 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST, 139 

''The chapels of Beligious Gommiinities are private so far 
that there can be no interference from without^— such as 
legally consecrated buildings are subject to ; but they are not 
therefore independent of Church order, and the priests 
ministering in them are bound to guard the Church order. 

" Such is my conviction on this Critical point. Perhaps 
the special observance (in your case) of January 25 might 
be met by two celebrations, otherwise it seems against what 
I have thought needful to guard ; or, perhaps this might be 
met by transferring the Sisters* special observance, but this 
could not be properly done without the bishop's sanction. 

" My conviction is (and you have asked me) that all the 
Altar services of a Eeligious Community cannot be arranged 
for without proper sanction, if there is to be any divergence 
from the appointed order. 

" They are private chapels as against purely legal claims, 
but not against Church order, and the priest under the 
bishop is to be the guardian of that order. 

" Your ever affectionate 

"T. T. C." 



" Gomm/wnity Organization. 

" About voting, in the two cases you speak of, there is 
this to be said : Are they not like Gladstone — ' one man, one 
vote ' ? The youngest Sister's vote is as good as the eldest. 
We have gone on the principles of authority, and the elder 
Sisters and Warden have a certain weight in recommending 
to and guiding the younger. Judging from experience, our 
elder Sisters think that there is need of this being preserved. 

"I have thought strongly that authority is needed in 
our English Communities, and that a Tnale spiritual superior 
needs to have authority felt, otherwise the female element 

has it all in its own way. ... I have read It is as 

you say, ad papulum 'telling.' But he does not fairly 
meet G/s points. He is slippery, but more clever than I 
had supposed. 

" Ever your affectionate 

"T. T. C." 

Mr. Carter had a very exalted idea of what a Sister's life 
should be. He regarded it, with the Church, as a distinct 
vocation. In his " Spiritual Instructions " this is clearly and 



140 A SEEMINGLY HARD RULE. 

strongly stated. " Sisterhoods," he says, " represent that side 
of the Christian life which our Lord taught when He drew 
certain women to devote themselves wholly to His service." 
He finds such persons existing even in the time of the Apostles, 
"single women only, dwelling mostly apart in their own 
houses." In the fourth century they are gathered into Com- 
munities. There can be no doubt as to the high estimate of 
the Church of such self-devoted persons, from the fact that 
only those who were legitimately bom were allowed to so 
dedicate themselves. 

We have a letter to Mr. Carter from Dr. Pusey, who 
seems to have been rather troubled about this restriction. 
He writes — 

" My dear Cartbb, 

"Do you know the grounds for that universal 
exclusion (is it not?) of those who are illegitimate from 
Religious Houses? It seems very hard, unless there be 
strong moral ground ; i.e. that receiving their birth in that 
way, there be some moral disadvantage under which they are 
bom. It seems, too, likely that there should be some injury, 
concupiscence apparently having so much to do with aggra- 
vating the fomes of original sin. One would not like to go 
against such large experience, if it is so, as I think. I suppose 
only in case of a very strong call of God it would be a reason 
for going against this rule, for if it is really a call of God, 
then He moves it to be complied with. There are strong 
primd facie grounds against it. If you will, tell me this — 
when there is seemingly a strong C€dl, (1) whether the rule 
is still absolute, (2) or whether it is dispensed with in such 
cases. 

" Tours affectionately, 

"E.B. P." 

We have not Mr. Carter's reply to this letter, but, from 
our knowledge of his dislike of hard and fast rules, we should 
say he would be in favour of exceptions. Those who had 
themselves fallen into grave sin were, as a rule, excluded 
from entering the Seligious life ; but there are exceptions, 
such as where the sin is only known to Grod or to very few 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 141 

persons ; and if repentance and vocation are true and deep ; 
or they may become consecrated penitents or Magdalens. 
Canon Carter, in his " Instructions " to Sisters, stated that 
there were three requirements : the Virgin or widowed state ; 
detachment from the things of earth ; and obedience ; in fact 
—chastity, poverty, and obedience. With regard to the 
second, it may be confined to the use of money — that is, of the 
interest and under permission. 

We cannot do better than print an address which Mr. 
Carter gave in the Chapel of the Sisterhood, when some 
Sisters were dedicated. It will show what he thought these 
ladies were committed to by their promises to Grod, and his 
ideas about the religious vocation. It was delivered on 
Friday, June 28, 1861. 

We have been supplied with the following notes of this 
address which Mr. Carter gave, as Warden of Clewer, after 
the Profession of a Sister, who became some years after the 
head of a branch House. It is printed here because it seems 
to contain some of those thoughts which reveal Mr. Carter's 
high estimate of what is technically called the " Eeligious 
life " as a distinct vocation, involving an enlarged area of 
moral responsibilities, and opening up a fresh vista of the 
possibilities of holiness. The address may not be perfectly 
reported, but it is sufficiently accurate to be a specimen of 
his spiritual utterances on such occasions. 

"JWday,J«»<j28, 1861. 

"Deab Sistees, 

"When I last addressed you we were on the 
eve of a solemn office of admitting into probation in this 
Community those whom God has drawn thus to seek to live 
to Him, and I was led to speak to you of some of the special 
principles of such a service which they then sought to enter. 
Now we are on the eve of a still more solemn office of 
dedicating and sealing to Grod those who have been seeking 
to prepare themselves for a complete union with Him in this 
Community. This must now form the subject-matter of 
many anxious thoughts, many earnest prayers, many devout 
hopes, for those about to be dedicated, that they may have an 



142 A SPIRITUAL ADDRESS. 

increased and quickened sense of deepened responsibility, and 
be stirred to the highest aims of a Divine Ufe. To this I 
would draw your minds for a while, that we may dwell on the 
sacredness of such an office, the solemnity of such an act. 
There are different ways in which this act and the promises 
to Gk)d accompanying this act may be viewed. In the first 
place, it may be viewed in this way, as the reconsecration of 
ourselves to the tenor of all former consecrations. When- 
ever God would form any fresh bond of imion, it must be 
founded on some former acts of consecration. The power of 
dedicating ourselves to God depends on the first consecration 
of ourselves to Him in Holy Baptism, in Confirmation after- 
wards, and onward in the continued life of the Holy Eucha- 
rist. These seals of consecration which bind us in special 
imion with Him are the basis on which every after-act of conse- 
cration rests. Each fresh act brings them up again, pleading 
them, renewing them, resting on the fact of their having 
admitted us into the world of Grace, and we come before God 
with them. When i/^ are about to make another dedication, 
we come clothed as it were with them when we enter into 
another covenant, and binding us with a fresh link to some- 
thing higher and better than before in our advancing towards 
perfection. 

" Though all acts of dedication are in one sense involved 
in the one original act of dedication, yet God records each 
fresh act of dedication as another call within His Kingdom, 
and accepts it as a fresh bond of love. It is, therefore, a 
solemn thought for those who axe drawing near to Grod in 
such an act to look back and see how their former acts of 
consecration and covenants of union have been observed, and 
then to go forth in the full assurance of hope that the love 
which has drawn them to fresh sanctity is a ground of faith 
that God will remit their imperfection in the past and bless 
their new offering. 

" (2) Again, such an act implies the taking up of things 
which before were not matters of religious obligation so 
as to become so henceforward — taking things which before 
were free, indifferent, not bound on the conscience ; taking 
them up as a law of conscience, binding us about as 
a necessary law of holiness, as in the case of St. Paul, 
when he says, 'A necessity is laid on me; yea, woe is 
me if I preach not the GospeL' This he said after he had 
received an Apostle's call, and when he became bound to 
traverse sea and land, to wear himself out to become all 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 143 

things to all men, that he might save some ; not a moment 
of Ms life to be lost, all thoughts to be devoted to the one 
object, no snfifering to he sh^nink from, not a toil nnbome, 
beeause it had become to him a religion to follow out with 
his whole being, a new aim to fulfil a new purpose. Once he 
was not bound to this as a matter of conscience, but he had 
been called, and had accepted the call ; he had bound himself 
by a fresh covenant, and had laid on himself a new law, and 
so all the acts and impulses of his nature came into a 
diflTerent sphere. *Woe is me if I preach not the Gospel, 
because necessity is laid upon me ; ' so in the act of dedica- 
tion we are contemplating ; it brings indifferent things which 
before were matters of free choice, makes them matters of 
religious observance, binds them on the conscience, makes 
them virtues if they are observed, or matters of offence, of 
direct sin against God if they are neglected. This act of 
dedication implies it to be the aim to bring everything so 
completely imder the influence of religion that the whole 
being is given up to God, as a free-will offering first, but then 
to become a holocaust, a burnt-offering ; for when this call has 
been accepted, and we are bound by our own free act to God, 
everything must be consumed, must be burnt on the Altar, 
and rise as the smoke of incense, as a savour well pleasing 
unto God. 

"(3) Again, another View under which the act and its 
accompanying promises must be regarded is, that it implies, 
though it may not be at first fully understood, the committing 
one's self to perfectness of life, binding one's self to God to 
be wholly His, that everything should take the form and 
shape of His own perfect Mind. It is so in two ways ; first, 
in the act of consecration, which is the earnest of the complete 
dedication to God, taking it on one's self, and this after trial 
— trial not merely of one's fitness, but of one's willingness, 
trial of one's purpose as a matter which has been before 
one's mind for a long period. Shall I, or shall I not ? Can 
I, or can I not? I may yet withdraw; shall I remain? 
This has been before the mind continually, and after the 
decision the resolution has been formed. ' Lord, Thou hast 
called me, and I hear Thy voice, and would indeed be Thine.' 
So it is with every complete surrender of one's self. There 
are three great hindrances in our way, three things which, 
acting on our life, draw us into temptation and mar much of 
our Ufe and service. (1) All that comes under sensuality, 
under the outer sense of bodily impulses and desires under 



144 SCALING THE HEIGHTS! 

that clinging form of nature, forming a chain of dangers and 
temptations which rise up again and again in one form or 
another, craving for indulgence. Now this is put away, 
removed; not merely what is unlawful, but what is lawful 
has been put away. There is of necessity a separation from 
home life, everything being left, even the body committed to 
God in this spiritual union, as one form of perfection beyond 
what is necessary for all, but which become necessary by 
this new act of dedication. This consecrated state in the 
body is the direct opposite to sensuality ; it raises the whole 
sphere of life, removing all desires of the lower nature, 
giving ourselves up to be the Lord's as fountains sealed only 
for Him. (2) The second danger is the whole series of evil 
thoughts and desires, cupidity, longing for earthly things, a 
desire for their possession, their use, their enjoyment, look- 
ing upon them as one's own, appropriating them, saying all 
these are mine, 'Soul, take thine ease, etc.' This craving 
desire is sometimes confined to one or two objects, some- 
times extends to a boundless range. 

'' This in all its forms is to be sacrificed at the foot of the 
Cross, by a renunciation of all we have, saying of each one, 
this I no longer hold ; if I hold it, it is no longer at my own 
pleasure. This is given to God, to be held only at His 
pleasure ; it is at the will of my God I hold it so long, and as 
He wills it. This implies that th'e very wish and desire of 
possession is gone because the will has renounced the means 
of such enjoyment. (3) That which sticketh closer to a man 
than outward possession and enjoyment, the inner spirit itself. 
The mind, the will in itself acting, becomes a snare, which 
mars the supernatural life by workings of the natural life. 
This, too, is removed, for the will has yielded itself to 
obedience, is bound about by rule in all things that can be 
ordered by rule. This is the meaning of your Eule of Life. 
It embraces the whole field, though its fall meaning and 
extent may be perceived only by little and little. Moreover, 
these promises are bound by special obligations. 

" All religious covenants must be sealed by sacrifice, and 
these promises are so sealed. When Abraham covenanted 
with God, the sacrifice was divided. The lamp of fire passed 
between the two parts — that is, God passed between the 
two in order to connect them, making them into one by 
consuming them both and accepting them in Himself. So 
sacrifice still seals all religious acts and covenants, binding 
them to God. He must pass between, between the life we 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 145 

desire to lead and our previous life, sealing them in one, 
connecting them, that they may be united and oflfered up to 
Himself. Then with the sealing of the promises here — the 
sacrifice is ofifered on the Altar, and is pleaded in union with 
the Eternal Oblation offered in the Heavens, which alone 
makes the offering an acceptable one. You are bound about 
by rule in all things which can be ruled. This is the mean- 
ing of your own Eiie of Life ; it stands in the closest possible 
connection with your present act of dedication, pointing out 
in detail the means by which it may be fulfilled ; directing, 
guiding all thoughts and acts and devotions at all hours of 
the day, raising aU the actions of your life to a higher standard, 
leading you on to perfection. Aiming to do religiously such 
little acts as passing from one place to another, entering into 
communication with one person or another, to look on all 
thiDgs, even the most indifferent, as sent by God, and under 
the guidance of the Spirit, the obedient will may be led on 
to higher sanctity. Now, on entering into such a state, one 
would naturally look on all that God says to cheer and 
strengthen those who are passing into it, that they may be 
sustained and strengthened by the assurance that He is 
with them, that He is guiding all ; and where can we look 
to see this ? God does not speak from Heaven, yet we can 
understand what He would say if we look to what He said 
to those whom He first called to be wholly His by special 
consecration in His kingdom of grace — ^we may catch the 
lingering accents of His blessed voice, we may hear what He 
would say now — ^if we look to what He said to those whom He 
first called to be whoUy His by special consecration in His 
kingdom of grace. We may catch those lingering accents, 
we may hear what He would say now — were He to break the 
silence, for we know what He said to the Apostles, what He 
infused into their souls before they went forth on their 
mission. One of the points which He specially assured 
them of was His special Presence with them even to the end : 
'Lo, I am . . . world.' And not only this; but in His dis- 
course on the last night when He was about to part with them, 
and they were about to be sent forth to a life of trial and 
difficulty. He spoke more fully, carefully assuring them of 
perpetual Divine consolation. * I will not leave thee comfort- 
less ; I will come unto you ; I will send thee another Comforter, 
and He shall take of mine, and show it unto you ; — and what 
to^ do ? To do what the Apostles needed to have done unto 
them. ' He shall guide you into all truth, teach you all things, 

L 



146 PERFECT THROUGH SUFFERING. 

bring all things to your remembrance.' Those who were about 
to be teachers of others needed this to be done for them ; and 
not only this, but * I will give you power over all things, 
even serpents,' thus enduing them with miraculous power over 
hindrances and dangers. Now, this applies to our own case ; 
to all who seek to be bound to Grod by special bonds He 
promises special aids and graces. He says, ' I will never 
leave thee without Divine consolations. I will fill up the void 
which thou wilt feel at times in thine heart. I will suggest to 
thee holy thoughts— thoughts of a higher world to thy medi- 
tative spirit. I will fulfil all My promises. I will strengthen 
thee with miraculous power to go forth and do and bear even 
to the end.' This He would say if we could hear Him speak. 
Then, again, He led them to unspeakable glory in proportion 
to their service and devotion to Him. 'Ye which have 
followed Me, in the regeneration, when the Son of Man . . . 
tribes of Israel.' A glory distinctive for the Apostles. They 
were looking forward to a grandeur and joy within the glory 
of the Father as they passed within the mysteries of a higher 
world. So He would say now, if we could hear Him speak, 
' In proportion as thou hast sacrificed thyself to Me, in pro- 
portion to the fulness of thy devotion to Me, in proportion 
to the dedication of thyself, in proportion to thy sanctity of 
life in union with Me, in proportion to thy service in 
union with Me to redeem the world, shall be hereafter the 
brightness of thy glory, according (I would not say) to what 
thou wast, hast been, hast done, but to what My love looks 
upon as the result. My free gift, not thine own.' There is 
one thing more He would say, as He said it over and over 
again to the Apostles when they were dwelling on the 
grandeur of their oflSce, the power they should wield, the 
blessedness of the kingdom of which they were to be 
the leaders, the beauty which was to be developed through 
the Incarnation as they were beholding the crown which 
should fall on their brow as they passed into another world. 
He was continually chastening their expectations by warnings 
of coming trial ; thus, when He said that those who had left all 
for Him should receive manifold more in this present life, He 
added, with persecutions; and again we find these words : ' The 
Son of Man must sufier many things,' bringing before their 
minds the chastening thought that they must win their way 
to blessedness through trial, that they must pass to their glory 
bearing the Cross, accepting all the pressure of the wounds, 
whatever may be the soreness of the keen feeling heart which 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 147 

He longs to search out that He may purify it through and 
through. He says, ' Wilt thou be perfect ? — ^it must be through 
trial. Wilt thou give up all ? — ^it must cost thee something. 
Wilt thou be one with Me ? — thou must take the darkness 
with the light, the pain with the joy ; ' but always adding 
this : ' I, too, have borne pain. I have tasted it. My suflfer- 
ings make me sympathize with thine, but I will not spare 
thee. I love thee too well to spare thee. Through suflfering 
I was made perfect. I will that thou shalt be perfected 
through suflferingi Wilt thou go forth on thy path as I went 
forth on Mine ? The Son of Man must be betrayed into the 
hands of wicked men ' — that is to say, ' Wilt thou be associated 
with Me ? Thou must bear the Cross. I kissed it before it 
w€U3 given to Me. I embraced it. I was nailed to it. I 
hun^ upon it. I would hang there now, if it were not finished. 
I consecrated it, and thou too must stretch forth thy willing 
hands and thy obedient feet and let the nails pierce thy 
hands, and thou must remain there as long as I will. Fear 
not, I am with thee. I will hold thee by thy right hand, for 
thou art Mine.' Thus He would speak and reason now, and 
we can understand Him better than the Apostles could 
understand Him. They could understand him better after 
the Agony was past, after the Passion was over, and He is 
as true now as He was then. Let us, then, trust to Him in 
perfect confidence, going onwards each in our separate path, 
perfecting what needs to be perfected, commencing what 
needs to be begun, that we may be sealed to God and 
transmuted into Himself. Do Thou, Grod, accept us, that 
at the last day we may find ourselves in Thee, that we may 
know that all is of Thee, that all is Thine act, the breathing 
of Thy love, that we may be one with Thee! Lord God, 
grant it to us of Thy tender mercies' sake, through Thy 
Precious Blood." 

« iKhia. 

" My dear , 

" The last week or two in Eome in which I had 
intended to write to you was so pressed from the winding up 
of many interests and the flowing together of so many people 
for the Carnival, that I could not fulfil my purpose, until I 
could get a quiet time. I seemed to need the repose of this 
place. Bome is very exciting, and at this time of the year 
so many come to and fro whom one unexpectedly meets, 
each with a fresh set of associations, that it seems scarcely 



148 A MEDITATION FOR LENT. 

possible to get away for a few hours. The repose of this 
sweetly pretty place, with its lovely coast views, is more 
helpful, and I am glad of the change, and the very first thing 
I do is to write to yon, for you have ever been one of the 
most precious to me. I had the thought of writing before 
yours came with the wish. I hope you feel equal to the 
great charge you have, and are happy in its state of living 
progress. It seems now to me as a part of yourself. The 
sadness of dear *s final step will, I hope, not have de- 
pressed you, though I know your sadness at it, and thoroughly 
sympatluze with it. My only rest is that all has been done 
which could have been done — that was possible consistently 
with the realities of the course along which I believe the 
Community is being necessarily led, necessary for its higher 
life, as well as the circumstances around us. May God guide 
her steps and make her a blessed instrument of His Will 
elsewhere, if so it must be. But she will, I think, have to 
pass through experiences that she does not anticipate. 

'* The Church of England must absorb into itself whatever 
is helpful to the devotional life in mediaeval religion, if fairly 
an outgrowth of principles which formed part of the original 
faith, and what we need is to discern aright what is consistent in 
this respect, and it is not well, I think, to be ready to anticipate 
danger unnecessarily, but to be trustful that a pure intention 
may rescue many things from Boman deviations and respect 
them in their true Catholic sense, and not lose what is real 
and good because of abuse which does not rightly belong to 
it. She could not see tUs, and she has theorefore failed to 
sympathize with what, as I believe, God has been manifestly 
working in the midst of us. 

" You ask about Lent. I hardly know what line you have 
been led along, and the teaching which you are having will 
help you, I tlunk, greatly. 

'' It has come to my mind to think that it would be well 
for you to taklB as one main thought, that of sacrifice, unfold- 
ing it in many different ways. First, with regard to God 
Himself — the groundwork of all, the love of the Father in 
giving up His Son, etc. ; that of the Son in giving Himself; 
that of the Spirit in His co-operation ; — these three united as 
the sources and exemplars of all sacrifice. Next, the practical 
carrying out of these (which have first been viewed as work- 
ing in the recesses of God's Being) in communication with 
us. First, what passed in the Heart of the Father while our 
Lord was on earth; next, the main lines on which the 



tiiis 
niore 
lung 

the 
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ST. ANDREW'S HOSPITAL, CLEWER. 



THE COMMUNITY OF ST. JOHN BAPTIST. 149 

spirit of sacrifice was acted on by our Lord ; and then the 
continuous sacrifice of the Spirit in His abiding presence, His 
work in fallen souls, and with the resistances of human wiUs. 
Then take, as illustrations of our return to God, the Levitical 
sacrifices, burnt-offerin2:s, etc. Then bring it home to your- 
self in the different forms of sacrifice in your own case — ^in 
home life, in religious life, in details of personal life ; then 
the supports to a true correspondence with Gk)d in these — the 
renewed will, love, self-denial, perseverance ; the means to 
attain union with the Will of God, responsive love to His 
Love, — contrition, resolution, hope. Contemplate these practi- 
cal points ; the example of Saints is, of course, helpful. 
" All truest blessings to you. 

" Your loving 

"T.T. C." 



CHAPTER VII. 

BESIGNATIOK OF CLEWER FABISH. 

It may be necessarj to recall as briefly as possible, as it 
occurred some years ago, the history of the "Clewer case," 
both in the interest of Canon Garter and Bishop Mackamess, 
as it ended in securing to the bishops the power of veto, 
when a bishop considers the application of such a nature that 
it is wise not " to promote the oflSce of judge." An effort 
had been made in the year 1877 to use that " unfortunate 
piece of lepslation," the Public Worship Eegulation Act, 
against Canon Carter. The "Oxford Diocesan History," 
published in 1882,^ thus refers to the case — *' A signal benefit 
has also been conferred upon the Church at large and not 
upon the Diocese alone, in the vindication of the authority of 
the bishop and his perfect liberty of instituting, or of not 
instituting, a suit, when it is desired to promote the of&ce of 
the judge under the provisions of the Clergy Discipline Act." 
The first attempt at prosecution was a failure, through a 
discovery which did not throw credit upon the promoters, 
and which we understand is chronicled in the archives of the 
Diocese of Oxford. But the second effort at first was more 
successful The question turned upon the meaning of the 
words "it shall be lawful," in the third section of the 
Church Discipline Act. Dr. Julius applied to the Court of 
Queen's Bench for a mandamiLs to iarcQ the bishop to initiate 
proceedings, and the bishop appeared in person to defend his 
rights, but lost the case. The matter was then referred to 

» Page 189. 



RESIGNATION OF CLEWER PARISH. 151 

the Court of Appeal, and the judgment was reversed. Dr. 
Julius finally appealed to the House of Lords, where the 
decision in favour of the bishop was finally settled, and the 
opposite party condemned with costs. This judgment, we 
repeat, secured to the bishops a rightful discretion, and 
thereby protecting the clergy from frivolous and vexatious 
att8U3ks, besides vindicating a right principle. It must be 
remembered that the question was not whether Bishop 
Mackamess had rightly exercised the power of veto, but 
whether he possessed such a power. It is easy at this 
distance &om the events to misjudge Bishop Mackamess or 
to regard his line of action as less than heroic. When it was 
stated that Mr. Carter had resigned through the bishop's 
pressure, Mr. Carter immediately denied this, saying — 

"It is perfectly unfounded. There is not a shadow 
of truth in it; it would have been contrary to Bishop 
Mackamess's nature to have given the slightest indication 
of such a wish had he felt it. TSor have I any reason 
to suppose that he thought of my resignation. He was 
one of the most just and honourable and liberal-minded 
of men. His action was dictated simply by a disgust at 
outsiders interfering in the services of a parish church, 
and a desire to sustain what he believed to be a bishop*s 
rightful authority in such a case, for his own and tiie 
Church's sake. He did nobly, and it must have been at 
great cost to his own feelings, for necessarily it exposed him 
to the suspicion either that he was conniving at my course of 
action, wMle he entirely disapproved of it, or that he con- 
doned it out of mere kindness." 

The question — ^the solemn question — how far the oath of 
canonical obedience could be urged in such matters as those 
now in dispute, was one to which Mr. Carter, it need hardly 
be said, gave grave consideration, and upon which he sought 
advice from those who were qualified to give a wise and 
unprejudiced opinion. The following reply from Dean 
Church was both weighty and helpful upon the limits of 
episcopal authority ; — 



152 LIMIT OF ORDINATION VOW. 

" The Deanery, 8t. PauTe, May 1, 1878. 

"My deab Mb. Cabtbr, 

" I have not had an hour since I had your letter, 
or you should have heard before. I certainly cannot suppose 
that our Ordination vows carry with them an engagement to 
absolute and indefinite submission to a bishop's judgment. 
The term 'godly judgment' plainly qualifies and limits the 
engagement I shoidd take it to bind me in thiiigs clear 
and certain, and in things indifferent : just as I should inter- 
pret the oath of canonical obedience made to me as Dean by 
all members of the cathedral chapter. 

" But where the question is one of wide legal and consti- 
tutional dispute between serious responsible men, I do not 
think that a bishop has a right to urge an Ordination vow in 
order to force us to agree with him. The very question at 
issue is, what is the real law, and no single bishop can 
claim to rule that. At the same time I am bound to say 
that to me the law on the rubric seems so uncertain that 
I cannot feel that it binds to compliance. The interpretation 
which the P. C. rejects seems to me the most probable; 
certainly has its difficulties, specially from disuse and from 
having been allowed to be a dead letter, a circumstance 
which also attaches to the P.O. interpretation about the cope. 
It is injustice to enforce uniformity on the ground of an 
uncertain law. But in my own case, I should feel, if a 
bishop was disposed to be equitable, that this very uncer- 
tainty would allow me to try for some modus vivendi, to help 
him, if possible, in his difficulties. But perhaps this is 
impossible. 

" Yours, etc., 

"E. W. Chubch." 

"My deab Friend, 

" You will know, and I trust will explain for me 
to the bishop, that all through these troubled times my 
own convictions have been clear that neither the Eidsdale 
judgment nor the new jurisdiction carrying it into effect is 
what we could accept. It is not easy to say how far other 
minds act on one's own, or how far the influence of a party- 
feeling may prevail. But I have both written and spoken 
publicly with the intention of expressing the convictions 
that I entertained. Whether it was wise or not on my part 
to do the things now attacked is another point, and is too 
late to be considered; but having so committed myself, I 



RESIGNATION OF CLEWER PARISH. 153 

ought, as I suppose, to be willing to bear the consequences, 
only I wish to do so in as passive and inoffensive a manner 
as I can. I mentioned certain names in my last letter as 
sympathizing in these views, only as wishing to show that 
I was not in accord with the extreme line in my beliefs and 
intentions, but with those whom all men look to as the more 
moderate. 

" It is matter of the deepest pain to me, and is indeed 
the most oppressive feeling, that the bishop considers me to 
be repudiating his authority, and preferring, other claims to 
my allegiance. I cannot, of course, expect him to place 
himself in my position and see the force of my own convic- 
tions. But in the matter now at issue, and of which my 
case is a sample, I can only see before me as ruling the con- 
tention the Bidsdale judgment, which I think untrue, and 
Lord Penzance's Court, which I think is wrongfully exer- 
cising authority in carrying it out. For though it is not now 
a case of the P. W. R. A., yet Lord P. claims to be Dean of 
Arches only on the strength (?) of it. 

'' I cannot sufficiently express my obligations to the 
bishop for his kindness and forbearance towards me, and 
can only hope that he may not misinterpret my motives in 
taking a line which he disapproves. 

" Ever your aflfectionate 

"T. T. C." 

Fbom his Son. 

«Jg:to«,ii2)n7 2, 1878. 
"My dearest Fatheb, 

" I have sent back the plans to the Mother with 
a few remarks. I have read with much interest the letters. 
I suppose you have pretty well resolved on your exact course 
of action, as there is no doubt about the course taken by 
Lord Penzance. I see the notice about Mackonochie and 
Edwards in the paper. What, as far as I can understand the 
issue of things to be, and what I hope you will do, is to 
resign after the monition, with a statement of the case and 
your refusal to obey or acknowledge in any way the Court, 
but recognizing the force majeure that must prevail. I do 
not see what is gained by actual disobedience, followed by 
suspension and subsequent resignation. Perhaps, however, 
I am only advocating what is your view, as we did not enter 
into details on Sunday. This course seems to me the proper 



154 NO PARTY TO A COMPROMISE. 

one deduced from your principle of not fighting though you 
do not yield, and it seems to me to concede no principle, 
while it is the most graceful and- dignified. 

'' Shall you see the bishop when he comes here, as he 
does to confirm, on Saturday ? Not that I suppose you have 
any particular cause to do so. 

" Your most loving son, 

"John." 



'My deae E- 



'To Archdeacon Balston. 



'I hope i have not done wrong. I have felt 
unable to consider what may be the result. I have been 
better able to think what would be true to myself, so as to 
be consistent, trusting that God may order events so as to 
prevent needless harm. I could not but see that to accept 
the bishop's directions would involve compromises which 
would place one in a very inconsistent position, aflfecting 
others also. The complaiats against me are as to main 
points only, so that there was no hope of adjustment but by 
the sacrifice of these. I feel sure, too, that even the sacrifice 
of main points of ritual would not much matter so as to 
reconcile complaints and unite the parish, because my 
teaching is as distasteful as my outward ways. To come to 
terms with the bishop, supposing he directed me to concede 
part and save the rest, would therefore have no good. 

'' I fear alienation remaining with dissatisfaction at their 
[? not] getting all they desired from the bishop. With regard 
to the bishop, I have not felt any duty of obedience in this 
matter, and therefore feel free to consider what would be 
truest to myself; I. mean in this way — the. bishops have 
surrendered their jurisdiction in this matter. They cannot, 
as you say, sanction what the Court has condemned in the 
face of a remonstrant ^ parish. It can, therefore, only be by 
voluntary agreement that bishops and priests can settle such 
matters between them. Then, as to myself, it would be my 
own voluntary agreement that I should consent to the bishop 
directing me. I shoidd be a voluntary party to the compro- 
mise. The concessions would, in fact, be my own act. I 
am committed too far to make voluntary concessions, and 
shoidd be injuring the cause, and seriously afiTecting others. 

^ Mr. Carter was in the habit of imagining the amount and quality ot 
opposition in his parish to be more than it really was. — ^Ed. 



RESIGNATION OF CLEWER PARISH. 15s 

There may be cases in which men are not so committed, and 
to whom no other work is open, who would do well to make 
the concessions. My position is rather peculiar. Partly, 
perhaps, of my own headstrongness, but partly spite of 
myself, what I now do will be much ' marked,' and afifect 
the cause to which I feel I ought to look a great deal. I 
have long looked that some men must suffer and be put out 
before people will see that there is one-sidedness in the 
present poUcy. If all who are attacked quietly yield to the 
bishop's desire to settle matters, the present mode of dealing 
will quickly be stereotyped. Passive or active resistance 
has in a way won the position — at least, disarmed attack. 
Similar means may gain more. I don't see how we can 
look to gain by letting the bishops add the weight of their 
spiritual authority to the judgment, and claim of their duty 
to submit not to the judgment as such, but to their spiritual 
authority directing them to do what their judgment pre- 
scribes. If this goes on it will be a more extreme form 
of government than we have ever had — spiritual authority 
enforcing the straitest line of State Courts. If my case 
goes on it won't be a repetition of Tooth's. It will be as 
passive as possible ; I should simply let the inevitable take 
its course. It is just possible the bishop may reject the 
complaint, for we know that there is a deed guaranteeing 
the complainants against any money liability — an illegal 
act — ^and the Church association is the security. I am very 
sorry for the difficulty and annoyance caused to the bishop, 
for he would save one if he could, and will not like to let 
the matter go on ; and he is kind, and it is painful to feel 
unable to accede to his proposal, but it is a case in which 
one's own consistency is much at stake. Will you kindly 

send this on to W ? 

" T. T. C." 

** Clewer, Friday. 

"My deab Brotheb, 

" I have been exercised not a little, as you may 
suppose, since our talk. My first impressions were very 
confused, and it was difficult to disentangle them, and the 
tendency to take the easier way to spare myself and the 
bishop, etc., was strong; other thoughts have come since as 
to the consistency of such a course, and its possible effects 
on others. You know my sympathies in the Church would 



156 ''NOT WITH THE EXTREME SET."" 

have ran, not with the extreme set, but the more moderate 
section, such as is represented by All Saints, Margaret Street. 
I have been, therefore, talking the matter over with Berd- 
more Ck)mpton and liddon, and one or two other like men ; 
they can look at the matter outside, and they are strong 
against any resigning now. You will like to see their letters, 
and the line they take. Difficult as is the path of refusing 
the offered proposal of resignation now, the accepting it seems 
the more difficult, if , as I fear, it involves loss of caste and 
inconsistency, and a discouraging effect on others, and a 
making it easy for the Church Association. 

" R. T. G. (a very different mind) has just written very 
kindly, and though he would persuade accepting law, though 
bad, yet, as to resignation, he says, ' We have heard that you 
have entertained thoughts of resigning the living, which 
would certainly have the effect of saving the conspirators 
trouble and expense, but would wear in my opinion too 
much the appearance of conscious weakness on your part, 
and afford them the opportunity of very much misrepresent- 
ing your case. I should rather say, as once was said, though 
in a different sense, "Nay, but let them come themselves 
and fetch us out." ' This is rather striking from E. T. G., 
and is certainly, I suppose, the case. 

" It is a painful conflict of feeling, but I would wish to 
take the truer line at all risks. I feel strongly that I ought 
not to let the House of Mercy matter come in to rule the 
case. You will see that my mind is now to believe it right 
to let the matter go and be simply passive. 

" Your affectionate 

"T. T. C." 



" Clewer Rectory , June 14. 

"My deak Bbother, 

" We shall be most glad to get a day with you 
that week of the 22nd; the 26th, I think, will be best. 
If anything happens to make me wish to alter it, I will write 
to Gertrude ; but I think it would quite suit. ... I heard 
from Pott the other day — a feeler from the bishop, asking 
what I could do, and apparently apprehending a possible 
reversal in the Lords. I told him that my idea was to ask 
the bishop (if the appeal is sustained) to regulate my late 
celebration as he wished, and that I should retain my present 
use at the early celebration ; I thought this would remove 



RESIGNATION OF CLEWER PARISH. 157 

grounds of complaint to a great degree, and so smooth his 
course. It would be, in fact, acting on what (late) Lichfield 
did with Bodington at Wolverhampton, and as the archbishop 
has sanctioned, and would be, I think, the way in which a 
general compromise might be effected. E. C. U. would fall 
in with this. . . . 

" Your affectionate 

" T. T. C." 

Besides the letters which passed between the Eector of 
Clewer and the immediate members of his own family, there 
were a great many between him and those with whom he was 
frequently in correspondence on all matters connected with 
the Oxford movement, and now concerning the very anxious 
step which he was about to take in resigning his living, and 
which he did take in 1880. It was put to him " whether he 
would obey the bishop in the matters complained of, pro- 
vided his lordship acted as Chief Pastor of the diocese by 
his own authority, without any reference to the operation of 
secular statutes ? " What would his reply be to the bishop ? 
Would he then be bound to obey for conscience' sake, or 
feel bound to resign ? 

His reply was as follows : — 

"To THE Bishop of Oxford. 

" In answering this question I must trust to your lord- 
ship's kindliest forbearance, and that you will allow me to 
place before you as a reply the thoughts that press on me in 
this great emergency. I am committed to a cause which 
appears to me only a phase of the long contention which, 
ever since the Beformation, has been going on in England 
between two contending parties. 

" These disputed questions of ritual are now the outward 
symbols of one side in this contention, and to the mind of 
men generally, as to my own, express its distinctive doctrines. 
I have slowly but deliberately adopted the main points in 
dispute, only as simply as I could, to avoid needless offence, 
and the matters of complaint in my case can only relate to 
these. 

"What I believe and have done, have from various 



158 THE COURT BEHIND THE BISHOP. 

circumstances been publicly put forward, partly not of my 
own seeking, but rightly or wrongly, I cannot act as though I 
were alone, or did not commit others, were I to do anything 
of my own will which would involve me in any surrender of 
what I have committed myself to. After all that has passed, 
I should be justly liable to the charge of inconsistency. 

" You will, I trust, pardon me in saying that I cannot 
consider it possible for you to give me directions on these vexed 
questions, when the public mind is so. agitated, without being 
influenced in some measure either by popular feeling or by 
the late judgments. What would have been possible before 
the late judgments is less so now; and bishops seem to me 
placed between the alternatives of either ignoring the judg- 
ment altogether, or virtually acting under that decision, 
while seeming to act by their own spiritual authority. 

*' I do not see how in the face of the complainants, who 
are really many of the chief parishioners, (a bishop) could 
uphold me in the main points which the Court has con- 
demned. 

" If these were minor details, and by surrendering them 
the greater points might be saved, the case would be easy, 
and the desire of accommodation on my part would be ready ; 
but as the only points that can be objected to are the greater 
points, then any surrender must involve compromise; a 
compromise without satisfying the complainant would in- 
volve me in inconsistency. 

'' It does not appear to me a question whether or no I 
would obey my bishop in what he could clearly claim my 
obedience ; but whether I would rather let the law take its 
course, or accept a kind offer on the part of my bishop to 
step in and, at cost to himself of the displeasure of the com- 
plainant and the public, save as much as the bishop reason- 
ably could on condition of my surrendering a part. 

''In regard to the anxious question of obedience as 
between priest and bishop, the case (would) appear to me 
thus: — 

" The matter in dispute is not one contemplated by the 
Prayer-book, where it rules that reference should be made to 
the bishop in case of doubt, for neither of the complainants 
doubt or myself, though we take contradictory views. 

"Nor is it a case in conflict with my promise so 'to 
minister' as this Church and Bealm have 'received the 
same ' ; for though the Eealm in its highest ecclesiastical 
tribunal has condemned the points of ritual in question, the 



RESIGNATION OF CLEWER PARISH. 159 

Church in the person of the last three real Deans of Arches 
has upheld the principle of the Ornaments Eubric for which 
we contend. 

"Nor is it a case in which I have done anything con- 
trary to the Act of Uniformity, for our contention is that we 
are only the more fully carrying out the directions of the 
Prayer-book, the opportunity having arisen for restoring 
what had been lost. 

" On the whole, therefore, it seems to me clear that the 
question of duty pledged or implied does not apply ; that the 
late Act and the action of the Courts have taken these par- 
ticular cases out of the hands of the bishops, so as to hinder 
their acting judicially by their own spiritual authority ; that 
any action now taken in such cases as between priest and 
bishop must be dependent on purely voluntary agreement ; 
and that therefore my readiness to comply with what the 
bishop proposes can only be a surrender on my part, either 
for the sake of compliance with the bishop's desire, or of 
saving my position through his kind interference. 

" I can from my heart say that there is no one to whom 
I would more readily submit a case, in the assurance of 
being justly and kindly dealt with, than my own bishop, 
and were the present times different from what they are, my 
natural disposition would be to concede almost everything 
for peace. But (it will be clear) I feel sure, how I could not 
surrender matters of such moment under such criticcd cir- 
cumstances as I have described, simply out of the desire to 
comply with a bishop's kind suggestions. I have given my 
reasons at such length as to show my anxiety to express as 
clearly as possible my motives, and in order that I should 
not be thought lacking in the courtesy and gratitude which 
axe due to you. 

"T. T. C." 

It was only on rare occasions that Canon Carter kept 
any copy of his letters ; but at this crisis we have some in 
his own hand. He wrote very much in the same strain to 
one who was in close touch with the bishop, and who had in 
early days worked at Clewer. 

"My dearest ^ 

"You who know me so well will know what 
J feel about the bishop's kindness. I could not read his 



i6o THE COURT, AN OVERRULING FORCE. 

letter without the intensest sense of regret at the position in 
which I find myself, and yet not seeing how with my sense 
of consistency 1 could act as I should desire, and would at 
once do, were it a simple matter of priest and bishop. Nor 
would I scruple at once to accept tiie bishop's judgment, if 
the bishop were free to act without the overruling force of 
the higher Court and the Privy Council judgment which 
must determine the case. I could not disobey the bishop's 
monition, but his monition could not contravene the F. C. 
judgment in the main points at issue, and to submit to 
it would only be in another form to accept the ruling of 
the Court, in compliance with which the bishop's monition 
must issue ; or, should a bishop take a line of his own, and 
rule independently against the complainants, it could only 
be to be overruled on appeal. The bishop's jurisdiction in 
a case thus ruled appears to me to be an entirely different 
thing from what it ought and was intended to be. Fenelon 
submitted to the unquestioned ultimate authority of the 
spiritual tribunal. I should be submitting to what is the 
bishop's act indeed professedly, but really what was above it 
and what had overruled it — ^in fact, to the State tribunal. 

" It is most painful to me to write this, and to face the 
consequences, aggravated as they are by what I know it costs 
the bishop ; nor could I do so but on highest grounds of 
conscientious convictions, which circumstances have often led 
me to express publicly, so as to be quite committed before 
the Church. At my age, to myself the present cost is little. 
What it may — I know must — cost others is another thing. . . . 
I should retire from my parish work and place, where I 
could no longer hold it without a vain conflict. Personally, 
there would be nothing of the martyr in it, except the ' wit- 
ness,' so far as this, that I believe the order of the ecclesias- 
tical jurisdiction to have gone wrong, and the late judgment 
one founded on policy rather than justice. Circumstances 
have forced me forward to testify to these beliefs. I do not 
doubt them, though I dislike the prominence into which the 
turmoil has brought me. You know how little conflict or 
resistance has been in my nature, and how much the way of 
peace and peace-making has been my disposition; but I 
have never faltered in my convictions on the facts of the 
case as they have come to me, and so to be true to myself, 
there seems only the one way of being wholly passive. I 
had rather do as you imderstand me — ^let the matter go to 
Lord Penzance, because I should h^ye no compuncti,ou i^ 



RESIGNATION OF CLEWER PARISH. i6i 

disobeying him. You will say all you kindly C5an for me to 
the bishop. 

"Ever yours afifectionately, 

"T. T. Cabter." 



Some misunderstanding ensued, and Mr. Carter wrote 
again to the same effect : — 

'' I am much concerned that through insufficient explana- 
tion I have caused so much trouble. My meaning in my 
last, as in my first letter to you, was the same, viz. when the 
matter comes before Lord Penzance, I should not plead, 
either as to the facts or the merits, nor indeed appear at all. 
It would not, indeed, be with any feeling of contempt, but it 
would be in silence and passively, because I cannot recognize 
Lord Penzance in any way as possessed of any spiritual 
power or rightful authority in these matters, but should 
yield to him only as having power from the State. I need 
not give my reasons, as the bishop will, I trust, understand 
that it is in no way whatever connected with his own action, 
but purely from tlie fact of the State, as it appears to me, 
having unconstitutionally taken these matters into its own 
hands. 

" To the question what I should do on being monished by 
Lord Penzance, I would say that I am not altogether acting 
blindfold as to consequences, though I am much obliged to 
the bishop for explaining so particrdarly what would happen. 
I do not [suppose] I should heed a monition which I under- 
stand to be a warning as to what would follow in case of dis- 
obedience. . . . K suspension followed, I should retire Tinder 
protest. . . •" 

(The rest of the letter is very difficult to decipher. It 
seems to say that the Bector would retire, and not defy or 
oppose the law being carried out, though unable to alter any 
practice at Lord Penzance's orders.) 

Canon Carter, in all this, was not acting alone ; he sought 
advice in different quarters, as it was his habit to do. Dr. 
Liddon was evidently hoping against hope, that some way 
out of the difficulty might yet be found. His letter reveals 
this: — 

M 



i62 ADVICE OF DR. LIDDON. 

" My dkab Wabdbn, 

" I have been thinking your letter over. I should 
make submission to the bishop's judgment depend on his 
willingness to state publicly (1) that his application to you 
was quite independent of the P. W. E. A. ; and (2) that the 
advice he would give you would be in no way influenced by 
the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council K he consents 
to this, we must, I think, admit that, however plain the 
meaning of a rubric may be, a bishop might decide on the 
expediency or inexpediency of reviving it, if it had been for 
a long time obsolete. 

" If the bishop's decision involved you in inconsistency, I 
should resign. Eesignation would leave you free for your 
main work at the House of Mercy, and would untie your 
hands in some ways. It would also teach the bishops what 
is involved in their cultus of the State. 

" Ever yours affectionately, 

" H. P. LiDDON. 

"I am too probably advising what may involve great 
difficidties of income. Pray understand me as writing in 
the abstract, and as feeling that there may be considerations 
which I do not suflSciently recognize." 

We gather from the following letter, written by Dr. Bright, 
that he also was consulted in this difficulty : — 

" Christ Church, Oa^ord. 

"My deab Cabteb, 

" I am a very poor casuist, and cannot offer any 
opinion worth having in the very grave question which you 
have had brought before you. And by this time I doubt 
not you will have come to some decision. I can only say 
one or two things which struck me as to the good bishop's 
proposal, I can well understand that a person who held 
that the present Judicial Committee had no moral claim 
on his obedience might take one out of several courses. He 
might (1) resign; or (2) wait to be [imprisoned] or deprived; 
or (3) might say in effect, ' although I do not recognize the 
Judicial Committee as a regularly [constituted] Ecclesiastical 
Court, yet I could say that the vis major ia definitely against 
the use, e.g., of the vestments, and that they cannot practically 
be upheld under the present condition of the Established 



RESIGNATION OF CLEWER PARISH. 163 

ChurcL' I think it best to give up the use of them, rather 
than surrender my opportunities and abandon my flock ; and 
my bishop's advice goes in the same direction. 

" But the Bishop of Oxford apparently asks you to sub- 
mit to a certain spiritual authority of his, independently of the 
rulings of the Judicial Committee. He offered to deal with 
the case as if the Committee did not exist ; to act simply as a 
spiritual ruler ; and to address you as, ex hypotJiesi, denying 
the authority of the Judicial Committee to make the orna- 
ments of 1549 illegal. 

" This is — or was — his proposal. Two things occur to me 
respecting it. (1) It seems unreal to say that he sets aside 
the decisions of the State Court of Appeal. We know that 
in fact he does not. He would never have made this pro- 
posal but for the judgment of that Court hostile to the vest- 
ments. He would not, for himself as bishop, ignore or disown 
the Court. He could not, in other words, ' set aside,' in any 
one case, the authority or the ' operation ' of the law which 
that Court represents and enforces. But this is not my chief 
difQculty. The main point is (2), the question as to the extent 
of this authority which the bishop asks you to acknowledge, 
or 'not repudiate.' It is certainly not that authority defined 
in the Preface of the P. B. to be exercised when two parties 
agree to appeal to the bishop as interpreter of a doubtful 
rubric. It is something different ; and here I do not under- 
stand how the bishop can claim a general authority to dis- 
pense with this or that point in the law of the P. B. For the 
bishop speaks to you as to one who believes the law to be 
still in favour of vestments. The judgment being no true 
expression of Church laws, therefore the question which at 
once arises is, what is the amount, what are the limits of this 
authority thus claimed? What if a bishop, invoking the 
same authority, had forbidden a priest years ago to celebrate 
weekly, or settle to baptize after the second lesson, or to read 
the Athanasian Creed on all the days appointed ? In short, 
if we recognize, in regard to the present distress, an undefined 
authority on the part of Bishop Mackamess to set one free 
from the obligation of this or that rubric, one must recognize it 

also in, e.g., Bishop ^,or in a possible Eationalistic bishop 

as well as a Puritanical one. My difiiculty is simply a con* 
stitutional one ; no authority of bishops, in our Church, is 
indefinite or imlimited. What are the lines which mark out 
the scope of this authority which the bishop wishes, pro- 
fessedly, to exert ? You are asked to obey for conscience' 



l64 DR. BRIGHTS OPINION ON COURTS. 

sake— yes ; but what principle is involved in such obedience ? 
How far would it carry you, or some one else, who accepted 
it under the circumstances 7 If a bishop can dispense with 
any Church law, he is for his diocese what James 11. wished 
to be as to the general laws of England. 

"Yours in all sympathy, 

"W. Beight." 



It will be seen by the following letter, from the pen of 
Dr. Bright, some years later, that he did not take a very 
hopeful view upon the reconstruction of the Final Court of 
Appeal. 

<<Mt dear Cabteb, 

'' I do not think there is any dear path out of the 
jungle of the ' Courts ' question. If you have a mixed Courts 
in which the lay judges out-number the spiritual, you have 
the same result as now — a judgment may be imposed by lay- 
men on the Court spiritual of the province. There is a plan 
imder consideration by the Committee of the Lower House^ 
which would divide the Court of Appeal into a lay and a 
spiritual element, and provide that if their two divisions 
(%.«. majorities in them) disagree as to all the points in the case, 
the appeal shall be dismissed, and that sentence of [suspen- 
sion j, decreed by the ProAincial Court, shall not take effect, 
if disapproved by the unanimous voice of the Court of 
Appeal, etc. I fear that this would be called too cumbrous. 
It will, perhaps, be discussed next week in Convocation. 
It does not seem possible for me to adopt the theory that 
English bishops, b^use State-appointed, are not representa- 
tives of the Church spiritually; — ^that assumed would lead 
to far-reaching results. 

** At present, I think that Lord C. was quite right in 
deprecating the attempt to constitute Courts acceptable to all 

parties. The Dean of is a person whom to know is to 

like; but in this matter he has shown what the 'Antiquary' 
eaUs ' light Scottish craft* He wants to drive us into a 
comer, and to cast on us the onus of proposing or offering to 
accept some scheme of an Appeal Court which will be 
practicable — ^in that word lies the whole difficulty. ' Practi- 
cable ' t YThat does it mean ? Such as can be got throu^ 
the House of Commons f What if Church principle focbids 



RESIGNATION OF CLEWER PARISH. 165 

as to aim at tliM result by the method which involves an 
illegitimate compromise 7 

" Yours affectionately, 

"W. Bbight/' 

To THE Eev. W. a. Cakter. 

" Ulmer Rectory, July 6 (1878). 

"My dear Bbother, 

"... I am very grateful for your kindly remarks. 
You hit the points intended, and I was very glad indeed to 
know that you thought it temperate. It is an anxious 
time, and I have widied to keep the balance as even as I 
could, and at least explain my own position, which circum- 
stances have made a complicated one, as well as help others 
in the same predicament. I wish I could see your new 
home, but it will not be possible for some while. I shall be 
tied till we leave home together, if all goes well, on August 
6. Then we are due at Bakewell, and after staying there four 
or five days, hope to make our way to Arran, and so upward 
from thence to some of our haunts in Boss-shire. 
" Your affectionate brother, 

"T.T. C." 

To THE Bishop of Oxford. 

« JwZy 11. 

"My dear Lord Bishop, 

"What has taken place in Convocation has materially 
affected my position. Your lordship will, I trust, do me the. 
justice to believe that in refusing to abide by your judgment 
and yield to your remonstrances, I am actuated by the honest 
conviction that you could not judge the main points of issue 
otherwise than as the Law Courts had decided ; that at least 
in my own mind I could not separate your action from such 
decisions ; and to those decisions I could not in any way yield 
myself, because I believe them to be historically untrue, and 
false to the principles and interests of our Church. It was 
only on this ground that I felt unable to give way, though 
with inuch pain to myself, and the more so because in the 
course of prosecution your lordship became involved on my 
account in so much that must have been sorely trying. 

" The fact that many others were depending on what I did, 
and that a cause which seemed to me, and to many thousands 
of clergy and laity, to be of great moment, touching doctrine 



i66 ** THE ONLY COURSE REMAINING OPEN.'' 

as well as the externals of the Ghmcli's worship, inYolved me 
in the greater difBcnlty as to aay possible aooommodatum. 

'« But circiimstaiioesare now altered, and thon^ I deeply 
legret the action of Convocation, I cannot decline to recognize 
its anthonty, thon^ not as yet of any legal force. I do not, 
however, see my way to sach changes as alone wonld satisfy 
the demand made on me. The only course, therefore, whidi 
remains open to me, is to place my resignation in yonr 
lordship's hands, to accept or not at yonr discretion. 

''This, then, I now decide to do, and if by doing so I am 
relieving yonr lordship from any fiuther trouble and anxiety, 
I shall be tmly thankful, while I trust you will forgive me 
any wrong that, in your judgment, I may have committed, 
while acting, as £» as I am able to judge, conscientiously in 
carrying out what I believe to be the law of the Church, not 
without r^ard to the good of my parishioners. 
** Believe me, my dear lord, 
"With true respect, 

" Truly and very sincerely yours, 

" T. T. Casteb. 

'^ P.S. — ^My anxiety in taking this step is, in reference to 
those of my curates who, being concerned only, or almost 
entirely, with parish work, wiU have to leave, that they may 
have sufficient time to look out for other work." 

To THE Bbv. W. a. Cabteb. 

«Jii/yl2(1878). 
*' Private. 

''Mt dbab Bbotheb, 

'' I have taken the only step that seemed rightly 
open to me, and sent to the bishop the offer to resign, if he 
is willing to accept. I hope you will think this right. I have 
marked it 'private,' only wishing to keep it to your aim Aouse 
for a while. I only wrote to the bishop yesterday. • . . 
** Your very affectionate brother, 

«T. T. C." 

It will be observed that Mr. Carter felt the bishop could 
not pronounce a judgment of his own, but was bound, as to 
the points in debate, by the ruling of Privy Council Judgments. 
In a letter of Dr. Brighfs, which we print, it will be seen 
that he strongly takes the same view. The question whether 



RESIGNATION OF CLEWER PARISH. 167 

the bishop's directions ought to be obeyed, when he was 
" the mouthpiece of Courts," was discussed before the Eoyal 
Commission on Ecclesiastical Courts. A number of Church- 
men felt that they could not yield obedience to the bishop 
when he was '' simply forcing upon them the judgment of a 
Court whose authority they repudiated." ^ Others were ready 
to listen to the bishop, without going '' behind him as to the 
reasons of his directions." It is a difficult distinction, and 
Mr. Carter was not seeking a loophole for escape. Dearly 
as he loved his parish and the neighbourhood of his birth and 
earliest years, what he believed to be the best interests of the 
Church would stand before all else in his heart. Men may 
think him wrong in his judgment, but they can never distrust 
the purity of his intention or the courage which postponed 
personal interests to public good ; neither can they estimate 
the pain which he suffered, the cost of the sacrifice to his 
sensitive nature, when he resigned his living. 

The parishioners were prompt in the expression of their 
sympathy, and a meeting was convened, at which was carried, 
with the heartiest unanimity, the following resolution: — 
'' This meeting desires to express its deepest sympathy with 
the Bector of the parish under the prosecution with which he 
is threatened, and its confidence in him that he will maintain 
the principles for which he has ever contended, and which he 
has taught his flock to value." A "memorial" was also 
signed by a large number of parishioners, expressing their 
confidence in their pastor, iiropposition to some who favoured 
the " persecution," and called forth a reply from the Rector, in 
which he thanked them for their sympathy, and added — 

"I can truly say for myself and my curates that our 
simple and most earnest desire has been to follow what is 
conscientiously believed to be the doctrine and practice of the 
Church of England, according to the teaching of the Prayer- 
book, as the truest interpretation of the Holy Scriptures. 
During a ministration of upwards of forty years as a priest in 
the Church of England, I have endeavoured, to the best of 

^ Report of the Boyal Commission, vol. ii. p. 156. 



i68 THE RENEWAL OF THE PROSECUTION. 

my ability, and, I trust, honestly, to learn what her teaching 
is, and now, when the day of my account cannot be far off, I 
do not hesitate to affirm that every day's experience more and 
more convinces me that the principles which your memorial 
is intended to support are the true principles of the Church 
of our fathers." 

The letters following relate to the renewal of the prose- 
cution and the actual resignation. 

'' CUswer Rectory, Augtui 9 (1879). 

'*My dear Bbotheb, 

''I am obliged to wait before I can take any 
action. The E. C. U. Council pressed on me that my resig- 
nation would not stop the appeaL I told the bishop; he 
disputed this, but suggested my te^dng - advice on it. Two 
or three days ago I saw Sir Bobert PhiUimore, and talked it 
out with hun. He spoke decidedly that this was the case ; 
that as the appeal affected the bishop as well as myself, my 
withdrawal would still leave it open to go on; that my 
withdrawal would only damage the case, and leave an un- 
favourable impression on the judges. 

'' I wrote this to the bishop, and it seems unavoidable, 
therefore, to leave it for the present So I go away on 
Monday, trusting that my course is clear for the time. We 
make for Berchtesgaden. Best love to alL 

" Your very affectionate 
"T. T. C." 

'' Chmau (above EdUtadt See), September 6 (1879). 

"My dkab Bbotheb, 

" I don't know whether you have been in these 
parts, but I suppose that a cosmopolitan like yourself has 
been. We are just under the massive peaks of the Dachstein, 
some 9000 feet high, the monarch of the Styrian Alps — 
very grand ; and the valley in which our little inn is placed 
resembles Switzerland more than any part we have seen. 
It is a beautiful evening after a glorious day, and you may 
judge of the air and clearness by our just having dined (it 
is half-past eight) in an open kind of summer-house. We 
have had very beautiful weather, only one wet day, and 
three or four thunderstorms in the evening, clouding and 



RESIGNATION OF CLEWER PARISH. 169 

chilling the following day. But for these very occasional 
breaks, it has been uninterrupted sunshine. I have wished 
we could spare some to poor England, though I trust it is 
mending with you. We have had a very delightful round, 
staying at a few places, and all full of beauty. Up the 

Ehine to Wiirzburg, where Mdlle. lionized us — an 

interesting old city; passing rapidly through Munich to 
Beichenhall, a pretty simple kind of Cheltenham, to Berch^ 
tesgaden, which you must know. One cannot speak calmly 
of its beauty and that of its neighbourhood. We were a 
good eight or nine days there, then two days at Salzburg, 
climbing up all the stairs duly, and encompassing the Castle 
Hill all round by moonlight, greatly charming my two 
daughters; then on to Ischl for a Sunday, and on to 
Halstadt See. It is not the lake I should have chosen for 
a summer villa, though beautiful of its kind ; but we rowed 

across to look at the house of Herr ^ and then to Alt 

Aussee, where we stayed three delightful days in a country 
inn hanging over the lovely lake ; it is most charming. And 
there are two other lakes within a drive also — very beautiful ; 
indeed, it is the land of lakes. Here we remain a few days ; 
it is the end of our tether — a good mountain close, 2400 feet 
up. We return by Ischl, Passau, Numberg, Cologne, etc. 

" The most strange thing is that we have not seen above 
six English faces on our route, barring about a dozen whom 
we saw at the English service at Ischl; but these were 
Americans. Our English kind have taken other paths. 
Henry Oxenham joined us at Ischl, and is with us still. 
We have come upon one English service only — at Ischl ; a 
glimpse at the TxTties once or twice. 

" There seems a general lull, happily. . . . 

" Your affectionate 

"T. T. C." 



" Clemr Rectory, Windsor^ March 18 (1880). 

"My dear Beother, 

" I hope you have good accounts from Bourne- 
mouth, and wonder if you have heard from Neville, but 
suppose not. I have had many anxious thoughts since we 
parted ; various things came up. Whether the bishop may 
appeal is still uncertain. The bishops are much moved at 
the judgment going against their discretion, which they seem 
to have assumed. I have heard how the archbishop and the 



I70 APPEAL DECIDED IN BISHOP'S FAVOUR. 

others at the wedding, while robing in the vestry, were talk- 
ing ominously as to ^s. What the bishop might otherwise 
do is also uncertain. I find that I could resign when the 
law is put in force, if at last the bishop is obliged to act. I 
therefore wait on to see what may come. Nearly all I hear 
from think this the best course for the present, and that the 
victory of the Church Association would be more complete 
and easy if I resigned now. It is not easy to see what is 
right. I can only hope this is. It is unfortunate for one 
that circumstances have brought it about that a cause for 
which I have been long contending, whether for good or ill, 
is mixed up with my own private course. Best love to alL 
" Ever very afifectionately yours, 

"T.T. 0." 

In Holy Week, 1880, the appeal was decided in favour 
of the bishop, and the next day Canon Carter sent in his 
resignation. 

*'My deae Lord Bishop, 

"Your lordship is aware that for some time I 
have contemplated the resignation of my benefice, but 
deferred taking the step while the cause which you were 
kindly defending in my favour was still unsettled. This 
hindrance is now removed. 

" I have regretted giving pain to your lordship by declining 
to submit the matter complained of to your decision (as under 
ordinary circumstances I would have gladly done), because I 
did not suppose it possible that your lordship could decide, 
at all events, the main points at issue irrespectively of the 
late Privy Council judgments, and those judgments I could 
not even indirectly accept, believing them to be prejudiced 
and destructive of the true historic position of the Church of 
England. 

" But while unable thus to surrender the cause to which, 
from sincerest convictions of its truth, I had committed 
myself, I am unwilling to take advantage of your lordship's 
generous forbearance by continuing to act against your strong 
disapproval, and this in the face of a divided parish. 

"I therefore now resign my cure into your lordship's 
hands, and with much gratitude and sincerest respect for 
much kindness, I beg to remain, 

" Your most faithful servant, 

" T, T. C." 



RESIGNATION OF CLEWER PARISH. 171 

" Tunbridge Wdh, April 6. 



"My DEAR S- 



" I thank you heartily for your most kind thoughts 
of me. You have happily not known the complication or 
the strain of such difficulties as I have fallen into. There 
was, I think, no other way out of it consistently either for 
the bishop or myself, and it was the result of long brooding 
and searching of heart that I came to it as the only possible 
conclusion. I do not think the bishop could do otherwise 
than seal what I have done. 

"You may have known the strain the circumstances 
brought upon him, and yet I was so bound about that I 
could not take the course which he would have wished of 
giving way. 

" The bishop would license me to the Wardenship of the 
House of Mercy, so that I should still be united with you 
and my brethren, and have the pleasure of a seat at your 
' Synod.' 

" With many thanks for all your kindness, 

" Believe me, ever very sincerely yours, 

"T. T. C." 

When Mr. Carter's resignation was made known, a public 
meeting was convened by the churchwardens, when the 
following resolution was unanimously passed : — 

"That this meeting has learnt with feelings of the 
deepest concern and regret that the Eector of Clewer, the 
Eev. T. T. Carter, who has endeared himself to all classes by 
his unremitting devotion to the spiritual and temporal 
interests of the parish during the long period of thirty-six 
years, has resigned his charge. This meeting fervently hopes 
that before the act of resignation is legally complete, the 
Bishop of the Diocese may discover a mode of averting such 
a deplorable catastrophe, and thus secure to the parishioners 
the continued services and ministrations of their revered 
pastor so long as God may be pleased to spare him." 

(Signed, etc., etc.) 

The unanimous expression of sympathy on the part of the 
Buri decanal Chapter with Canon Carter in his troubles on 
resigning the living of Clewer, and of appreciation of the 
high motives which actuated him, called forth the following 
reply : — 



172 EXPRESSIONS OF SYMPATHY. 

''Mt beab Sural Dean, 

'' I am at a loss adequately to express my sense 
of thankfulness at the unexpected expression of affectionate 
sympathy from my brethren of the Deanery, which you have 
forwarded to me, and of their generous estimate of the 
motives which have actuated me in my past course. Con- 
scious as I am of the variety of judgments that must have 
been passed by so large a body, of my conduct under such 
critical circumstances, their kindly appreciation of the desire 
which I have had at heart is the most gratifying tribute I 
could have received. 

" I am also thankful for the feeling, so kindly expressed, 
that I have in any degree contributed to the singular 
unanimity of brotherly spirit which has uniformly marked 
our discussions, however keen the interest attaching to the 
subject, and for the trust that the ties which have hitherto 
bound me to the Deanery may not be altogether severed. It 
is with sincerest pleasure that I look forward to an uninter- 
rupted intercourse (though under an altered relation with the 
diocese) from which I have learnt so much, and through 
which some of the most precious associations of my life have 

been cherished. Let me add, my dear S , how much the 

value of the resolution, so unanimously passed, is enhanced 
by the testimony of your own kindly sentiments towards me, 
with which it is accompanied. 

" Ever most sincerely yours, 

" T. T. Carter." 

A committee was formed, with Lord Beauchamp as chair- 
man, members of which were the Earl of Glasgow, Earl 
Nelson, Hon. C. L. Wood, Dean of St. Paul's, Earl of St. 
Germans, Canons Gregory and Liddon, J. G. Talbot, Lord 
Forbes, Bt. Hon. A. J. B. Beresford Hope, Colonel Makins, 
Eev. Dr. West, and Eev. J. E. Hall, for the purpose of pre- 
senting Canon Carter with a House of Besidence, as Warden 
of Clewer, as a memorial in recognition '* of his exertions in 
the service of the Church." This Mr. Carter accepted, tears 
flowing from his eyes as he thanked the two or three repre- 
sentatives who made the presentation of the house, when 
completed ; but he only accepted it on the condition that it 
should be the residence of successive Wardens after his 



RESIGNATION OF CLEWER PARISH. 173 

decease, and not his own property, but that of the House of 
Mercy. The estimated cost of the house was £3000. After 
his death, as soon as his daughters could obtain another 
house, they withdrew from it, and it is now occupied by his 
successor, the Eev. G. Seignelay Cuthbert. 

The following is Mr. Carter's own account of the motives 
which actuated him throughout this painful time : — 

^'I was thought by some an extreme Bitualist, and by 
others that I was led on against my own mind by my curates. 
But neither was true. My inclination has been for a good 
measure of BituaL I have believed a.Jtugher Bitual to be 
our rightful inheritance. I have also thought outward forms, 
if not in unreasonable excess, a means of teaching the faith, 
and conducive to faith, and so to spiritual life ; that souls 
are influenced and are won either by subjective means, as the 
Wesleyans do, or by objective means, by what meets the eye 
and touches the senses from without ; and I have had no 
doubt but that the latter means is the Church's method. 

'' With this I have had a rather painful sensitiveness as 
to troubling others with such matters. I could never, more- 
over, but feel a sense of what was due to authority, which 
some of my friends seemed not to feeL But surely authority 
is a note of the Church. 

'' Then as to facts. From the first I kept the eastward 
position, and, I think, the mixed chalice. In minor ways, as 
in processions, and choral celebrations, and the Altar cross, 
and flowers, I went beyond what the upper ten of the con- 
gregation at all liked, as they showed more or less uncom- 
fortably. But the first movement that made a commotion 
was lighting the candles at the early celebration. 

'' Things went on until matters became more critical, and, 
I suppose, the teaching disapproved. But not until the dis- 
sentients had left the church did I light the candles at the 
later celebration, or use vestments. After a while the attack 
came, and the crisis. Bishop Mackamess, unlike his pre- 
decessor, left me free, and knew nothing of what had been 
going on, and when the proceedings against me b^gan, he 
was startled and shocked at my excesses, kind as he always 
was notwithstanding, and helpful afterwards. 

" The line which I took subjected me to a good deal of 
priticism, and coi44 hardly be approved of by at least the 



174 "^ PERIOD OF EXTREME HEARTS DISTRESS.'' 

leaders of the Bitual movement, with whom in many ways 
I had become associated. It was a very excited time — a 
time of conflict, a soldier's battle, as it was often and not 
unfitly called, when it was felt strongly that any one attacked 
was bound to resist to the bitter end, and be ready^ to go to 
prison rather than yield in any point ; that to resign would 
only strengthen the hands of his enemy, and encourage 
attacks. But serious considerations weighed with me — some 
peculiar to my own case. I had keenly felt the evil arising 
from a divided state of the parish. I had also, as I have 
said before, great scruples as to direct opposition to the 
bishop ; and to be accepting kindness in defending me, while 
opposing the bishop's very strong convictions, aggravated 
this difSculty immensely. The bi^op defended me, people 
said, not for my sake, but for the sake of his order, defending 
and vindicating the power of the veto. This was partly 
true; but it was all done with thorough generosity. He 
was disgusted by the intrusive action of the Church Associa- 
tion. None of my own parishioners stirring a finger against 
me, though withdrawing themselves from the Church (the 
promoter of the l^al attack on me was in the parish, but 
not one of the congregation, and was an instrument of people 
without), I passed through a period of extreme heart's distress, 
anxious as to what I ought to do. It was clear that I could 
not go back on any point in the Church service, not merely 
as against all my own instincts and convictions, but also 
because I had publicly defended all the main particulars in 
the case of others — ^the ' six points,' as they were called. Of 
course, while the trials were going on nothing could be done ; 
one had only to wait. But what to do eventually ? It was 
thought that the bishop urged me to resign. TUs was entirely 
untrue. He never mentioned anything of the kind. Some 
Mends, anxious for peace, urged me to give in. This idea it 
was not difficult to reject. Nor would it have been a diffi- 
culty still to resist, and persist against all opposition, had no 
questions arisen as to what was due to authority, or the peace 
of the parish, or as to how one should r^ard one's bishop's 
personal kindness in defending me, as in o&er matters. 
Hence came all the searchings and conflicts of heart. 

'' I suppose very few expected that the bishop would win 
his cause, and establish Uie Episcopal 'veto' against all 
comers ; and this made the anxiety fdl the greater as to my 
own duty, taking for granted, as I did, that he would lose. 
When, most happily, he succeeded, I thought my course wa^ 



RESIGNATION OF CLEWER PARISH. 175 

clear. The bishop had gained a great victory for the Church 
— a victory that ensured to bishops a power of defending 
priests against attack. He had done this by a great effort 
on his own part. He had pleaded the cause in his own 
person in Court. After this, to have continued to carry on 
the Eitual which had roused tiie storm, and which he strongly 
disapproved, which would have exposed him to reproach as 
upholding me in what he thought illegal, out of kindness 
towards me, this seemed altogether ungenerous and unfair, 
to say nothing of the question of dutifulness ; I could not 
think the Eitual cause would suffer, the Episcopal veto 
having been gained; and these moral considerations came in, as 
I thought, sufficiently strong to decide me. I at once resigned." 

It is pleasant to be able to add the following from Bishop 
Mackamess years after Mr. Carter's resignation, and when 
he himself was about to leave the Diocese of Oxford. It 
shows how the trying circumstances and differences had in 
no way affected personal relations. 

" Onddesdonj January 14, 1889. 

"My dear Canon, 

"It IS a real pleasure to me to have a parting 
word from you and Clewer. We are to leave this dear home 
to-morrow, to stay a few days in London, and to find (if God 
will) a new abode at Angus House, Eastbourne. Old friends 
from the old diocese promise to look in upon us there, as 
occasion offers. My severance from the Sisterhood is one of 
my great griefs. Very heartily do I wish them all good in 
the future. If they are wise and patient, they have a noble 
work in the Church of England before them. I am reading 
your new statutes with much interest this morning ; many 
thanks for the copy you have sent me. I must not say more 
than that I am, my dear friend, 

" Yours in true affection, 

" J. F. Maokabness (Bishop)." 

The Clewer Case. 
(Printed in the Times, AprU 6, 1880.) 

"To THE Editor of the 'Times.' 
"Sib, 

'' If at a time such as the present I eusk you to 
find room in your columns for the accompanying letter, it is 



176 "* FEELINGS OF WIDESPREAD UNEASINESS.^ 

because few clergymen are Icnred and leyered thronghont the 
Chnich of England as is Mr. Garter, and the resignation of 
his benefice has given rise to feelings of widespread nneasi- 
ness, which it ison every account deniable to allay. How fax 
the resignation of Clewer is a precedent to be followed by 
other clergymen whose drcomstances may be more or less 
similar to those of Mr. Carter, and what snch an act implies 
in respect of general loyalty and attachment to the Church 
of England, these are questions of practical interest to a 
great many people just now, and they are answered in the 
subjoined letter. 

''lam, sir, 

'^ Your obedient servant, 

" tt P. LiDDON. 

** 3, Amen Court, St Paul's, E.G. 
« April 3, 1880." 

" CUwer Bectory, Windsor, April 2. 

" Mt deab Friends, 

" In answCT to your kind inquiries, I gladly state 
the leading circumstances of my case which have led me to 
resign, and which have seemed to me peculiar to myself, and 
unlike the diifficulties now affecting others. 

*' The bishop has been, at much cost to himself, shielding 
me from three separate attacks pressed upon him, once under 
the Public Worship Emulation Act, twice under the Church 
Discipline Act. He has shielded me partly out of personal 
kindness, partly from his strong disapproval of these vexa- 
tious law-suits. From his own convictions, and his sense of 
duty in reference to these complaints, he could not at the 
same time but condemn me and urge me to give way. 
Though Dr. Julius had no ground to complain, living only a 
short time of the year at Clewer, and never having frequented 
the parish church, yet there are others who had a real ground 
to complain, having lived all their lives in the parish and 
be^i accustomed to attend the parish church, and these had 
been the complainers under the two earlier attacks. There 
are, indeed, several families of chief standing, socially speak- 
ing, in the parish, who have taken the lead privately in 
remonstrance to myself, publicly in these formal complaints 
to the bishop, who have therefore considered themselves to 
have real ground of complaint, though a far larger number 
of parishioners have sympathized witii the changes that have 
been made, and have been thankful for them. I have been 



RESIGNATION OF CLEWER PARISH. I77 

suirounded by personal kindness all the while, yet I could 
not conceal £rom myself the divided state of the parish, or 
think that the bishop could possibly refrain from interference 
under these circumstances, though he has well fought the 
battle necessary to obtain the power, in the strength of which 
he could protect me, and woiQd, as far as I have reason to 
believe, have continued to protect me to the end. This state 
of things is, I think, quite peculiar, and essentially different 
from that in which any of our friends who have taken a 
similar line to my own have been, or are now placed, or, I 
think, ever likely to be placed. I felt that I was laying 
down no law nor setting any example, having simply to 
consider what was fair and honourable in my own particular 
case, and that, whatever the consequences might be, I could 
only justify myself before God and before the Church by 
taking openly and avowedly the course which seemed to be 
fair and honourable. As between man and man, I could not 
allow myself to accept protection from the one hand and 
reject remonstrance from the other. I could not consent to 
be at once shielded by kindness and continue to act under 
disapproval If between man and man this were simply 
intolerable, how much more between priest and bishop ? If 
in any case dutifulness is to come in, it could not but 
be required, when between equals honour would have 
dictated it. 

'' I do not see how, under the circumstances, the bishop 
could have acted otherwise than he has done, when most 
desirous of protecting me. Nor could I have done otherwise, 
I think, than acknowledge my desire to show him all the 
deference I could consistently with upholding the cause to 
which I had devoted myself, or fail to rdieve him as 
soon as possible from the strain to whidi I had subjected 
him. 

'' As the whole matter had been so public, I thought my 
reasons for acting as I have done ought also to be public. 
My case, moreover, is not at all like that of certain others 
who are contending against the Courts on the ground that 
they are not true Church Courts. I have had nothing to do 
with the Courts. My concern has been entirely with the 
bishop, and with the bishop acting of himself without the 
Courts, and indeed himself contending against the Courts, or 
at least refusing to act through them. 

''Let me add a few more words as to another question 
which you think may possibly arise. I have no other thought 

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178 EVER FAITHFUL TO THE ENGLISH CHURCH. 

but to devote the rest of wj days, as far as God permits me, 
to make the best use dT the opportunities of usefukiess that 
remain to me, within the bosom of the Church of England. 
To the CSiurch of England, notwithstanding all its short- 
comings and difficulties, I am unalterably attached, not only 
by early impressions and numerous pledges, but by convic- 
tions growiog with growing years. And it would, I think, 
be only to repeat the grievous error which most unhappily 
scattered the early l^taiian host to be now impatient 
under the difficulties and possible losses that beset our 
witness to the truths we uphold, instead of waiting quietly to 
see, as they might have done, and what has proved to be an 
unanswerable fact, how, as of old, truth may avenge itself, 
and those who once doubted or opposed have become at last 
the foremost to defend. 

" Believe me, 

" Ever very affectionately yours, 

"T. T. Cabtbb. 

« The Bev. H. P. liddon, D.D.* 



The Bishop of Oxfobd to Mb. Cabteb. 

^ Ouddesdon Pahee, Wheathy, (hxm, 

« Aprils, 1880. 

"My dbab Canon, 

'' I do not know that I have ever read a letter 
with greater pleasure, or with more thankfulness, than I have 
read yours in the Tivfua of to-day. Its perfect fairness of 
statement, and the thoughtful consideration for all who are 
in any way interested in the question to which it refers — 
alike in what it says, and in what it forbears to say — are 
beyond my praise. si sic omnes .' is all I can say, when I 
think of present controversies and the controversialists who 
conduct them. I would thank you for it with all my heart, 
but that I ought rather to thank God for the gifts of charity, 
candour, and loyalty to truth, which make such a letter 
possible. It gives me a fairer prospect of peace and spiritual 
life in the Church than anything which has come under my 
notice for many a weary day. 

'' I am only waiting for your letter to issue the Licenses to 
you, in respect of the House of Mercy, Hospital, Orphanage 
(there is no other chapel, I think) — ^to the first (I suppose) 




CLEWER CHURCH IN 1844. 
{From a IVater-colcur Drawing by W. Incai.ton) 




CLEWER CHURCH, 1903. 
{From a Photo by Hills & Saunders, Eton.) 



RESIGNATION OF CLEWER PARISH. 179 

as Warden, to the other two as Chaplain. Be so kind as to 
let me have the correct description of each institution for 
insertion in the formal Licenses. You will then be free to 
consider what date you will wish the formal completion of 
your resignation to bear. 

" Believe me to be, 

" Yours very sincerely, 

"J.F. OxoN." 



CHAPTER VIII. 

LSTTEBS. 

'Love of Aged Parents. 

•« 1867. 

"My deae , 

" I am very glad of your aocount, and earnestly 
trust you may be able to persevere. I feel sure you ought 
to take good courage and have a brighter hope. Your present 
state seems a stronger one than I have before known you to 
have reached. Go on, therefore, with the brighter assurance 
that you can put forth strength, and can maintain now a 
more steadfast discipline of inner life. You may do this and 
not find the loss of the Betreat, as God ordered it. I am 
quite ashamed of having let a pressure of things hinder my 
writing to you before, and now I am uncertain whether you 
may not have returned to England ; and I regret my delay, as 
I fear you may have suffered from a continuance of the tried 
state you were in when you wrote. I do not think that I 
less care to be all that God enables me, only at these press- 
ing times I find writing especially difficult. And now, my 
dear child, I would earnestly tell you that you must not 
dwell on thoughts which will revenge themselves in destroy- 
ing your true peace. I am most anxious about your feelings 
toward your mother. I feel the trial of the present, but 
there is a special warning against our turning from parents 
in the days of their infirmities, and when &om any cause 
they become a burden. It requires an effort of faith, but 
the remedy for present trial is to be found in thinking what 
they have been, what in one's own infirmity and faidtiness 
when we wearied them, and what we can look for from God, 
if when we received life, this giving through them, we lose the 
grateful love and care which is the only possible recompense. 



LETTERS. 18 1 

And, then, there are sorrows in a parent's heart, especially 
in a mother's; specially there may be in yours, which to 
think of at all cannot but move one's soul to its depths. 
My dear child, you will not forget that one deep part of the 
mind of Christ is that which feels now as fully and warmly 
as ever towards her who gave Him birth ; and you will dwell 
on this, and not think of weaknesses and faults, things 
which may try you, nor shrink from self-sacrifice which it 
may cost now to * requite ' what you have received of her in 
your need. May God bless you in this care, and enable you 
to repair by increased thoughtfulness whatever you may 
have been wanting in. 

" I am greatly sorry you have been tried otherwise, with 
the sad disturbance of mind you have known of old. That 
charge was a sad view to take ; the mystery of God's love 
towards us, and the augury of life in us, is that, with such 
drawbacks and such hindrances, the very movement of grace, 
which so stirs opposition, is yet so widely spreading, and, I 
think, so surely now settling in amongst us. And it is 
enabling us to express what would otherwise have seemed 
mere theory — the blessed doctrine of the Eucharistic Presence 
and Sacrifice. It makes us feel more sure that God is bring- 
ing it out, and awakening a wider intelligent sympathy. The 
more blessed this is that there is so much to teach in humility 
and patience, so much that ought to breathe in us a spirit of 
quiet waiting for God Himself to do what He will in His 
own way and time. Your own personal life will not lose by 
the demals and far distant separation to which you are sub- 
jected, even though it be &om sacraments, if you can but 
leave all, subdued and patient, and keep such rules as you 
tell me truthfully. To be thrown on yourself, then, and 
inner communion with God, tests you, and will indeed lead 
you to a deeper, truer work of grace in you, if you can still 
cherish hope. Iti will teach you to value much better what 
you may have had in time past and not used as well ; and 
the past simple spiritual leaning on His love, with less of 
outer aid, is for a time not against the growth of your life. 
Trust me, my dear child, in this. I shall like to hear again 
from you, and if I can see you on your coming near, I shall 
be glad. 

" Your affectionate 

"T,T.O." 



i82 COMMUNION WITH THE FAITHFUL DEPARTED. 

The Sin against the Holy Ohost. 

"Dkab , 

*' There is bat one sin that can shnt ont any man 
firom the mercies of God, and that is the sin against the Holy 
Ghost ; and the sin against the Holy Ghost means an im- 
penitent and persistent rejection of all the working of the 
Holy Ghost, and all the witness to the truth which He gives. 
Where there is sorrow for sin and fear of offending God, 
there cannot be the sin against the Holy Ghost, for that 
sorrow and that fear are the work of the Holy Ghost in the 
soul. The very fear and despondency yon describe prove 
that this sin is not being committed. What you describe is 
a morbid and diseased state arising from a weakened state 
and oppression after the conscience has been awakened ; this 
the desponding nervous apprehension that not unfrequently 
follows a stirring of the conscience in weakened health. The 
remedy is to be found in steadfast carefulness as to duty, and 
active usefulness, and all natural interests innocently entered 
into, and to believe it is unreal and unfounded distrust of 
God. By taking all natural means of cheerful employment, 
such a person would be heli)ed. 

''I believe that the faithful departed are nearer to us 
than we ordinarily think, and there is a communion of 
thought and sympathy in ways we hardly know. They 
have ways of seeing and knowing in the light of God's 
Presence that we can now hardly conceive, and we may 
surely feel the intercourse, only believing that God hides 
from them what would pain them, and in some way reveals 
what would be a delight to them to know. Perhaps the 
angels may in some mysterious way minister between us and 
them. May God guide and bless you always. 

" Tours, etc., 

"T. T. 0.'* 

With reference to the first point in this letter, " The Sin 
against the Holy Ghost," there is a sermon upon this awful 
subject by the Eev. T. T. Carter, which was preached in the 
Church of St. Mary-the-Virgin, Oxford, on March 6, 1863, 
and published by Messrs. Parker. The text was St Matt. xii. 
31, 32 ; and the opening words were, " One of Satan's chiefest 
snares is to make the soul distrust the mercies of Gk)d. 



LETTERS. 183 

Where he fails to produce disobedience, he may cause dis- 
trust, or doubt, or despondency." Whilst the preacher 
acknowledges the awM doom of the guilty one, and, with 
St. Augustine, the diiB&culty of the passage, he describes the 
sin as the final rejection with ''amazing hardihood" of 
Divine Tenderness and appealing Love. Though " like some 
dark orb in space, wholly eclipsing the sun, so this fearful 
doom traverses the face of Holy Scripture ; " yet it must 
be remembered that this sin is not to be viewed as a 
''single sin, and so taken separately, but as a whole and 
complex state, the entire antagonism to the entire revelation 
of Mercy." 

LatitvM'mHanwrn,. 

For many years Canon Carter held a leading position 
amongst those who held, or sympathized with, the " Catholic 
Position," as against Bome on the one hand, and the ultra- 
Ptotestant or Erastian view on the other. Hence it followed 
that questions would be from time to time submitted to him 
for his opinion or guidance. It was felt by many that the 
Tractaiian leaders in Oxford, through long academic training 
and associations, were inclined to take a stifT and unbending 
line in their reverence for recovered truths, which required 
some modification and tolerance when these truths were 
applied to the masses in our great cities. Then the question 
would naturally arise how far this change was justifiable or 
not; whether it was necessary; how far it should go; 
whether it was a degeneration or healthy evolution of the 
original Tractarian position. There were not wanting those 
who felt that the change might be fraught with danger, and 
some wanted to be reassured of the historic claims of the 
High Church point of view. 

We are allowed to print the following questions and 
answers, which will have something more than historic 
interest: — 

" In answer to two questions : (1) At what point does the 
toleration of Protestant errors in the Catholic Church in 



184 ^OIV LATITUDINARIANISM ACCOUNTED FOR t 

England become wrong and altogether unjustifiable 7 K the 
temporary phase of &e present 'comprehensive' state of 
things be allowed — even in theory — to become normal, how 
is -Ajiglo-Catholic * tolerance' to be reconciled with the 'ex- 
clusiveness ' of the true Church, and how is it to be marked 
off from popular nineteenth-century Latitudinarianism ? 

"(2) On the question of tolerance of error within the 
Anglo-Catholic Church, have not the present representatives 
of the Tractarians largely receded from the firm position 
taken up by those great men ? And can such a change of 
attitude— if a fact — ^be justified ? " 

Canon Carter replied as follows : — 

«* CTeMw, Septemher 26. 

"Deae Mb. , 

" I quite understand the difficulty many may feel 
as to our Catholic position. I think our later history explains 
the question. When William of Orange came to the throne, 
all the High Church clergy, unable to surrender their oaths 
made to the Stuart family, were ejected fix)m their livings ; 
and the Broad Church party, with some few exceptions, came 
to the front. And the consequence was the deadness that 
prevailed during the last century, and the early part of the 
present century (XIX.). I say * deadness ' — I mean a much 
lower condition of things. When the Oxford movement of 
1833 came, it was thought to be an innovation, instead of 
its being a true revival of the true Church of England. But 
then came resistance, as you must know, and since then it 
has been a struggle of parties. And we have at present to 
bear with this conflict, not as true to the Church, but as the 
consequence of the historic difficulty. We who hold to the 
higher Church line are the true descendants, as I hold, of 
the Beformed Church of England ; and we have to bear with 
the Broad and Evangelical lines as imperfect representatives 
of the Church. It is not that the Church of England is com- 
prehensive of different sides of truth or a compromise, but 
that the higher, being the true [side], has to bear with the 
lower condition of things, because this lower condition of 
things prevailed so long before the true and higher elements 
of the Church awoke. ... I look on this toleration as a 
present necessity to be borne with, in hope of its becoming 
raised into the higher fellowship which possesses the whole 



LETTERS. 185 

truth. It is not that we allow Latitudinarianism, but that 
we have to be patient with the lower condition, as an un- 
happy consequence of the history [and experience since 1833] 
of which I have spoken. I do not mind what some of the 
bishops now say. I do not think that we have receded, or 
ought to recede, from the Tractarian position, which is our 
true one. 

" Believe me, very sincerely yours, 

"T.T. Carter." 

Devotion. 

"My dear , 

" I trust your home life is peaceful, and that you 
are exact in the fulfilment of all duties. Any special trials 
should be calls for patience and loving helpfulness. 

"I suppose you keep some midday prayer, renewing 
spiritual desires at such times. And can you give more 
time for reading some helpful book — half an hour in the 
day at least ? And it would be well to make some special 
grace to be remembered about midday and about five 
o'clock — 

" Eeadiness to help. 

" Endurance. 

" Self-sacrifice. 

"Pray erf ulness. 

" Thankfulness. 

" To make more than usual intercessory prayers. 

" To keep certain times of reading devout subjects daily. 

" To offer each night thankfulness for any special bless- 
ing, or regret for any failing in speech. 

" Nothing unnecessarily against another ; care of thought ; 
keeping off unkindliness of any kind to any one. 

" Begularity in duties ; carefulness as to any light matter. 

'' The grace — such as patience, perseverance, readiness to 
help. Contentment with things that come unexpectedly, 
and such-like. God bless you. 

" Yours affectionately, 

"T. T. 0." 

In another letter we find the following suggestions for 
grtmth in grace : — 

" (L) Thankfulness for past mercies ; (ii) Sense of joy in 
the love of our Lord ; (iii.) Desire to please Him in aU 



i86 THE EASTWARD POSITION. 

possible ways; (iv.) Endurance of minor difficulties; (v.) 
Self-sacrifice in little details ; (vi,) Thoughtfulness in prayer 
and thanksgiving ; (vii.) Thoughts of Divine love and care ; 
(viii.) Eecollectedness of God's Presence through the day; 
(ix«) Thoughtfulness and steadiness in reading; (x.) Inter- 
cession for others, far and wide; (xi) Desire for progress, 
upward and onward ; (xii.) Possibly a day of prayer, and 
offering all things to God ; (xiii.) Thankfulness for having 
been uplifted in prayer." 

The Eastward Position. 

The following letters are from a copy. We mention this 
as beiog unable to guarantee the accuracy of every word. 
The transcriber says, " I had much difficulty in making out 
his writing. The words in the second page, which I have 
marked, fairly beat me." 

«* Clewer Bectory, Februa/ry 14, 1867. 

" My dear Sir, 

" I have to thank you for your kindness through 
your sister and for your papers which I have received. I 
have the second with much interest, and look forward to 
reading the other. I hope you will not think me obstinate 
in still holding my own, however serious such contentious- 
ness seems to be, against such an assailant as yourself. I 
write frankly, and say where I feel your argument faQs to 
convince me. I do not think you have allowed for the 
history of the Prayeivbook, and so not taken into account how 
slight indications mark important meanings. The history of 
the insertions in the revision were often at least gains to the 
High Church view, yet only after a long period sometimes 
working themselves out. Thus, the insertion of placing the 
elements on the Lord's Table at the offertory has succeeded 
only in our own day to establish the credence and all its 
consequences, what the Greek Church terms the 'Lesser 
Entrance.' This principle, I think, throws on a new rubric 
(light ?) ; t.e. it would show how the rubric of * standing 
before,' etc., which here preceded the ' Consecration Prayer,' 
really involves the eastward position at the most solemn part 
of the service, though only a later generation might develop 
its full significance. Though I feel a certain difficulty in 
the expression * before the people,' yet I cannot conceive the 



LETTERS. 187 

mere ordering, in the sense of moving the elements from the 
centre to the north end for consecration, could have been 
the object of introducing that rubric, after more than a 
century's use without it. As to the actual rubric in question, 
what you admit on page 8 seems to me the justification of 
Walker's view. For clearly ' north side ' is an idea con- 
nected with the lengthwise idea of the Holy Table— (foww 
the church. This latter would be, as you rightly say, the law 
view, but that Laud's move overruled it. 

'' But with this, the ' north side ' idea seems to me also to 
go to the wall. The one falls with the other, for 'north 
side ' meant the long position thus turned toward the north, 
and if this actual intention of the rubric must be given up 
in respect of the Holy Table, then I think it may as well be 
argued that side is to rule the priest's position as that north 
is to rule it. The Catholic (Church) position has always 
been for the priest to stand at the Umg side, as one minister- 
ing at an Altar table would naturally do, so that side, if we 
take Church custom, would more truly rule the point than 
* north,' which is quite a new idea. 

" But the truth, I suppose, is that neither determined it, 
but that the priest is left to return where ancient custom 
placed him, as the Altar returned to where ancient custom 
placed it. The matter is important, because, as far as symbol- 
ism is concerned, the idea of offering a sacrifice is most fitly 
expressed by the mid- Altar position and facing in the 
direction to which one most naturally turns as towards God. 
The basilica idea I suppose to be peculiar, and depending on 
the apse and corona of clergy, etc. I am afraid I have but 
poorly expressed myself, and must ask you to excuse a 
hurried expression of thoughts, yet they are what have beeti 
long deep at heart. I do not think that custom can rule 
such a point as this, if we consider the Puritan leaven in 
some, and the yielding to anti-Eoman reaction in others, 
and only in our own later days, I believe, has the full mean- 
ing of the Catholic indication in the Prayer-book come to 
be fairly investigated; compare, e.g., Wheatley's even, and 
Blunt's New Annotated Prayer-book. Pardon, I request 
you, my hasty way of expressing myself, and believe me, 
with sincere respect, 

" Very truly yours, 

•'T. T. Carter." 



188 THE EASTWARD POSITION. 

" Clewer Rectory. 

" My deab Sir, 

" Your sister kindly procured for me a copy of 
the number in which your paper occurs, and so I trust to 
possess as well as read it, and so with sincere thanks I return 
your proofs. 

''I am sorry I cannot find an agreement with one so 
earnest and true as yourself, but there are so many , 
different points of view. Certainly I long to find it true 
that we may without breach of law keep to the west side, 
for the ' north end ' seems to me utterly wrong, on symbolic 
and Catholic grounds, and I believe I do not &id the justifi- 
cation in the fact that the rubric, of which the * north side ' 
idea forms a part, is abrogated, particularly by the fixture of 
the Holy Table in the east end ; and that north dde never 
meant north end, but expressed an idea which cannot be 
carried out, happily because of Laud's move of the Altar, and 
therefore I feel we are free to fall back on the first Prayer- 
book rule of the ' midst of the Altar/ 

" Nor can I think this position * midst of the Altar ' was 
singular, but that we represented what many in that day 
began to do, as part of the intended consequence of the 
removed Altar. 

"Yours, 

"T. T. C." 

" Barmouth^ November 8. 

"My DEAB S , 

" I am sorry I cannot have the pleasure of being 
with you at the Chapter, and must lose the benefit of the 
discussion. I do not reach home in time. 

" On No. 1 I suppose there will be a general unanimity, 
and I trust it will be carried nem. con. in favour of the Epis- 
copal Veto. On No. 2 one should be thankful to hear the 
minds of thoughtful men. There are, of course, several 
points included under it. 

" On one point, as to which much has been said from 
different sides, it has seemed to me that the case is clear, viz. 
that according to the terms of the implied contract between 
Church and State, as well as to statutes touching the royal 
supremacy, the Rnal Court of Appeal is the Sovereign's 
Court; even if it was composed of the whole Episcopate it 
would still be the Sovereign's Court, because they woidd sit. 



LETTERS. 189 

not as a Synod, but as a body convened by royal authority. 
In this respect, therefore, it would make no difference whether 
the members of such a Court were clerical or lay, because 
the authority which convened them would give to the Court 
its character. 

" To suppose that there would be one Final Court to deal 
with spirituals, and another with temporals, so that a man 
might be upheld in the former and condemned in the latter, 
would be out of the question, because one cannot separate 
the power of ministering from the property held by the 
minister. So far it seems to me clear. The difficulty arises 
as to the component members of this Appeal Court. I have 
been accustomed to think that a Court composed of lay and 
ecclesiastical persons would be best, as ensuring the two 
requisites of such knowledge as experts only can have, audi 
such experience as practicS lawyers only can have. But 
one knows the objections that lie against this under our 
present circumstances, considering the divisions among 
Churchmen, whether bishops or professors of theology, and 
it may be that the lay body of judges, with power of appli- 
cation to the Episcopate on points of doctrine, may be the 
best scheme. And considering the learning and care and 
fairness shown in the Commission Beport, we might, I think, 
well trust them for having done the best that could be done 
under the circumstances. 

" Where the shoe pinches is the possibility of the Arch- 
bishop's Court being forced to reverse its own decision, and 
inflict penalties on a priest whom it had previously judged 
true and faithful One sees no help for this, except in the 
archbishop's refusing to act and taking the consequences. But 
will any one do this ? Is it not possible that the archbishop 
may say that he has to act ministerially, and so has no 
responsibility, as we know to have been done in kindred 
cases ? In this case the only remedy would be a remonstrtunt 
and recalcitrant Church. 

''But there must be trust somewhere; and it may be 
that we must trust to the fairness of the Court of Lay Judges, 
and that no such Appeal Court will again say that there is 
a ' not ' to be read before ' retain and be in use,' in the Orna- 
ments Bubric, in order to understand it. 

" I see in this week's Guardian that T. W. Perry, whose 
opinion on this question is worthy of all respect (in a report 
of the St Albans' Diocestun Conference), proposes that the 
' Lay Coiurt should not be at liberty to vary the judgment of 



I90 FREEING FROM RASH VOWS. 

the Provincial Court upon any direct or indirect interpreta- 
tion of doctrine or ritual which is inconsistent with the inter- 
pretation relied on by the Archiepiscopal Court/ 

" But how, then, if the hands of the Appeal Court are 
thus to be tied on, perhaps, the very question at issue, would 
there be a Final Appeal Court at aU ? 

"I am afraid, living here in idleness, I have allowed 
myself to run on to an enormous length, and must have 
sorely wearied you. But the subject you propose is deeply 
interesting. 

" Believe me, ever most sincerely, 

" T. T. C. 

*'I am afraid we are in a great /aj. If Parliament deal 
with the question, it will probably do away with the Epis- 
copal Veto — our chief safeguard. 

'' If nothing is done, the Church remains in the hands of 
Lord Penzance." 

" CleweTj November 6. 

"Mydeab S , 

** I am sending a brochure of mine. Some years 
ago I expressed what conclusions I could gather as to vows 
touching Beligious Communities. I always thought that a 
dispensing power resides in the Church as part of the 
absolving power. Vows may be taken rashly or ignorantly, 
and if this be quite clear, it would seem that the mercy of 
God would be extended to such persons if there were reasons 
sufficient against keeping such vows, and then the Church, 
through her priests, would absolve from the guilt incurred in 
the act rashly and ignorantly done. As to vows in * religion,' 
those of obedience and poverty, of course, have reference to 
the state of life. If for any reason the state of life came to 
be impossible, as, e,g., overstrain, or from any really necessary 
course altering the circumstances and powers of the person 
to keep them, there would be a necessity for freeing the 
person from any guilt. The rule of a society would properly, 
I suppose, lay down some principle touching the case. The 
vow of * chastity ' or celibacy is a different thing, and is, of 
course, more of a personal character, and so more difficult 
to deal with, for it might be kept after one could no longer 
remain in Community. As to this, one can only say that 
the Pope has exercised a dii^ensing power even in this 
matter in extreme cases. You know the difiference between 



LETTERS. 191 

'solemn' and 'simple' vows; how any bishop can absolve 
from the latter, the Pope &om the former. But all this 
implies that the Church generally has acted on the principle 
of a dispensing power being matter of discipline within the 
range of the Church's authority. As to Brotherhoods now 
being formed among us, I feel vows to be a very grave matter, 
and I am strongly inclined to think that there should be 
greater caution exercised before perpetual vows are taken. 
It would not be well, as far as I can judge, except after a 
long probation, and might be approached as a final step, if 
approved, after a period of periodical vows had been passed 
through. I can fancy a Society in which perpetual vows 
were taken by some, and periodical vows by others, as the 
more usual practice, or as the Oratorians do — ^the vow of 
love freely taken. 

" Can you kindly throw any light upon this most anxious 
question of the archbishop's jurisdiction, or can you say what 
Bishop Stubbs thinks, or your dear brother-in-law ? To me 
it is the most anxious question that has been raised 

" Can we reject the growth of the power of Metropolitans, 
which certainly took place in early days ? 

"Is it possible that the whole body of bishops of a 
province would sit on a practical matter for weeks and 
months, as a Court, in any individual case? Must not 

councils be to be of force ? And if so, however get a 

verdict? And in our case would there not be an appeal 
from such a Court to the Crown ? And would not such an 
appeal be a far more damaging matter, if taken from a Synod 
unanimous of the bishops of the province, than from the 
archbishop ? 

" I cannot but say that I am profoundly anxious at the 
state of things, and should be thankful for any light upon it. 
I am delighted to add my quota. 

" Ever yours sincerely, 
" T. T. C. 

" Can a bishop rightly act as assessor if he thinks the 
jurisdiction unsound ? " 

This letter, written early in Canon Carter's ecclesiastical 
career, and dijB&cult to decipher, shows how at that time 
questions about jurisdiction occupied his attention and 
anxious consideration. Mr. Carter advised submission to 



192 " THE SIX POINTSP 

the Lambeth opinion, though retaining the use of incense 
in processions, and in places not touched by that decision. 
He did not regard it as a hard-and-fast rula In this respect 
he was in accord with the late Bishop of London, Dr. 
Greighton, who is said to have given permission for its use 
on the Dedication Festival in one of the churches expressly 
connected with that ruling. Mr. Carter felt strongly that 
the "six points" which had been so long contended for 
ought to be contended for still. But whilst he felt this, 
there were practices or developments which he regarded as 
"un-English," and had no desire that these should find a 
home in our Communion. He held, we gather from a letter 

to Mr. y that " the judgment about ceremonial use of 

incense only touches parish churches." 

" The archbishop evidently thinks it will go on with per- 
mission on State occasions. I think the archbishop's appeal- 
ing to the first three hundred years, when incense was in all 
the temples around the Christians, as showing the law for 
the Church, was a pity. It would hardly be used by Christians 
when the heathen were in full use of it. I think some have 
exceeded the course ; one would have wished to have been 
kept back. The archbishop's request is, I suppose, for peace 
sake, and because of the extravagance of some. I have 
always thought that along with the written law there was 
an unwritten tradition, and that incense was such. But 
certainly it is only a few years it has been used among us 
Uturgically." 

The opinion that the ruling laid no moral obligation upon 
Beligious Communities to change their use where the services 
are not open to the public (which Mr. Carter strongly held) 
may yet be called in question, if the chaplains and the 
buildings are licensed by the bishop; but it is not likely 
that bishops would trouble themselves to apply the " opinion " 
in such cases, and the institutions may have chapels in various 
dioceses. 

There was a strong anti-Soman vein in Canon Carter's 
character, which may be traced in other parts of this volume. 



LETTERS. rgs 

He always regarded the Oxford movement as not Bomeward ; 
but as a return to primitiye doctrine and practice, which was 
the standpoint of the old Tractarians. He had, however, a 
delight in a beautiful ceremonial — a natural delight as well 
as that which arises from the conscious uplifting of the soul 
to the beauty of the worship in the Courts above. 

He regarded the present condition of things as '' a real 
medley " as to Church government. Thus in a letter, bearing 
date 1899, he writes : — " It seems to me unlike the early 
time when bishops consulted their presbyters. They now 
act separately, even individual bishops, diflferent from one 
another. It is a real medley/', And he then refers to the 
archbishop's letter on the marriage question, and his fear of 
any mere accommodation to State action. 

It has been already said that in Mr. Carter's character 
may be traced a great dislike of hard-and-fast Unes. This 
comes out again in a letter, dated 1897, on the Divorce 
Question. Writing to a priest, he says — 

"I feel the dijB&culty you so clearly feeL I cannot 
take 's absolute line. I have thought there is justifi- 
cation for that resolution of Convocation, in not liking to 
extend the absolute prohibition to those believed to be the 
' innocent party.' I have thought there is some weight in 
Bright's Une. At the same time I would earnestly desure 
that no such marriage should take place in our churches, in 
the face of our Marriage Service. 

'' But with the thin^ done, in such a case as your letter 
describes, I should be disposed to be lenient, i.e. to allow the 
^Is to visit* but to avoid as much as possible too close 
intercourse with the elders. I suppose this could be done, 
at all events for the present time. What I mean is, that 
there might be partial intercourse of a friendly and social 
kind, but short of what could have been if no such hin- 
drances. I suppose that a certain allowance must be made 
for the law of the land in the special case, where the Church 
does not pronounce an absolute bar, which seems to be the 
character of this case. I do not know whether you may 
think this all well. 

" Your very loving 

"T.T. C." 



194 THE ^^ROMAt^S"* AND ANGLICAN ORDERS. 

It will be seen by his correspondence his intense love fot 
the Church of England, and how eveiy kind of controversy 
which afiTected her touched him. The following letter bears 
the date January 17, 1898, and was written to an old and 
close friend : — 

" My dearest , 

"I am wondering whether you have read the 
letter on Anglican Orders by the Cardinal and Soman 
bishops. But I must first express my delight in thinking of 
you and yours in our old quarters. It is r€«lly most delight- 
ful to thmk of you there. I know all in and around your 
present home. I am thinking what enjoyment it must be 
to you alL Kindly give my bBst wishes to the landlady. I 
can see you going about, and am very thankful to think you 
have fine weather. I can see you all going about the 
Esplanade, the Gardens, at the Library, and along the lanes, 
and can journey with you in your expeditions. I will let 
you know what passed at the meeting at Oxford about the 
question of Beligious Communities. But to return to my 
first sentences. They (the Bomans) meet us face to face at 
the telling point of the * Eeal Presence,' and all seems to 
me to turn upon a difference of view. It is thought out 
thoroughly. It must be met as thoroughly. It goes into the 
whole matter, bit by bit, and asks the question — do you 
believe ? Do you think the archbishops will meet it ? 
They must meet it thoroughly, or we fail before the world. 
They go on the f uU quasi-material view of transubstantiation, 
as against our doctrine of the Real Presence. I should like 
to know how you think it may be met. 

" Ever yours, 

"T.T. C." 

The following letters bring up again Canon Carter's 
conservative lines of thought : — 

"My DEAB y 

"I am so glad you are sending out another 
edition of that book. It is a happy sign of the ' traditionstry ' 
theology holding its guard against the new ideas. I am just 
reading D.'s sermons on the Old Testament. How sad it is 
to see how he minimizes the Divine side of it, and throws 



LETTERS. 195 

the weight of his argument into the new literary view ! I 
have r^ with great delight Bobertson's Blair Lectures. 
Surely they will tell. They seem on such solid ground. I 
saw Bishop S. last week before he went off, and we had a 
good talk. He began to see the danger of these modem criti* 
dsms, as I thought before he did not. He spoke of the 
patchwork of J. E. P. in making up the Bibla We got 
upon the new ideas about Baptism and Confirmation. He 
inclines rather in a way to this, on account, no doubt, of 
P/s influence, which he acknowledged. I hope this restless- 
ness of new ideas will pass over. The solid ground, will 
surely hold its own. 

" Ever yours, 

"T. T. C." 



" My dear , 

'' What do you think of an idea that has come 
pressing itself on my mind — to send an address to the arch- 
bishops and bishops, stating our conviction that the Higher 
Criticism so called is ' not proven,' and is founded on a 
false view of the Holy Scriptures; that we grieve at the 
distress caused to the faithful at the infidelity fostered and 
upheld by such criticism, and praying the archbishops and 
bishops to uphold by all means in their power the tradi- 
tionary view of Holy Scripture, specially as to Mosaic 
records, and of the absolute truth of the words of our 
Blessed Lord concerning them. An address simple and true, 
to be signed by twenty or thirty priests ; if possible, one at 
least firom all the dioceses. It seems to me that we ought 
not to let it go by without some protest directly aimed at it, 
and an appeal to authority to discountenance it 

'^Ever your affectionate 

"T.T. C." 



Notwithstanding the manifest difficulties in the wording 
of a Declaration upon the extremely difficult subject of 
** Inspiration,*' Canon Carter with his friends succeeded in 
carrying out his purpose, and the document was drawn up 
and signed by eighteen clergymen, the name of Dr. Bright 
being among them. We print a copy of this document. 



196 THE CANON OF SCRIPTURE AND INSPIRATION. 

A Declaration on the InspiroHon of Holy Scripture. 

The undersigned, deeply sympathizing with the distress 
and disturbance of mind which have been widely felt among 
Church people generally, and in particular by many theo- 
logical students, in consequence of the unsettling effect of 
recent discussions on matters connected with the criticism of 
the Bible, have ventured to put forth the following Theses, 
under the conviction that they express truth which form an 
essential part of the Church's belief, and in the hope that 
when published they may tend to dear the issue, and be 
found to indicate with sufficient plainness the attitude which 
Churchmen may adopt in the present controversy. 



I. By Inspiration is meant a special action of the Holy 
Ghost, varying in character and in d^ree of intensity, 
upon those writers from whom the Church has received the 
books included in the Canon of Scripture, by which those 
books were directed to certain Divine purposes, and pro- 
tected from all defects injurious to those purposes. 

II. The main purpose of Holy Scripture is generally to 
reveal truths concerning Gx)d and man, and in particular to 
bear witness to our Lord Jesus CSbrist. It fulfils this latter 
purpose, as in other ways so specially, by being the record 
(1) of the preparation for Christ's Incarnation by the selection 
and supernatural training of a chosen people; (2) of His 
manifestation when '' The Word dwelt among us ; " (3) of the 
results of that manifestation, viz., the Coming and Presence 
of His Holy Spirit, the revelation of His mind in Christian 
doctrine, the building up of His Church on the foundation 
laid by and in Him, the communication of the fruits of His 
redemptive work, and the promise of His appearing and His 
kingdom. 

III. The several books of the Old Testament were 
delivered to the faithful of the Old Covenant, to whom God 
had revealed Himself through the oral teaching of His 
messengers and prophets; and were retained as ''Holy 
Scriptures," ''able to make men wise unto salvation through 
faith which is in Christ Jesus," when the several books 
which make up the New Testament were successively 
entrusted to faithful Christians, baptized and instructed 
in the Church of God, which is " the pillar and ground of 
the truth." The way in which Holy Scripture has been 



LETTERS. 197 

sometimes isolated, by the attempt to use it as the sole ground 
of faith and without the precedent condition of belief in Christ 
and fellowship with His Church, has been the cause of much 
misconception and confusion. 

IV. The frequent reference made by our Lord to the Old 
Testament in support of His own claims, or in illustration of 
His teaching, is decisive in favour of its inspiration in the 
sense defined above. 

y. It is certain that all the words of our Lord were 
always the most perfect words for His purpose, and that the 
forms in which they have been recoided for us are those 
which are best adapted to the needs of the Church. 

VI. Since the Human Mind of our Lord was inseparably 
united to the Eternal Word, and was perfectly illuminated 
by the Holy Spirit in the discharge of His office as Teacher, 
He could not be deceived, nor be the source of deception, nor 
intend to teach, even incidentally, for fact what was not fact. 

VII. The Divine revelation set forth in the Bible is 
progressive, and issues in the final manifestation in the New 
Testament of God's truth and will. The Bible taken as a 
whole possesses conclusive authority in matters pertaining to 
faith and morals. 

VIII. The Church has never authoritatively formulated 
what she has received to hold concerning the scope and limits 
of the Inspiration of Holy Scripture ; and it may even be 
said that there has not been a complete unanimity of view 
among her accredited teachers in regard to some points con- 
nected with that scope and those limits; but the under- 
signed believe that at least so much as these Theses express 
has been held " everjrwhere," " always," and " by all." 

George Body, M.A., D.D., 

Canon Sesidentiary of Durham. 
H. E. Bramley, M.A., 

Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, Prebendary 

of Lincoln, and Examining Chaplain to the Bishop 

of Lincoln. 
William Bright, D.D., 

Canon of Christ Church, and Begins Professor of 

Ecclesiastical History. 
T. T. Carter, M.A., 

Hon. Canon of Christ Church, and Warden of the 

House of Mercy, Olewer. 



198 ''DECLARATION^' ON INSPIRATION 

W. M. G. Ducat, M.A., 

Principal of Cuddesdon College, Vicar of Cuddes- 
don, and Bnial Dean« 

C. W. FuRSE, M.A., 

Canon of Westminster. 

David Gbeig, M.A., 

Sector of Cottenham. 

Chables Edwabd Hakhond, M.A., 

Yicar of Menheniot, and Bural Dean, Hon. Canon 
of Truro. 

W. H. HUTCHINGS, M.A., 

Bector of Kirby Misperton, and Bnral Dean. 

J. 0. Johnston, M.A., 

Theological Lecturer of Merton College, Examining 
Chaplain to the Bishop of Oxford, and Yicar of All 
Saints, Oxford. 

E. C. Lowe, D.D., 

Provost of St. Nicolas College, and Canon of Ely. 

P. G. Medd, M.A., 

Bector of North Cemey, and Examining Chaplain 
to the Bishop of St. Alban's. 

W. C. R Newbolt, M.A., 

Canon and Chancellor of St. Paul's, and Examining 
Chaplain to the Bishop of Ely. 

F. W. Puller, M.A., 

of the Society of St. John the Evangelist, Cowley. 

B. W. Bandolph, M.A., 

Principal of Ely Theological College, Hon. Canon 
of Ely, and Examining Chaplain to the Bishop of 
Lincoln. 

Darwell Stone, M.A., 

Principal of Dorchester Missionary College. 

R J. Wilson, D.D., 

Warden of Keble College, and Hon. Fellow of Merton 
College. 

A. J. Worlledgb, M.A., 

Canon Besidentiary and Chancellor of Truro Cathe- 
dral, Proctor for the Chapter, and Examining Chap- 
lain to the Bishop of Truro. 



LETTERS, 199 

The ''Higher Criticism" 

"Ji>ri7 21,1892, 

"My DBAB Friend, 

'' I am most grateful for the kindness with which 
you have treated the suggestions on which I had ventured. 
One feels how great is the opportunity connected with any 
reference to Dr. Fusey's teaddng; and as the volume in 
question has become (most naturally) very popular, I thought 
that a second edition might be imminent, and that it would 
be a good occasion for considering the series of extracts, as 
well as for making some points clearer, or increasing the 
' orderliness ' of some statements. 

'' I have forgotten what that letter of mine was, to which 
you so kindly allude. I did, indeed, feel that the sixth and 
seventh lectures involved some very perilous speculations, 
and disappointed some hopes which one had entertained as to 
'redeeming the occasion' in reference to points which had 
been, to say the least, unsatisfactorily treated in the Essay. I 
was particularly disappointed by finding that the book had 
been sent so soon to press. The consequence was, that the 
notes were strangely meagre, and that language which had 
seemed to give a one-sided and exaggerative account of the 
so-called Kiviomg had been left without due revision and 
qualification. Then the Atonement was a conspicuous defect 
in a volume on the Incarnation. But when a report of a 
Lenten sermon appeared professing to explain what the sacri- 
fice of Christ was in itseV, and ' the preacher' at the same 
time expressly declining to discuss its propitiatory character, 
one's anxiety was inevitably increased. Any average lawyer 
in the Temple church congregation would infer that what- 
ever in the doctrine of the Atonement went beyond the idea 
of a ' perfect act of obedience,' i.e. of the most complete and 
illustrious martjrrdom, might be neglected as a nicety of 
professional divines. 

" Another anxiety has been caused, I feel, by the theory 
that there is no ' indwelling of the Holy Spirit ' in the baptiz^ 
as mch. At any rate, a soul may be ' in Christ ' and yet not 
' in the Holy Spirit ; ' may be regenerated, yet have no presence 
of the Life-giver ; may be grafted into the body mystical, 
yet not indwelt by the Spirit, which is the very formative 
principle of that Body ; and then, as it seemed to me, a sepa- 
ration will be established between the work of the Son and 
the work of the Spirit, to the great disturbance of theological 



aoo - ^ JAR, ALMOST A SHOCK.'' 

tuiity. Why do Cambridge Chtirchmeii instmctively attempt 
to strike out lines of their own, and seem to ignore the logical 
consequences of their own premises ? The theory in question 
will have its natural outcome in a denial of baptismal re- 
generation. 

" Yours affectionately and gratefully, 

"W. Bmght." 

The following contains also criticisms on the '' Kenotic " 
theoiy: — 

** I had hoped that the opportunity, a veiy great one, would 
be so used as substantially to remove the anxieties which, 
as is well known, had been caused by the Essay. The larger 
part of the book fulfils this hope, when one allows, as in fair- 
ness one must, for the very modem tone, unlike the traditional 
Churchly and ' Tractarian ' tone, in which the book is written, 
and which causes a jar, almost a shock, in readers belonging 
to an older school ; but we must remember that the author is 
a man of modem Oxford, and that he would not have got the 
hold that he possesses over many men of the present gene- 
ration in the University — a hold that has unquestionably been 
most beneficial to many souls — if he had been simply a disciple 
of Fusey — ^perhaps of liddon. Each mind has its own needs, 
and they must be dealt with in the way appropriate to its 
conditions. But after this is fully allowed for, I, at any rate, 
am constrained to dissent very earnestly from language used 
in the fifth and sixth lectures and in corresponding notes. I 
do not in the least believe that our Lord's condescension in- 
volved any limitation or contraction of the Godhead itself, as 
if He not only, ' as touching His manhood,' held certain powers 
in restraint, but absolutely gave up all perfectly Divine 
activity, and, by consequence, all perfectly Divine life. This 
would mean a huTnanizing of His Divinity itself — temporary 
indeed, but real while it lasted ; and such an idea I conceive 
to be not only incompatible with the Catholic view of the In- 
carnation, but with consistent Theism itself. Tet this action 
is, unless I misunderstand a combination of passages, what is 
intended. The author does not write with sufficient clearness ; 
he uses repeatedly ambiguous terms ; he seems to be misled by 
false analogies, and not really to appreciate the logical issue 
of his own position. Even in an argumentative point of view he 
disappoints one by vagueness and inconsecutiveness. But the 



LETTERS. 20I 

graver aspect of the case is this — that some momentous sayings 
of our Lord are explained away, and some of the objectionable 
suggestions of the Essay, as to the Old Testament, are reite- 
rated, and the ' Kenotic ' theorizings go beyond what has been 
already advanced. A way of speaking of our Lord's con- 
descension is commended, which, I fear, must lead to con- 
clusions which will e(U out faith in a Christ personally and 
immutably Divine. The author himself would most earnestly 
deprecate this result, but when a ball has been set rolling, 
disclaiming will not arrest its course. 

" Yours, etc., 

"W. Bright." 

Canon Carter was, it will be seen, strongly opposed to what 
is called the " Higher Criticism," especially in its extreme form. 
His great reverence for the Word of God, and his fear of injuring 
faith in those who had been accustomed to regard the Bible 
as above criticism, were roots of this opposition. Besides this, 
the *' Higher Criticism " of the Bible had become associated 
with a view of the Licamation and Atonement which he 
regarded as defective and erroneous. He had not the time, 
nor perhaps the taste, to enter upon minute investigations of 
the sacred text. Moreover, he agreed with the accepted view 
that none but Hebrew experts, who had been specially trained 
and had '' superior capacities of linguistic penetration," were 
capable of expressing opinions " that deserve to be received," 
upon the language of the Old Testament. Mr. Carter's great 
age alone is not an adequate account for his opposition to the 
new theories. Though very old, he had a wonderful freshness, 
and was attracted by young life and thought. He was 
heartily in accord with Dr. Liddon in the line which he took 
in that celebrated sermon preached at St. Paul's on Sunday, 
December 8, 1889, entitled, " The Worth of the Old Testa- 
ment," and he feared the effect upon the religion of the 
country, that faith would become unsettled about Divine 
Bevelation. He was anxious that some steps should be 
taken to hinder this disastrous result. When ''Essays and 
Beviews " was published, the archbishops and twenty-four 
bishops issued a letter to condemn the opinions which were put 



202 DEGREES OF HIGHER CRITICISM. 

forth in that work. When Colenso published his criticism of 
the Old Testament, Bishop Gray excommunicated him. Mr. 
Carter was desirous now, that some step should be taken, not 
against persons, but against the new opinions, which seemed 
to him to undermine the Word of God, and, it may be, obscure 
the doctrine of the Atonement. He had before taken a lead- 
ing hand in drawing up ''Declarations,'' when some portion of 
the Church's doctrine was assailed or obscured, and he thought 
this a proper occasion, and had been in cominunication with 
Dr. liddon and Dr. Bright and some other leading divines upon 
the matter. Dr. Pnsey had been shocked by " tiie changes in 
the text of Holy Scripture in the Bevised Version in 1881," 
which, he thought, weakened passages bearing upon the 
Divinity of our Lord. We cannot doubt what his feelings 
would have been had he been now alive to see the ex- 
tremes to which some "higher critics" have gone in 
dealing with Holy Scripture ! 

The difficulty, however, of drawing up any declaration 
which would exactly meet the case was suggested by Dr. 
Bright, whom Canon Carter consulted. It appears that the 
latter did not at first see the main point to be objected to in 
the new teaching — that which concerned our Lord's Incarna- 
tion and Sacrifice. Mr. Carter, in a letter to a friend who 
had called his attention to this most serious difficulty, 
says — 

" I quite feel with you ; I forgot to say I did not see the 
mention of restraint in the Godhead — certainly I never saw 
anything of this. Did I tell you our bishop said to me that 
the author's ' line touched the Atonement.' I supposed him to 
mean as a consequence of the suppression of the Divine Power. 

"I am rather carefully going through M.'s work, I 
thought I ought to do so, as he gave it me. It is interesting 
to see the various views of difTerent parts of the Church. It 
is wonderful to me how he could expend such immense pains 
on such minute details, when I fancy one leaves ofT much as 
one begins. The Western tendency has long been, as he says, 
to exalt baptism. I fancy this will continue. 

" I dread with you the growth of individualism. It seems 



LETTERS. 203 

to me very blameable to popularize the new criticism in 
such a heavy way as does." 

Dr. Bright, in his reply to Canon Carter, puts clearly the 
difficulty of firaming a protest, as there are very different 
degrees or levels of higher criticism. 

" My dear Friend, 

'' I am not at all qualified to attempt any criti- 
cism of the paper which you have so kindly sent to me, for I 
know very little of the writings of the 'Higher Critical' School 
so called. Of course, one has heard a good deal about their 
' results,' although one has not been cognizant of the processes 
in detail. 

** I think, however, that I may suggest a query : Is not 
the language of your draft a little too general ? The ' results ' 
are, as indeed your second paragraph admits, of various 

* degrees.' Will not those who criticize the address, when it 
is made public, be tempted to ask for more precise informa- 
tion as to the propositions objected to ? 

"Then, again, if the bishops are asked to uphold the 
' traditionary view of Scripture,' how much does that phrase 
include ? That Moses wrote the whole Pentateuch ? That 
there is no combination in it of narratives varying in date, 
and to some extent in character ? That the legislation called 
Mosaic belongs entirely, in all its details, to the period of 
the wanderings ? That Ecclesiastes is undoubtedly Solomonic ? 
That no part of the Book of Isaiah is of a date Letter than his 
time ? That the same is the case with the Book of Daniel ? 
And that (allowing for a free use of 'phenomenal' language, 
such as still is common, sunrise and sunset, and otherwise for 
an absence of scientific accuracy in such matter as the ac- 
count of the Creation) there are no historical errors in the 
Old Testament ? Such questions will certainly be put. Would 
it not be well to provide against them ? Bishop EUicott, as 
you know, admits modifications and corrections in the 

* traditional ' view. Much turns on the value of such modifi- 
cations ; and is your draft meant to exclude them, in the 
main, from acceptance? Will you ask the Episcopate to 
ignore them ateolutely ? What would be the result of such 
a request on the minds of a good many of the younger 
clergy, who desire and intend to retain their faith, but who 
are persuaded that some points have been made by criticism 
against the ' traditional view ' as a whole ? 



204 CHRISrS USE OF THE OLD TESTAMENT. 

" I dread the effect on such minds, and on the minds of 
other Churchmen, of that general, and, if unqualified, nnoom- 
promising 'conservatism' on (and Archdeacon Denison, I 
fear, has unconsciously done hann in this way) these subjects. 
The questions of authorship and of date seem to me subordi- 
nate, in comparison of the crucial question — given that this 
or part, say, of the Mosaic history or legislation is post- 
Mosaic, perhaps by several centuries — Do you, or do you not, 
believe that the history is substantially true, and that the 
legislation, supplementary as it may be to what is in a fuller 
sense Mosaic, is at the same time an exhibition of the Divine 
intentions for Israel, and not a mere unauthorized stereotyping 
of existing [usages] or a composition, under falsely claimed 
sanction of practices which seemed edifying to the compilers, 
whether under Josiah or after the Ketum ? In short, the 
results of criticism, which seem to me, as far as I know them, 
truly destructive and pernicious, are not really [interests] of 
chronology, or conclusions of numbers, or comparative studies, 
as they might be called, of the contents of this or that pro- 
phetic or historical book, tending to new views as to author- 
ship, but such as proceed firom naturalistic premises, and the 
Old Testament as simply so much ancient literature, repre- 
senting the * evolution ' of Hebrew religion apart from any 
directly supernatural oversight and guidance. This is, I 
imagine, the real issue. Does the Old Testament represent 
the action of a supernatural inspiration, or does it not ? One 
has to use, even here, terms which may be used in some 
inadequate and misleading senses ; but still one knows what 
one means by them. One means that ' prophecy ' is some- 
thing more than the forecasts of spiritual genius, and that 
the 'law,' even supposing tiiat its different parts were put 
together at different times, was yet substantially an expres- 
sion of the mind and will of God for the chosen people, and 
in this sense really ' spoken by * Him. 

" Our Lord's use of the Old Testament is again a matter 
on which one must ' distinguish.' I mean that whenever He 
argued from a particu]jar proposition regarding the ancient 
Scripture in support of His Messianic claun or teaching, He 
set His seal to tlmt proposition, and made it indisputable for 
His servants. ITiis is what I think we are bound to contend 
for. Whether on other points as to what He did not teach 
explicitly or implicitly. His mind took cognizance of all the 
questions which criticism can raise or has raised, is a matter 
on which we are not informed, and which does not in the 






LETTERS. 20S 

least afifect our loyalty. This letter has extended to a length 
considerably beyond my intention. 

" Your ever affectionate 

"W. Bbight." 

It would appear from the following letter that Canon 
Carter had entertained the idea of appealing to the bishops 
to put out some manifesto or some judgment. As we have 
no copy of the letter to Dr. liddon^ the reply will appear a 
little obscure. 

" TatmUm, October 4. 

"My dear Carter, 

" I have read your letter with the deepest interest. 
While I feel the force of the considerations which you urge, 
it is difficult not to be anxious lest any effort of the kmd 
proposed is not sufficiently in the bishop's way to have the 
desired effect. His great power is moral, religious, devo- 
tional ; the presentation of a case, and all the attention to 
system, sequence, logic, and, more or less, law, which would 
be required, seems to be less likely to be at his command. 
And a failure, or what the world might deem such, would be 
criticized in the harshest manner. Perhaps he might be able 
to do virtually what you suggest in the form of a Charge, or 
of a printed letter to some one. , 

" Your most affectionate 

"H. P. LiDDON." 

The following letter was written to the present Arch- 
bishop of York when he was Bishop of Lichfield. It is, of 
course, inserted here with his Grace's permission. 

" Ckwer, April 18, 1890. 

"My dear Lord Bishop, 

" May I venture to offer you my very sincere 
thanks for your Charge, which I have read with very real 
pleasure and helpfulness. It will come to many as a strength 
and stay, and I am sure there is a cause, from much that 
comes to me from various quarters. 

" It is indeed strange and most sad that such a trouble 

should have taken root in P House ; this, too, in alliance 

with Keble, and with the support of both Dr. Pusey and the 



2o6 CANON carter's CARE AS AN EDITOR. 

Bishop of Lmooln's successors. Probably we may have to 
look to Cambridge to supply a remedy, and to meeting the 
attack on scholarly groundis. 

" With very much respect, and trusting you will kindly 
excuse my writing, 

" Believe me, my dear Lord Bishop, 

" Very sincerely yours, 

"T. T. Cabtbb." 

The following letter may be inserted in that it concerns 
a book which has since become famous. It is addressed to 
the editor of a newspaper. 

"My deab , 

" I am about to ask a great favour, if without 
any variance from your rules you may be able to grant it. 

It is that you may allow Mr. (one of the writers for the 

paper) to review the volume which accompanies this note. 
It is not that I wish any favouritism in regard to it, only I 
think he would be interested in the scheme. The volume is 
a carrying-out by one of my stafiT of a plan which I have 
long had at heart— a manual of a Catholic type of instruction 
for English Church people. Leaving it entirely to your kind 
discretion, 

" Believe me, yours sincerely, 

"T. T. C." 

This request was graciously granted. We have frequent 
evidences of the great interest and care which Mr. Carter not 
only bestowed on his own works, but also upon those which 
he edited. An instance of this at once occurs : — 

" I wanted to say that the statements as to the Commu- 
nion of Saints are being changed. I felt it was much wanting, 

and got M to cancel what originally appeared, and put 

in two new pages. This he has done, and in what is bcong 
printed off this new bit will appear. S— — has had great 
encouragement ; in fourteen days 2600 copies have been sold. 
It seems to want a few additions if a second edition is called 
for." 

Canon Carter was evidently anxious about the book 



LETTERS. 207 

which we have just referred to. In another letter, shortly 
after, he writes again to the same friend. 

" I think I told you that S. was bringing out what I 
have long wished — a manual of instruction for the masses, 
especially the more intelligent of them, Woidd you kindly 
look over the part on the Sacraments, and please vary or 
correct anything. I am anxious to get all the help we can. 
Bright corrected the history part. P. also had his say, and 
will you kindly return it as quickly as possible, as he has 
begun the printing, and is getting on quickly. 

*' Ever yours, 

«T. T. C." 

As Canon Carter wished everything to be thoroughly 
discussed, and any defect pointed out, so when an article 
or paper was sent to him for his opinion, after critical 
examination, he would spare no trouble in commenting upon 
it. The following letter will reveal this. Something had 
been sent to him, pertaining to the Boman Controversy — 
we do not know what it was, or by whom it was written ; 
but the letter reveals the great care he took in examining 
it and declaring an opinion, whilst the obiter dicta in the 
letter are very significant. We ought to say, in case there 
should be any verbal mistake, that the letter in question is 
most difficult to decipher. 



"Boman Controversy. 



'My deab 



" I have gone rather accurately through this MS., 
and without speaking of or committing myself to every 
detail, it seems what I should feel to be true, and no doubt 
it touches on the main point on which this imhappy con< 
troversy turns, and it does so searchingly well, and in a tell- 
ing way. But to one point of the Papal Supremacy I think 
it would want a good deal of correction to make it quite 
accurate. Puller's book on the Primitive Saints, etc., would 
set some of it right. But on the doctrines taught in Bome, 
speaking generally, the main details are well taken. But as 
to publishing, I do not feel able to judge. It might be useful 



2oe HARRIET MONSELL. 

to some, bnt I do not feel the highly controyeraifll exposures 
tend to much result. L.'s book was said to be usdhl. I 
have no experience of its having been so. It would depend, 
I suppose, on the how and the where. 

" I have not myself much faith in this kind of discussion, 
though no doubt there is need of exposing details, and 
assuredly if details are overpowering to any one who is in- 
fluenced by them, and looks at the controversy as a question 
of truth, which so few seem to do, they are important. 

*' Yours, 

"T. T. C." 

This seems to us a very important letter, as expressing 
in some measure the author's mind on the Boman question. 

Mr. Carter would open his mind very freely to any one 
who consulted him upon literary work, not only in giving 
suggestions to help others, but to consult with any whom he 
knew well, and to express any sense of difficulty which arose 
out of the subject. He was very kind and eager about what- 
ever he undertook. We have many letters about a Memoir 
which a Mend had induced him to write. He was most 
anxious to find out everything he could, in order to give a 
faithful account of the character and work. He was at first 
afraid that there would not be enough matter. Thore are 
" no letters nor anything to show his mind, nor anything 
like tlie reminiscences you mention." You want, in writing 
a life, " events to hang anything upon," etc. Yet his creative 
powers did not £eu1 him in using what afterwards came to his 
hand. Canon Carter's gift for that difficult species of litera- 
ture, biography, had been well attested by his "life" of 
Harriet MonselL Those who knew her best will endorse 
this statement The " life " of such an extraordinarily gifted 
woman would be a severe test of the powers of portraiture. 
But there were " events " upon which to " hang things " — ^her 
marriage, her widowhood, her " self-consecration in sorrow." 
Her width of mind, her warmth of heart, her spirit of devo- 
tion, her capacity for work, her artistic powers, her radiant 
brightness, her quick sympathy, needed one like the late 
Warden and Founder of Clewer to perpetuate her memory, as 



LETTERS. 209 

he has done in the book '' Harriet Monsell : a Memoir/' pub- 
lished in 1884, and since in several editions. 

We have before quoted letters which prove that Canon 
Carter did not encourage direct addresses in prayer to the 
Saints. In the following letter we come again on the same 
theme, and with a little difference, which may need ex- 
planation : — 

''Deabest , 

" The Betreat is now over. B. gave it. It was 
very good and appreciated. He took our Lord's Intercessory 
F^yer. I enclose what Davidson has just sent me. I sup* 
pose I cannot get more, but will ask D. when I see him. 
Nothing disloytd would be meant, but there are those who 
may use such terms unadvisedly. Sister L. M. was buried on 
Thursday. She was truly saintly. The cold blasts, I sup- 
pose, hastened her end. 

'' I have been looking over past letters. I feel with you 
as to what you say about the * Communion of Saints.' I hope 
the revision of the article may be satisfactory. We must 
farther change slightly, not concerning prayer to Saints, but 
lean on Pusey's line, i.e. if God would put it into their heart. 
Ten thousand copies are sold, and the new edition will be 
ready in about a week, with this alteration. I cannot see 
my way to direct invocation of a Saint, but I could address 
desires, as, ' O ye spirits and souls of the righteous, bless ye 
the Lord,' and commit the desires to the company of 
Heaven." 

Perhaps a reference to "Notes and Questions on the 
Catholic Faith," compiled from the works of Dr. Pusey 
(A. D. Innes & Co.), may help to clear what Canon Carter 
means. On page 100 of first edition it runs : — 

"Is it wrong or vainly superstitious for any, in their 
private prayers to God, to express their desire to Him that 
the Saints may pray for them ? " And the answer is, " It 
would be very difficult to prove that such a desire, expressed 
to God in prayer, could be wrong in any way." 

We think this passage throws some light upon what is 
meant in this letter. It is a subject about which Mr. Carter 

p 



3IO ''ONE MEDIATOR BETWEEN GOD AND MAN"* 

exercised great caution. The fear of in any way obscuring 
the office of the '' One Mediator between God and man, the 
Man Christ Jesus/' seemed to outweigh all other considera- 
tions. He took a strong grasp of a doctrine, as laid down in 
Holy Scripture and taught by the Fathers, as, t.g.^ that of the 
Mediation of Christ, and therefore was on his guard against 
secondary mediation. The distinctions of later days that 
Christ was Sole Mediator proprU diotus, or by His Nature, 
Office, and Merits, but that, though there was only One Media- 
tor in these respects, there was a ministerial mediation of 
the Saints, leaning on Christ's Merits, he might regard as a 
refinement, and a refinement which had certainly led to great 
excess. He was aware that we might read *' through volumes 
of St. Augustine and St. Ghrysostom " and find '' no mention 
of any reliance except on Christ alone." 

But besides what Canon Carter felt as to the great danger 
of this ministerial intercession — that it might obscure Christ's 
office as Sole Mediator between God and man — there was the 
further question, whether the Saints '' knew the details of our 
wants," and whether the belief that they hear men's prayers 
is not trenching upon an Attribute of God. Such points as 
these would weigh with Canon Carter, and make him feel 
that the line of the English Communion in this was cautious 
and wise. Yet^ on the other hand, he would be keenly alive 
to the fact that such direct intercessions were not only per- 
mitted but encouraged by the Latin and "^ Eastern-Catholic " 
Communions; and that the Holy Scriptures teach us that 
there is an oflforing from a golden censer in Heaven ''by (?) 
the prayers of all Saints," ^ and the smoke of the incense is 
said to ascend up before GUkL ''by (?) the prayers of all 
Saints ; " and that St Cyril of Jerusalem, in the fourth cen- 
tury, speaks of a prayer to God '* to receive their petition by 
the prayers of the Saints." ' But notwithstanding this, and 
possibly having sometimes to resist pressure firom some of 
hi^y developed devotional instinotg, the Warden of Clewer 
would remain loyal to the standard of bis own Communion. 
* ReY. viii. 3, 4. • Lect xadiL 9. 



LETTERS. an 

We think this a palmary instance of loyalty, because of the 
practice of other districts of the Catholic Church on the one 
hand, and, we regret to add, the dulness in ourselves in 
regard to the article of the Creed, "the Communion of 
Saints," on the other, which has been ascribed to the cessa- 
tion of direct addresses to them. 

It must be added here, that even with regard to the cere- 
monial use of incense, about which Mr. Carter felt very 
strongly — ^for the beauty of the symbol and its Scriptural 
sanction, and the practice of the Church throughout the world, 
appealed to him with great force ; yet he would not counsel 
standing out against the bishop's orders, if he brought the 
" opinion " to bear upon them, even in the chapel of Eeligious 
Houses, which he believed the judgment did not touch. In 
the following extract from a letter to one who held chai*ge in 
a large Sisterhood, this statement is borne out. Canon Carter 
writes : — 

" This judgment is an anxiety. It practically condemns 
one of the * six points ' for which, with Denison, I contended, 
now many years ago. I can only look at it as for a time, and 
for parish churches. I cannot conceive it settling the matter 
but for the present I do not see that it touches Beligious 
Houses, which have always had their separate uses. I suppose 
men must see what their own bishops do, and for the time obey 
their bishops. It seems to me a breach of the Catholic system. 
But I have always regarded Communities as separate things. 
If our bishop presses it on us, we must accept it. But I do 

not suppose he wilL The chaplain at uses incense every 

Sunday. I talked it over with the Superior, and she will teU 
the bishop when she sees him." 

We are anxious, by these extracts from his letters, to give 
and preserve his mind upon the vexed subject. It touched a 
prominent feature of his character — ^his love of beauty. This 
love of natural beauty is conspicuous in his correspondence. 
In the midst of other subjects, seemingly absorbiog, the tints 
of the trees, or the blueness of the sea, or the pure splendour 
of the stars, or the frs^grance of flowers, or the singing of 



212 DELIGHT IN SCENERY. 

birds, or poetay, or architecture, or painting, would suddenly 
appear and attract his attention, and call forth a radiant 
expression of delight. The next letter we take up affords an 
illustration of Canon Carter's delight in scenery. He is 
describing a little fishing village where he stayed : — 

''A remarkable place; the fishermen seem to be the 
aristocracy of it, and the villas, jotted on the hills, are occupied 
by men who have returned to rest^ after small fortunes made 
in their calling — ^natives of the place ; a good church, daily 
service, early celebrations on Sundays and Saints Days, 
coloured stoles, altar lights. There are curious contrasts 
here and there. In the next parish, a very retired village, is 
a church as old as the Conquest, perfectly unrestored, with a 
' three-decker ' and dilapidated chancel. Then we drove to 
another church, where the * six points' are kept, though no 
censing congregation, and vestments only in linen ; a very 
pretty vicarage, fields and gardens around; then from an 
eminence there is a most picturesque view — ^a long headland, 
a range of cliffs beyond ; above are various walks about the 
cliffs on both sides ; very interesting view, with points to look 
out. I am reading Sanday's Bampton on 'Inspiration,' 
most interesting, a very devout view, moderately done, of the 
' Higher Criticism.' " 

Here is the love of scenery and the sudden transition 
to the religious problems of the day, which is a marked 
feature of Canon Carter's correspondence — of course, he is 
writing mainly to those who share his interests, and live 
for the same objects ; but this does not do away with the 
fact that his letters are revelations of his mind and 
character. 

Canon Carter^s interests were many-sided. His earnest- 
ness reached out in many directions, as he watched the signs 
of the times, in politics as well as in religion. Thus in a 
letter to a clergyman upon parochial matters we come upon 
the following : — 

'' Are not the election returns most striking ? The Welsh 
Church, I suppose, safe — the mover of the antagonistic 
measure losing his seat. It was, I imagine, English feeling 



LETTERS. 213 

rising up against revolntion. Is it not remarkable that 
Gladstone's name does not seem mentioned ? The glamour 
has passed with his personal presence. What a lesson for 
greatness, when it goes astray." 

Again, in another letter — 

"What a remarkable 'subversal' of Gladstone's past. 
His personal influence gone. His schemes fall to the ground ; 
very sad in a man's old age." 

Canon Carter, although he led such a busy life, had 
always some book on hand, to fill up any vacant hour. He 
was no great student of patristic or scholastic divinity, but 
he kept himself well abreast of the thought of the present 
time. Very valuable guidance as to modem works and the 
choice of them may be gathered from his correspondence ; 
whilst little escaped his eye which was in the columns of the 
Times. When he was staying at Budleigh Salterton, he 
writes : — 

" I have been re-reading Ottle/s ' Bamptons.' They are 
worth it. I cannot but accept his general view, not meaning 
to say as to all details. Did you see the Tirnes yesterday ? 
— TBry important as to the marriage law; the Bishop of 
London's letter, as well as the judgment of the bishops, 
worth much consideration. I wonder whether the arch- 
bishop will answer 's attack." 

Another glimpse, about the same date, of a visit to 
Devonshire : — 

" We passed two days in Exeter with the Oxenhams, and 
had the restfulness of the cathedral each day, and one of 
the canons — Canon £. — ^learned in all that the cathedral 
embodies, showed us over it — ^all in beautiful order. Then 
one day we had tea with the dean, after service, who is able 
to be at home in the summer, and reads the second lesson in 
his impressive way. He is bright and pleasant, as you 
probably know. We came in here, a retired place, after six 
miles' (Mve from Kingsbridge. We have lodgings high up, 
looking over the whole win(Ung reach of inland sea at flood- 



214 RESERVATION FOR THE SICK. 

tide, and a good dcfal of sand beach at low tide, but with 
beantifiil windings. A boat out to the sea yesterday, and a 
drive inland to-day, make up our movements/' 

He was much touched by the death of Mr. Shaw Stewart. 
He says : — 

" Dear Shaw Stewart, it was very sudden. He had two 
nurses, and his daughter who comes to St Stephen's, so 
critical it all was. It is a most serious loss. We had just 
elected him one of the treasurers of the House of Mercy. He 
was admirable— quite a pattern ! " 

With regard to the "Eeservation of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment," Mr. Carter, who was, we believe. Founder and 
Superior of the Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament, did 
not go the whole way with those who may have desired the 
restoration of this practice for the purpose of Benediction and 
adoration. We have a letter before us, bearing no date, in 
which he says : — 

" I suppose always the retention of the Blessed Sacrament 
required the bishop's permission. You know that I never 
can feel satisfied that we have any right to reserve except for 
the sick, when our Lord's object was evidently for Com- 
munion." 

Canon Carter, when a Sister was suflfering from cancer, 
and so frequently troubled with sickness, that when the 
morning came it might be impossible for her to receive, wrote 
to the bishop, asking, under the circumstances, for permission 
to reserve the Sacrament, so that she might be communicated 
when the sickness passed, and Bishop Mackamess kindly 
granted his request, but limited the reservation to forty-eight 
hours. Bishops, too, gave permission for reservation in the time 
of the cholera, *' that the viaticum should be easily and readily 
obtained by the poorest and most suflfering of our people in 
our dense populations." Canon Carter felt, too, that the 
practice ** in the sister Church of Scotland was a point in 
favour of such reservation." He never could understand why 



LETTERS. 315 

the bishops seemed to shrink from granting this boon, if 
distinctly assured that the reservation would be for no other 
purpose than to communicate the sick and dying. No doubt 
their hesitation arose from the fear that some might turn the 
retention of the Sacrament to some less primitive use, or, 
that the safeguards for the due protection of the Blessed 
Sacrament from irreverence might not always be sufficiently 
provided. When Mr. Carter reserved the Sacrament with 
episcopal sanction, it was kept at Clewer on the altar in the 
old chapel. 

There were occasions when Canon Carter's historical 
knowledge enabled him to clear up perplexities, as, for 
instance — 

" My deab , 

"I should think with you that *s state- 
ment is not a fair one, and is one-sided. It is founded 
on the confusion between Convocation meeting as a Synod, 
and the same body of men meeting for voting taxes. From 
Edward's time the king had summoned the latter, and, to 
save trouble and time, l£e custom had been long settled that 
the writs should go out from the archbishop ; for the former 
from the king, through the archbishop for the latter, at one 
and tlie same time. After the Submission of the clergy, both 
writs were issued from the king. This I believe to be the 
truth." (See Dixon, "History of the Church of England," 
vol. ii. p. 471, etc.) 

Before the Submission the clergy had been siunmoned 
to their own assemblies, the Convocations, by their arch- 
bishops, who issued writs in that behalf. But after 
the Submission it had been enacted that they should be 
summoned, like the temporal assemblies, only by the authority 
of the kiug's writ. Dixon, in a note, refers to Canon Stubbs, 
who in his great work observes that the parliamentary 
question could only affect those Convocations which were 
called by the king's command, and that there were many con- 
vocations not so called before Henry the Eighth (25 Henry 
VIII. 19) ("Const Hist.," iii. 320). 



2i6 CONTROVERSIAL SUBJECTS. 

Canon Carter had a wide way of dealing with doctrinal 
difficulties. '' I am accnstomed/' he says, writing to a friend 
who had in some measure made the study of Eschatology his 
own, '' to answer the objections urged as to the ultimate issue 
of things, by saying, that we have two lines to keep, the one 
of fear, the other of hope, that we cannot entirely reconcile 
them. We must leave this to God ; but that we must keep hold 
firmly of the former, as the traditionary teaching has certainly 
done ; that beyond this we have not any power to go.** Yet 
he strongly opposed Universalism. This is evident again and 

again in his letters. E.g. : " I hope you will strike at 's 

book. Since Juke's book, it is, I think, the first avowed 
declaration of an English divine (for Farrar has disclaimed 
entire Universalism) of that position, and coming from 
one in his circumstances, it seems to me serious." The 
Bishop of L. "disapproves of the work." He finishes 

the letter by asking a question: "Can G be right 

in saying that St. Peter is 'the Eock'? for this he 
certainly accepts. We do not know. Probably the passage 
referred to ia p. 76, * Boman Catholic Claims,' but it is not 
very clear; it may be remarked that Tostatus,^ a great 
authority in the Boman Communion, and the author of 
a voluminous commentary on the Holy Scriptures, extend- 
ing to thirteen folio volumes, understands the rock as not 
Peter, but the faith and confession of Christ, agreeing with 
St. Chrysostom, ' iSdificabo Ecclesiam meam, in fide et con- 
fessione; aedificatio est super petram, ideo non est super 
Petrum.' Though this is only an incidental reference to the 
controversy, in fairness it should be stated that if our Lord 
spoke in Aramaic, probably our Lord would employ the 
same word in both cases." Mr. Carter, in the controversies of 
his day, had always a quieting influence, and was always 
fair. His mind would take in all sides of a subject, and he 
would try to see the good points in those from whom he 
differed. In the following letter these features were evident ; 
it is again about " Lux Mundi." His humility made him 
^ St. Matt. cap. xvi. Quest. Ixvii. 



LETTERS. 217 

consult inferior minds, and sometimes, perhaps, give undue 
weight to individual opinion. In the midst of the un- 
fortunate controversy about ^'Lux Mundi" he writes to a 
friend : — 

" I should like to know your mind. D having been 

foiled in his endeavour to get Convocation to take up the 
'Lux Mundi' matter, and also finding £. C. U. unable tio 
deal with it, is now set upon getting up an address to the 
Archbishop of Canterbury, signed by certain names. He is 

correspon(Ung with G about it, and he wiU seek to get 

a meeting to consider it. I have told him I would go to such 
meeting, if a few only present, and very privately. I have 
said to him that I should think, if such an address is to be 
drawn up, there ought to be a recognition of what is good in 
the book, and also a disclaimer of anything against such 
criticism as Lightfoot cairied out in the Tubingen matter. 

D would rather say nothing of this kind of allowance. 

What do you think of such a move ? Certainly the book in 
its main principles is of too rationalistic an order — is it not ? 

Yet how many like it ! Dear , whom I saw on my way 

through Exeter, liked it much, and would regret any move 
against G — — ^ he likes him so much personally. I have 
just re-read the essay on the ' Development of the Incarna- 
tion,' — very thoughtful, very well written, full, very impres- 
sive. Evolution is taken as the unquestioned truth, and that 
the Bible must be made to square with it. But it is written 
best." 

Betreats. 

Mr. Carter had a way of consulting others upon matters, 
of which he himself was a master. We have letters from 
the Bishop of L. and Father B. replying to such inquiries, 
and deprecating the idea that they could instruct the 
Warden of Clewer, who was not only in the habit of giving 
Betreats to clergy. Sisters, and others, but had written an 
Essay on the subject, and seemed in a special degree, as was 
acknowledged by all, to possess the etfios which appeared 
to be necessaiy for the success of such devotions. The 
Bishop of L. replies to one of these letters of inquiry in 
the following letter : — 



2i8 SPIRITUAL RETREATS. 

'* Cuddesdon Vicarage, August 28, 1869. 

"My deab Mb. Cabteb, 

"Thank you for your kind letter, but pray do 
not ask me about Eetreats. I have only given a very few, 
and always with a very great reluctance. As to the point 
you propose, I have thought of it, and it seems to me that 
there may be different kinds of Betreats, the kind depending 
both on Uie conductor and the people attending. As to the 
people that attend, when they are able to obtain information, 
or are elderly, or in the habit of thinking and knowing, I 
should think the object would be to draw them oS from the 
idea of adding to their knowledge by a more spiritual con- 
templative meditation without the element of instruction. 
But in some places, where they are beginning, it has seemed 
to me a great opportimity to give instruction, and even to point 
out the means of gaining information on some subjects, as, 
e.g., the Patristic authorities for Absolution and Confession, 
frequent Commimion, Commemoration of Departed, etc. Or 
even ways of meditation, prayer, arrangements for interces- 
sion, preparation before and thanksgiving after celebrating. 
Many do not clearly know what to do on such points, and, 
as the conductor, I have always openly considered them on 
two lines, ' consideration ' and ' contemplation.' This I got 
from St. Bernard, and adopted it; not as the better way, 
but as the more honest for me. 

"I think many young conductors might take the con- 
sideration-instruction line, who could not honestly yet reach 
the more truly contemplative meditation. If I may add a 
word more, I think we all value most highly the very high 
way in which you have conducted the Retreats, and I for 
one would say, and I believe others would join with me in 
saying, we should be very sorry for you to change your way. 

'* I must take the opportunity of asking you if it would 
not be possible to have a meeting of priests to give us 
instruction regarding cases of conscience, how to deal with 
vows, discipline, etc. I should very much value this, and 
perhaps that is the real answer to the question why the 
spiritual life is a science progressing and so dividing, so that 
we now want spiritual Betreats for priests ; and also in- 
struction for priests separate. Pray forgive my writing so 
much. 

" Yours very aflfectionately, 

"Edwaed King." 



LETTERS. 219 

**My DEAB S., 

^* It was much on my mind as I left, what pressed 
on yours. I can remember, on first yentunng to give a 
Betreat, that I felt just as you were feeling. I do not suppose 
it is a reason against venturing to give a Setreat, and one 
can hardly choose the kind of Eetreat to give first ; so that 
should you be at all disposed to yield to the request, I think 
you may well take courage. Your habit of thought would 
be the best preparation, and seem to mark you out for such 
work, and I cannot wonder at your being asked. I suppose 
there would be a good line in the mysteries applied to the 
special difficulties of the devout in the world, such as recon- 
ciling the highest love of God, and die aim at perfection, and 
the life of prayer, and the hidden life with domestic and 
ordinary calls and claims. 

'' I should be glad if, amongst other things, you could 

support my injunctions, about which I am anxious, to ^ 

as to short sermons. He seems a remarkably simple mau, 
but wanting in mental ways manifold. I had urged him 
very specitdly to preach a short sermon, about twenty 
minutes, in the morning last Sunday, as I tay to do on the 
first Sunday in the month. He told me afterwards that he 
intended to divide his sermoi), and keep to the time I had 
wished ; but he was so carried away by the good congrega- 
tion that he was tempted to give them the whole, I really 
think it is a simple kind of earnestness. We came on from 
Paris here to-day, and to-morrow hope to reach Neufchatel. 
We had a clear day in Paris. I unfortunately missed the 
Mother. She had not arrived. Beautiful weather. Trust 
all is well with you. 

" Your aifectionate 

**T. T. C." 

Confession, 

The following paper on Confession was written in 1852. 
From the number of erasures in it, it is difficult to decipher, 
and it is therefore possible that every word might not be 
exactly in accordance with the original, though the manu- 
script has been carefully read. 

" The argument on the vexed subject of Confession has 
been brought within a narrow compass. It turns on the 



aao EDWARD'S FIRST AND SECOND PRAYER-BOOK. 

question whether the principles laid down in the First 
Prayer-book of Edward VI. still hold good or not. Mr. 
D. considers that the Second Prayer-book marks an essen- 
tial change of principles, which he supposes continue in 
force up to the present day, and a statement which came 
with no ordinary authority in an Episcopal chaige has taken 
up the same ground. In proceeding to remark upon this 
view, I trust that I may be animated by similar courtesy 
and the same gentle spirit which characterizes Mr. D.'s 
handling of the subject, espedally in the very kindly refer- 
ences to statements made in my late letter. It is a sincere 
gratification to discuss such a subject with so fair and Chris- 
tian an opponent 

''All are agreed that under the terms of the First Prayer- 
book confession to a priest was equally free to use or not to 
use ; and if to use, to use firequently or infrequently as occa- 
sion might arise. It is urged that the changes made in l^e 
Second Prayer-book unsettled this concordat, if such it may 
be termed. The answer generally given to this plea is this, 
and one often urged as sufficient — that on the Act ordering 
this Second Book, the First, which it superseded, is declared 
to be 'agreeable to the Word of God and the Primitive 
Church,' and very comfortable to all good people. It is from 
this urged that there could be nothmg in the First Prayer- 
book which can be considered to have been condemned and 
in principle, at least, set aside by the Second. But Mr. 
D. argues that to interpret the above words of the Act in 
this sense is 'erroneous, and to miss altogether its true 
significance.' His reason for this plea is that the Act further 
declares the changes to have been made 'as well for the 
more plain and manifest explanation hereof, as for the more 
perfection of the said Order of Common Service.' Mr. D. 
implies that one part of the extended explanation, and per- 
fectly contemplated in the Act, is to alter the doctrine of 
Confession, or at least further limit its use. 

"For this assumption there appears to be no ground 
whatever in the Act itself. The reason given in the Act 
itself for the changes made in the Second Book is that ' a 
great number of people abstain and refuse to come to their 
parish churches,' that ' in the use and exercise of the Common 
Service in the Church, heretofore set free, divers doubts for 
the fashion, etc., of the same had arisen ; ' that in some places 
it is necessary to make the same prayer and fashion of service 
more earnest to stir Christian people to the true ' honouring 



LETTERS. 221 

of Almighty God ; ' and at the close of the Act penalties are 
enacted against persons who should ' hear and be present at 
any other manner of Service, of Common Prayer, etc/ The 
object thus set forth to be considered by the explanation, 
perfectly and clearly made, relates to the PubUc Service of 
the Church. Any other intention that may have actuated 
the authors of the changes referred to is in no way connected 
with the subject of Confession ; but the introduction of the 
General Confession and Absolution in the Second Book is 
another matter. 

" The object of this addition is evident. It was intended 
to supply a solemn form of confession, and a declaration of 
the terms on which alone absolution could be given, which 
were continually kept before the minds of the people by 
being expressed in the Daily Service, as well as made in the 
Exhortation of the Communion Service, and in the Visitation 
of the Sick. 

'' The most important are the changes made in the Exhor- 
tation in the Communion Service. They will best be seen 
by placing it as it stood in the First Prayer side by side with 
how it stands now, 1849 and 1552. 

" The chief alterations are (1) the entire omission of the 
concluding paragraph, etc.*' 



The following Declaration on the subject of Confession was 
written with exceedingly great care, and after much corre- 
spondence and consultation. Violent discussions had taken 
place upon the subject, chiefly amongst those who had no 
personal experience of the matter. The idea of '' licensing duly 
qualified Confessors," who should be especially trained and 
fitted for this delicate portion of a priest's ministrations, in 
order to prevent unsuitable persons from imdertaking the 
office, instead of quieting the storm, caused it to rage more 
vehemently. The '* Declaration,*' which was the product of 
such minds as Pusey, Carter, and liddon,. whilst claiming 
most clearly this ministry in the Church of England, were 
careful, it will be seen from a perusal of it, to keep within 
the limits assigned to it by the Book of Common Prayer. 
We need not enter fully into the subject. This weighty 
document was written twenty-six years ago. We print 



222 DECLARATION ON CONFESSION. 

it in exUnso, and content ourselves with adding a few letters 
written at the time of its production. "Pusey/' we are 
told, ''spent more thought over this Declaration than 
over any other work of the kind in which he had been 
engaged/' 

It appeared in the columns of the Times in 1873, and 
was reprinted in 1877. 



Dedaration on Confession and Absolution^ as set forth hy the 
Church of England. 

We, the undersigned, Priests of the Church of England, 
considering that serious misapprehensions as to the tecushio^ 
of the Church of England, on the subject of Confession and 
Absolution, are widely prevalent, and that these misapprehen- 
sions lead to serious evils, hereby declare, for the truth's 
sake, and in the fear of God, what we hold and teach on 
the subject, with special reference to the points which have 
been brought under discussion. 

1. We believe and profess, that Almighty God has 
promised forgiveness of sins, through the Precious Blood of 
Jesus Christ, to all who turn to Him, with true sorrow for 
sin, out of unfeigned and sincere love to Him, with lively 
faith in Jesus Christ, and with full purpose of amendment 
of life. 

2. We also believe and profess, that our Lord Jesus Christ 
has instituted in His Church a special means for the remission 
of sin after Baptism, and for the relief of consciences, which 
special means the Church of England retains and administers 
as part of her Catholic heritage. 

3. We affirm that — to use the language of the Homily- — 
"Absolution hath the promise of forgiveness of sin,''^ 
although it adds, " by die express word of the New Testament 
it hath not this promise annexed and tied to the visible sign, 
which is imposition of hands,'' and ''therefore," it says, 
"Absolution is no such Sacrament as Baptism and the 
Communion are."* We hold it to be clearly impossible, 
that the Church of England in Art. XXY. can have meant 
to disparage the ministry of Absolution any more than she 

^ Homily '* of Common Prayer and Sacraments,'* 
« Ibid. 



LETTERS. 223 

can have meant to disparage the Bites of Confirmation and 
Ordination, which she solemnly administers. We beUeve 
that God through Absolution confers an invrard spiritual 
grace and the authoritative assurance of His forgiveness on 
those who receive it with faith and repentance, as in Con- 
firmation and Ordination He confers grace on those who 
rightly receive the same. 

4 In our Ordination, as Priests of the Church of England, 
the words of our Lord to His Apostles — " Eeceive ye the 
Holy Ghost; whosesoever sins ye remit, they are remitted 
unto them, and whosesoever sins ye retain, they are retained," 
— ^were applied to us individually. Thus it appears, that the 
Church of England considers this Commission to be not a 
temporary endowment of the Apostles, but a gift lasting to 
the end of time. It was said to each of us, '' Beceive the 
Holy Ghost for tie office and work of a Priest in the Church 
of God, now committed unto thee by the imposition of our 
hands;" and then followed the words, ''Whose sins thou 
dost forgive, they are forgiven, and whose sins thou dost 
retain, they are retained." ^ 

5. The only form of words provided for us in the Book 
of Common Pirayer for applying this absolving power to 
individual souls runs thus : — " Our Lord Jesus Christ, Who 
hath left power to His Church to absolve all sinners who 
truly repent and believe in Him, of His great Mercy forgive 
thee thine ofiTences ; And by His authority committed to me 
I absolve thee from all thy sins, in the Name of the Father, 
and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen." * Upon 
this we remark, first, that in these words forgiveness of sins 
is ascribed to our Lord Jesus Christ ; yet that the Priest, 
acting by a delegated authority, and as an instrument, does 
through these words convey the absolving grace; and, 
secondly, that the absolution from mi» cannot be understood 
to be the removal of any censures of the Church, because (a) 
the sins from which the penitent is absolved are presupposed 
to be sins known previously to himself and God only ; (6) the 
words of the Latin form relating to those censures are omitted 
in our English form, and (c) the release from excommunica- 
tion is in Art. XXXIII. reserved to ''a Judge that hath 
authority thereunto." 

6. This provision, moreover, shows that the Church of 

1 '< The Form and Maimer of Ordering of Priests.'' 
« " The Order for the Visitation of the Sick," 



334 " THE BENEFIT OF ABSOLUTION. 

England, when speaking of ** the benefit of absolution/' and 
empowering her Priests to absolve, means them to use a 
definite form of absolution, and does not merely contemplate 
a general reference to the promises of the GrospeL 

7. In the Service for ''the Visitation of the Sick'' the 
Church of England orders that the sick man shall even " he 
moved to make a special Confession of his sins, if he feel his 
conscience troubled with any weighty matter." When the 
CSiurch requires that the sick man should, in such case, be 
moved to make a special Confession of Ids sins, we cannot 
suppose her thereby to rule that her members are bound to 
defer to a death-bed (which they may never see) what they 
know to be good for uieir souls. We observe that the words, 
" be moved to," were added in 1662, and that therefore at 
the last revision of the Book of Common Prayer the Church 
of England affirmed the duty of exhorting to Confession in 
certain cases more strongly than at the date of the Beforma- 
tion, probably because the practice had fallen into abeyance 
during the Great Bebellion. 

8. The Church of England also, holding it ''requisite 
that no man should come to the Holy Communion, but with 
a sure trust in Gkxl's mercy, and with a quiet conscience," 
commands the Minister to bid "any" one who "cannot 
quiet his own conscience herein," to come to him, or " to 
some other discreet and learned Minister of God's Word 
and open Ms grief, that by the ministry of God's Holy Word 
he may receive the benefit of absolution, together witii," and 
therefore as distinct from, "ghostly counsel and advice;"^ 
and since she directs that this invitation should be repeated 
in giving warning of Holy Communion, and Holy Communion 
is constantly offered to aU, as the most precious of the means 
of grace, it follows that the use of Confession may be, at 
least in some cases, of not unfrequent occurrence. 

9. We believe that the Church left it to the consciences 
of individuals, according to their sense of their needs, to 
decide whether they would confess or not, as expressed in 
that charitable exhortation in the First English Prayer-book, 
" requiring such as shall be satisfied with a general Confes- 
sion, not to be offended with them that do use, to their 
further satisfying, the auricular and secret Confession to the 
Priest ; nor those also, which think needfid or convenient, 
for the quietness of their own consciences particiUarly to 

^ Exhortation in the Service for Holy Communion. 



LETTERS. 225 

open their sins to the Priest, to be oflfended with them that 
are satisfied with their humble confession to God, and the 
general Confession to the Church : but in all things to follow 
and keep the rule of charity ; and every man to be satisfied 
with his own conscience, not judging other men's minds or 
consciences; whereas he hath no warrant of God's Word 
to the same/' And although this passage was omitted in 
the second Prayer-book, yet that its principle was not repu- 
diated, may be gathered from the " Act for the Uniformity of 
Service " (1552), which, while authorizing the second Prayer- 
book, asserts the former book to be " agreeable to the Word 
of God and the primitive Church." 

10. We would further observe, that the Church of 
England has nowhere limited the occasions upon which her 
Priests should exercise the ofi&ce which she commits to them 
at their ordination ; that to command her Priests in two of 
her Ofi&ces to hear confessions if made, cannot be construed 
negatively into a command not to receive confessions on any 
other occasions. But, in fact, since the Christian ought to 
live in continual preparation for Holy Communion and for 
death, the two occasions specified do practically comprise 
the whole of his adult life. It is notorious that a long 
succession of Divines of great repute in the Church of 
England, from the very time when the English Prayer-book 
was framed, speak highly of Confession, without limiting 
the occasions upon which, or the frequency with which, it 
should be used ; and the 113th Canon, framed in the Convo- 
cation of 1603, recognized Confession as a then existing 
practice, in that it decreed, under the severest penalties, that 
*'ii any man confess his secret and Hidden sins to the 
Minister for the imburdening of his conscience, the said 
Minister shall not at any time reveal or make known to 
any person whatsoever any crime or offence so committed 
to his trust and secrecy, except they be such crimes as by 
the laws of this realm his own life may be called into 
question for concealing the same." 

11. While, then, we hold that the formularies of the 
Church of England do not authorize any Priest to teach 
that private Confession is a condition indispensable to the 
forgiveness of sin after Baptism; and that the Church of 
England does not justify any parish Priest in requiring 
private Confession as a condition of receiving Holy Com- 
munion, we also hold that all who, imder the circumstances 
above stated, claim the privilege of private Confession, are 

Q 



226 WHO TO SIGN THE DECLARATION? 

entitled to it, and that the Clergy are directed under certain 
circumstances to ''move'' p^ons to such Confession* In 
insisting on this, as the plain meaning of the authorized 
language of the Church of England, we believe ourselves to 
be discharging our duty as her faithful Ministers. 

" Chwer Bedwy, 1877. 

''Mt deabest Skinner, 

'* The enclosed is the result of many and long 
consultations with Fusey and liddon, and mainly their work. 
We thought to get about twenty names, avoiding any 
identified with the extreme party. Mackonochie would sign, 
but mainly the rest are men of other minds. 

'* Fusey will send it to the TimeswitJi anote from himself, 
when signed. We should be most glad if you would sign. 
Is there any one you would specially think of as signing ? 
I heartily trust you are better. My love to your dear wSe. 
I keep well, I am thankful to say. 

"Ever yours affectionately, 

"T.T. C. 

"What a wonderful week at All Saints!" 

" Ohria Church, Oxford. 

"My dear Carter, 

" I have kept the enclosure a long time, but I 
have been working against time. My own idea is that it 
would be best to proceed by written propositions, which would 
bear no name at all, but as to which the Council might be 
asked whether they were orthodox or not. In those state- 
ments we might include certain statements in excess, which 
we might declare we do not hold, and which, although we 
could not ask them to repudiate, would thereby be authorita- 
tively declared not to be defide. 

" I have made some progress in making such propositions. 
If such propositions were acceptable, the next step would be 
to publish them in England. ... It would be an enormous 
step forward. ... It would be a irov ard* 

" The worst of a conference is, that the Bomans have no 
thought except of individual submission. They have no 
idea of our being very happy where we are, and having 
no personal need of incorporation into the Koman Church. 



LETTERS, 227 

They look upon such conferences as proposing terms on one 
side, and their acceptance on the other, upon which persons, 
more or fewer, are to join the Soman Church. I did, how- 
ever, explain tins to the Archbishop of Paris and Mgr. 
Dupanloup, who understood us. Could we have a talk over 
your sermon, which liddon, Courtenay, and many thoughtful 
persons would like to procure ? 

" Yours aflfectionately, 

"KB. PUSBY/' 

There appears to have been on the part of some a desire 
to omit the quotation from the Homily in the Declaration. 
Thus Mr. Carter says — 

^' I am writing to Pusey to press the entire omission of 
that quotation from the Homily. I have come to think it 
would be best. Will you let me know what you wish, and 
what you will do in case it is omitted. I have also asked 
to alter ' who, as Gkxl, forgives sins,' which I think an un- 
fortunate expression. ' 

" Your ever affectionate 

"T. T. C." 



"My deakest Fribnd, 

" I do not see how anything can be done. I have 
felt anxious not to moot the question of the ' sign.' But I 
could not see any way to omit the passage. I have always 
felt that that sentence, 'Absolution hath the promise of forgive- 
ness of sin,' is the most authoritative one, indeed the only 
one positively affirming the sacramental character of absolu- 
tion. It would be imperfect, I should feel, without it, I 
feel it is enough to indicate (?) that it is in the Homily. It 
would be quite open to you, or to any one at any time, to 
question the statement of the Homily on that particular — we 
are not committed to it Wagner r *oed it, but nobody 
else has. Wagner does not sign, but t is on other grounds. 
He, like some others, seems to hoiu diat Confession is a 
Tiecessity, and would, I suppose, go beyond the Formularies. 
I should be grieved if you cannot sign. But I would not 
press you, dearest firiend. 

"Ever your affectionate 

" T, T. cr 



228 A REPLY TO ARCHDEACON FREEMAN. 

"My dearest Friend, 

" I sent your letter on to Pusey and urged the 
leaving out the passage about ' imposition of hands.' I send 
you his reply. P. and liddon have united in it, as you will 
see. Scudamore, whom I told it was under consideration, 
urges not withdrawing it. I suppose we must accept the 
Homily as it stands, if we draw an argument from it as to 
sacramental virtue, which I feel is very important to do. I 
urged an objection against the clause ' except such crimes,' 
but it was felt that we are responsible, as this thing stands 
as it does, and it might be urged that we are not true in quoting 
a part, and not all. What do you think ? Let me hear. 

" Your ever loving friend, 

"T.T. C. 

" I have heard at the end an alteration, which I think an 
improvement, throwing it on the Formularies, etc." * 

"My dearest S., 

" I have been disappointed in my hope of seeing 
you before leaving home. You will have heard that I have 
been pressed to stay away longer. I am anxious that this 
should not delay your departure, as that would additionally 
grieve me if your time of absence were shortened on this 
account. I should at all events have seen you hurriedly. I 
do not know whether there is anything that you would wish 
specially to say of any one, or matter, but if there be any, 
perhaps you would write a line. I will endeavour to take 
up what you leave. I know you will have done all that is 
possible, and I thank you very heartily. I am trusting that 
the Mother will kindly arrange about the Bishop of Gibraltar, 
whom I had hoped to have received at the Eectory, and I 
think had told him so. I suppose he will come down from 
Town for the day, as I am sure L. would give him a bed. I 
wished to have been there to assist you that day. The 
Mother said something about parish matters, that I should 
have to make up my mind to. If there is anything to be 
decided, I shall be very glad to know your opinion. But I 

do not think can do anything, he has so little weight 

with any one. I have been writing a reply to Archdeacon 

^ There is a paragraph at the end in Mr. Carter^s hand, to the effect 
that private confession must not be enforced by parish priests as indispen- 
sable for forgiveness. — ^Ed. 



LETTERS. 229 

Freeman. I do not know what people generally think, but I 
have felt that new venture (?) a most serious thing. I was 
stirred to take it up, though I can do little. I hope others 
will do more. Petition to Convocation I should tMnk most 
important. How cleverly the judgment was put to save 
themselves, while yet freed to acquit. I hope we shall not hear 
of disturbed minds from the doctrine being thus made an 
open question, though some, I fear, will take occasion. But 
it is surely a great step towards establishing the truth. Did 
you know C. of Plymouth ? I fell in with him the other day ; 
a broad, kind-hearted evangelical. I saw also W. of Plymouth. 
My best love. 

" Affectionately yours, 

" T. T. 0. 

" Do you know M. Landriot's ConfereTices on the Holy 
Spirit ? I am accustomed to associate St. Basil and your work 
at All Saints. S. A. is anxious to translate some book, and I 
got her this. It is full of interesting matter, subjective and 
practical. She has translated it very well. It is full of life, 
not special doctrines. It is a great interest to know what 
will come of that decision about 'invocation.' Did not the 

matter arise about the B School? I suppose only 

indirect mode of intercession can be sustained, but that surely 
can be. I feel truly with you that the Oxford Movement is 
much ignored, but I fancy it will revive, only if the bishops 
do not rise to it, that wiU give great power to the ultra- 
party. I wrote to demurring about the 'Divine 

Eight ' of the Papacy. I think the whole matter will pass, 
and I do not expect to hear anything more from the Pope about 
our Orders. Cardinal Vaughan has squashed the effort, and 
L. H. feels it. It is interesting to know that so many French 
clergy and others can keep alive to Anglo-Bomaine ^ lines (?) 

''Canterbury seems to go straight at a point, and then 
leave it. He has not known the questions which arise to 
priests, and is still the schoolmaster. York has had parochial 
experiences, though his dealings with priests in their dificulties 
in actual life may bring up matters which are new to him. 

"I have been reading D.'s book. How wonderfully 
elaborate it is. I see, I am sorry to say, G.'s wholesale 
acceptance of his criticism. Do you think it can carry the 
day, and rule for the future ? I can hardly think it. It makes 

^ This was a French magazine in the interests of Ee-union. 



23© PUSEY S DANIEL ''REFRESHINGS' 

such complete levolutioiiB of all our ideas of Scriptnre and 
our Lord's practice. I am so glad of those articles against 
it and those 'leaders.' I am just taking up Posct's 'Daniel' 
again. It is refreshing, and he saw the whole result of the 
German critLdsm, and argues against it on literary and 
historic grounds. Will this rise up again and prevail ? 

** As to this move, I am surprised at the Bishop of 

accepting Evening Communion, and at his ideas about laymen* 
I quite agree that laymen cannot go into doctrine. The 
Pilot comes to us now, but I cannot read more serials. I 

see a change in the G , and am sorry L. left it. It seems 

now so different. I have thought that the archbishops are 
acted on by the threat of the interference of Parliament. 
We have just heard from ' Willie/ from his See in Zululand. 
He was met at t^e boundary of his diocese by twenty deigy 
and three hundred people, and escorted in a waggon after 
they had a service by the way." 

" The Sign of the Cross." 

In the ''Private Prayers for Boys, especially at Public 
Schools," compiled by Eev. Herbert L. Jones (Skeflington), 
Mr. Carter wrote a short introduction. In this the following 
passage is to be found : — 

" Whenever you find this ^ in a book of prayers, it signi- 
fies a suitable occasion to make the sign of the cross. . . . 
If you make this sign, neither hide it nor parade it; but 
remember how great and sacred an event it is the sign of, 
and always be ready to give a reason for making it." 

Some wished the remark concerning the sign of the Cross 
to be omitted, and the compiler wrote to Mr. Carter to ask 
whether he ought to accede to such a desire. The following 
was his reply : — 

"Jlfay2d, 1897. 

"DbabMr. , 

"I would not give way on such a point. It 
seems to me to be a simple means of marking off as a 
religious act the use of the prayer. Several wished me to 



LETTERS. 231 

omit this sacred sign in the 'Treasury of Devotion.* I 
would not give way. I do not think it has lessened the sale. 
At all events, it has kept its ground, and it makes a great 
difference. There is a feeling (?) and strange disinclination 
amongst our people against outward signs, excited in this 
respect against the simplest and holiest form. And I think 
it is better for those who prepare devotional books to keep to 
it. In the simple mind it is of great importance to mark off 
the devotional from the ordinary, and it is by this simple 
means this is done. 

" Ever sincerely yours, 

"T. T. C." 

On SpirittuUism. 

To A Lady. 

''Stafford, October 7, lS7b. 

" My dear -- — , 

*' I am staying here for the Congress, but I hope 
I shall catch you before you leave. I have heard a good deal 
of the spread of this belief and some cases of its effects. I 
am disposed to think that there are links that connect us 
more than is ordinarily thought with beings of another world 
and unseen powers, both in our bodily and mental constitu- 
tion, and that they are nearer to us than we can well con- 
ceive, and that, indeed, the outer and the inner world as it 
were interpenetrate each other. And I also suppose that in 
certain stages of our world's life this communion comes out 
more to the surface as it were, just as at the time of our 
Lord's being upon earth the active presence and power of 
devils was more manifest and more felt. And this our own 
day may be in some unknown manner one of those periods in 
which tihere may be some unusual coming out of these Mdden 
forces, and the consciences of people more awakened to the 
sense of imseen agencies. But such a time I should regard 
as a time for special watchfulness against the temptation to 
tamper with what we know from Holy Scripture in former 
days to have been such a snare. And the warnings of the 
Old Testament seem to me specially applicable now against 
those who deal, as God describes, with their ^ familiar spirits.' 
The very terms used in these passages exactly resemble what 
is now become the ordinary language of those who have been 
led to accept this belief. 



232 SPIRITUALISM AND UNIVERSALISM. 

" I am confirmed in this view from all that I have heard 
of the repeated sayings of these spirits. It is, e.g., a general 
report of these sayings that Universalism is true, and what is 
popularly believed on this subject is reflected in the sayings 
of these spirits, as if it were only various minds reflecting 
themselves in their supposed conversations with their 
imagined familiars, and their sayings generally are such 
trivial things that they have no kind of appearance of any- 
thing beyond the shadows of people's own thoughts. 

'' It therefore appears to me that men have so lost the 
sense of the indwelling Presence of God and the inner com- 
munion with holy angels, that, having the sense of the need 
of supernatural companionship, they have sought to fill the 
void with these imaginations, and perhaps thus taken in a 
snare. If the visions, or sounds, or supposed revelations, are 
anything real, I should interpret them in this way of an evil 
and unlawful converse arising out of desires which some 
unseen beings are taking advantage of; or perhaps more 
probably they may be people's own imaginations reflecting 
themselves in imagined but unreal beings and conversations. 

"In either case they seem to me things not to be 
tampered with, and among the modes of intercourse with 
anotiier world that men have often craved after, but which 
have been forbidden. 

" I am afraid I am writing rather hurriedly on a grave 
subject. All truest blessing and guidance be with you. 

" Your affectionate 

"T. T. C." 

Spiritual Advice. 

" Clewer Rectory. 

"My deab Friend, 

" I am unwiUing to let you go so far away with- 
out writing a few lines to you. I trust it may please God to 
sustain all your better purposes, and preserve in you the 
spirit of prayer and a sound mind. There is a danger always 
to be guarded against in great change of scene, habits of life, 
and outward impressions, which possibly you may feel 
abroad. I think it would be helpful and an inward stay to 
make the first Sunday in every month a day of special 
recollection, recalling all your promises, and make them, re- 
newing them on your knees before God. I wish also you 
could remember to say every day the Lord's Prayer once, with 



LETTERS. 233 

a special intention of devoting yourself to what is right in all 
things. There is much help found often in such a simple 
habit. Perhaps you have the habit of learning verses of 
Psalms, and using them as ejaculations at leisure times and 
vacant intervals. It is a very useful habit, tending to 
deepen and raise the soul. I trust Grod may bless and 
sanctify you more and more. You will, I trust, not forget at 
times to join with your wife in prayer, specially at the 
Blessed Sacrament. 

" Your wife told me of questionings which recent discus- 
sions had caused in your mind about confession. I know the 
disturbing effect of such questionings. The evil is that so 
many ta^ on a subject on which they have had no personal 
experience, and merely theorize, or take what is called public 
opinion as a guide. It is a question, I think, on which every 
one can judge only by practical experience. Much is said of 
its tending to weaken the soul, if continued as a habit. I 
cannot myseK see that it has this tendency, if the habit is 
arising from a felt need. It helps weak souls that would 
otherwise be weak. My own experience is that it is a means 
of strengthening by quieting and deepening the inner life, 
and freeing it from oppression and temptation, which are the 
things that really weaken. There is more weakness from 
going on imder a burden, or with perplexities or violent 
temptations, than there is in removing them by opening the 
grief of the soul, by sympathy and by renewed pardon and 
grace of God. 

" You may have felt this truth, and you will also, I am 
sure, have felt how it tends to check the recurrence of temp- 
tation, and cause a restraint and deeper self-searching which 
is of the utmost help, and will draw the more into unearthly 
communion with invisible things, and altogether free the pati 
before one's feet, and give an assurance of perseverance. I 
must close with affectionate and best wishes. Grod bless you. 
" Ever yours affectionately in Christ, 

" T. T. C. 

'' Please to give the enclosed to your wife." 

'' Glewer Bectary, Wednesday in H. W^ 1863. 

"My dear Friend and Son in Our Lord, 

"I am ashamed to see how long it is since I 
heard from you. Much has happened since I received it 



234 THE LOSS OF ''OUR DEAREST MOTHER^ 

which has kept me unusually occupied. About that time 
we lost our dearest Mother. Preparation, etc., for a rather 
pressing Lent came on, with some other calls, besides ordi- 
nary work ; so I have let slip by week after week without 
writing as I had intended. I felt I was leaving you, as 
I ought not to have done, without a reply to an anxious 
question. . . . Should you be left without the possibility, I 
think you should regard it as of Grod and a trial of faith, and 
it would be good tf you were to prepare your paper for 
confession, and in Church before the altar offer it, and, in 
Our Lord's love, trust that grace would be given and a sure 
hope (of) forgivenesa The will Grod will accept where the 
means are withheld by His own permission. We are now 
reviving in our Church its true sacramental system, and we 
must not wonder if men are slow to accept the more, what 
we may call, fine and delicate and inner parts of the system. 
This dependis so much on personal life and habit and ex- 
perience that it can only be understood and appreciated 
under special circumstances ; and in parts distant &om the 
centre of the Catholic movement, these inner parts of life 
will necessarily be slow of growth ; and the whole matter 
has been so intricately mixed up with confusion, and even 
fears and misapprehensions, that more thought and study 
are required to disentangle it, in minds trained in other 
ways, than men can ordinarily give in the midst of pressing 
work, and the more honest and earnest men are often, as is 
natural, the slower to accept new views. So to be patient 
and unjudging, and to live much on God, as sustaining of 
Himself in the midst often of much dearth, seems to be the 
special trial of our times, and we must not shrink &om it, 
and Grod will not fail us. 

"I earnestly trust you will be sustained in your work. 
I am sure it will be blessed to you, and you must persevere 
in good heart. Your way has been very plainly marked. 

'' We are going on much as usual, thankful for a portion 
of Lent at least being quiet after the excitement and great 
disturbance of the wedding. The Church of Dedworth, 
which you have known of, I think (Tudor's work), is within 
a mon^ or two of its consecration. It is very simple, but 
a good Church tone about it. We had a Confirmation here 
yesterday. The Bishop (Wilberforce) has had a good deal of 
iUness. He has got through his Confirmation pretty well, 
but I think he is weakened and sooner tired. 

" Things are going on here as usual. We have formed a 



LETTERS. 235 

Confraternity in honour of the Blessed Sacrament, and for 
intercessory prayer in connection with it, which I think you 
would like to join, were you here. Image, Grieve, O'Brien 
belong, and all the Sisters. I think there is a growing sense 
of the blessedness and reverence due to the B.S. This day, 
for the first time — Maundy Thursday — we have had celebra- 
tion at our parish church, and we have now on all Holy 
Days and every Sunday at 8, besides the alternate days at 11. 
I trust the truth is spreading on this central point, and I 
don't think Yard's secession has caused much, or extensive, 
disturbance of mind, though some trial caused at All Saints 
for the time. 

" God bless you, 

" Your aflfect. father, 
"T. T. C." 



This letter is specially interesting, as speaking of the 
Consecration of All Saints, Dedworth, the formation of the 
Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament, and the Eucharist 
on Maundy Thursday as being then an unusual thing. 

<' CUfwer Bectwry, Windsor, December^ 1876. 

"My vbry dear Son, 

** I grieve with you at this bereavement. Most 
touching and tender is a parent's loss. I am so very glad 
you had the blessing of seeing him and offering the last 
prayers, and I trust he was conscious enough to know it. 

" We (you and I) have been united in losses that I have 
known, and now I feel thankful in being able to sympathize 
in yours. 

" May God comfort you and all your own people. 
''Ever very affectionately, 

"T. T. C." 

Written on the occasion of my father^s death. 

With regard to freqtiency of confession in the case of 
Sisters, the following letter, written to a clergyman who had 
the charge of Sisters, may be of value, considering Canon 
Carter^s experience in the Eeligious Life : — 



236 THE SPIRITUAL NEEDS OF SISTERS, 

"My DKAB , 

'' I have felt that some Sisters do need^ and are 
the better for, weekly confession, and when I doabted about 
it some years ago, on finding the pressure for it, I found that 
other priests who had had to do with Sisters had felt the 
need and practised it. I have not felt reason to doubt this 
since — ^now for some years — I have acceded to it. But I would 
add, those I have known are special cases, and I should 
be very slow to admit it in others. Fortnightly I should 
prefer keeping to. One of the cases in which I have found it 
advisable is when the person is a teacher of Sisters. This 
involves special strain and responsibilities, of course. 

'' I mention it as an illustration. If a Sister is left very 
lonely with a heavy charge on her, and with some special 
infirmities, a fault needing much aid, this too would be a 
case, I suppose, of exception. 

" Perhaps this may help you to see the limits I would 
draw. 

" Ever your aflFectionate 

"T. T,C." 

The following letter, on the same ordinance, was written 
to a priest who was coming to Mr. Carter for the first con- 
fession : — 

"Deab Sib, 

" The only special suggestion I would make, is 
to look through some special form of examination upon the 
Commandments, the deadly sins, and the rule of faith, and 
then to take the life in periods, search in each for the leading 
sins of omission, and note them on paper, as a help to 
memory in the successive periods of life. May God bless 
your purpose and keep you in His Son. 

" Sincerely yours, 

"T. T. C." 

A Theological Qtiestion. 

"My dear , 

" Will you kindly tell me what has been gene- 
rally believed as to our Lord's consciousness of what happened 
to Him, e.g., in His infancy — ^whether, owing to the Hypostatic 
union, His consciousness differed from that of others so as to 



LETTERS. 237 

have from the first an intelligent perception of what affected 
Him, and what was passing around Him, so that it could be 
said that He teaches from His cradle, and that His will acted 
in the occurrences, as in the flight to Egypt, etc., etc. Was 
this so as far as general belief has gone ; and would it follow 
from the Hypostatic union ? I remember a sermon of New- 
man's, speaking of the foresight of the Cross always being 
part of tiie trial, and this extended to infancy an intelligent 
perception of events, as I have said. I hope I am not giving 
you trouble at a busy time. I have just been reading the 
Article on Church Beform. It seems all right. I wonder 
what will come of it all. I do not see the way out of it. 

*' Yours, etc., 

"T. T. C." 



Spiritual Advice, 



" 1867. 



"My deak , 

"I am very anxious that you should secure a 
higher tone. In one respect your present circumstances may 
be helpful. You are withdrawn from the home distractions 
and many social calls. You can have quiet times, and S. 
H.'s help and example. You must endeavour to retain the 
greater earnestness in a few particular points. There could 
not be any harm in making leisure easy times, with the rest 
of the party, and going freely about, if you would keep a few 
points steadily. You need in the present life, running away 
irregularly and listlessly and falling in with each fresh 
difficulty, yielding to it, the bracing air of a few steadfast 
purposes, as essential to your soul's well-doing. You must 
be constantly making fresh starts, that is, the second chance, 
if you fail to persevere steadily. Hereafter you may hope to 
be strengthened and kept steadfast, if you can continue to 
renew your efforts ; though you fail and relax again and 
again, you need not despair or doubt. Your sluggish nature 
is against you. But grace is powerful if we will co-operate. 
God wiU hear the cry of a steadfast desire, and will raise you 
to a higher spiritual state. Begin, then, again to keep a few 
rules. Try and regularly rise by 7.30, and get the hour 
before breakfast. It is tiring to walk then. Keep it for 
qidet reading and meditation. Keep Send and Nones, though 
one or both may sometimes be only by commemoration. Take 
a special grace every Sunday, to be made an intention in 



238 CAUTIONS AGAINST ROMAN CATHOLICS. 

prayer through the week ; and once a week— Friday, it may 
be— say the Beatitudes, as an act of intention to aim at them 
as a longing and resolve, with an act of contrition as the 
means to express sorrow for having fallen so short of them. 
Watch i^inst dreaming, against mere vacant contemplation, 
and be active in any little thing that arises to help others or 
make others happier, and make secret sacrifices, and so help 
up the high aim unobservedly. 

** Write to me again, just to say how you are going on. 
Love to your aunt, and affectionate remembrances to father 
and mother. 

'' Your affectionate 

"T.T. C." 



On not joining in B. C. Novena, 

"1868. 

"My deab , 

''I am very anxious that you should keep the 
line that your parents most desire, and the blessing of God 
would most surely follow you in doing this. There is at 
present such an unfair pressure made by Boman Catholics to 
draw us from our true Hue, and it is so disturbing that I feel 
every one ought to be very cautious and restrained in their 
intercourse with them, especially if they show a desire to 
proselytiza I have reason to know that they do not scruple 
to use what we should consider an unfair and unscrupulous 
means in effecting this object. One cannot perhaps blame 
them for this. If they think we are in deadly error, it may 
seem a sufficient cause. Yet even on this supposition I 
cannot reconcile it with our ideas of truth, and indeed there 
seems to be a different standard and idea of truth between us 
and Bome ; and this, which I cannot but see, is the greatest 
practical matter which makes me shrink from the system. 
But I should have had no objection to your going to the Mass 
(this was in France), and using their churches in the week- 
day as you can, only I should be most anxious that you 
should keep strictly to our English services whenever you 
have them. I wish you not to receive anything from your 
B. C. friends of books, or prayers, or suggestions. They 
have but one design. This you should say when they 
ask you, however simple and good it may seem in itself. 
There is a secret purpose in all, which wholly alters the case, 
and I think you ought to make them feel there ia a baixier 



LETTERS. 239 

between yoa and them as to religion, which closes the 
subject. 

" I think you should not address the_Blessed Virg in 
directly y but only express to God your earnest wish Iot uie 
intercessions of the most Holy Mother of God and of all 
the Saints. You may say then, * May the intercession of the 
Holy Mother of Grod and of all the Saints be accepted for me 
and help me. The thought of such intercession may be very 
helpful. But make some prayers direct to the Holy Ghost. 
He is the indwelling Sanctifier and Strengthener. 

" Irreverence in the administration of the Blessed Sacra- 
ment is indeed most painful. I think, however, that letting 
it fall is to be viewed with hope that it is not from resd 
irreverence. I should only offer a prayer for the priest, and 
for the Lord's dishonour make an act of reparation by express- 
ing great sorrow. But it is not a sufficient reason for not 
receiving. I think you should go all the more humbly and 
earnestly to please Him who may be displeased by any 
other. God bless you. Affectionate regards to fiEtther and 
mother. 

" Your affectionate 

"T. T.C." 



It has been said that Mr. Carter, like Dr. Pusey, was 
never near the Eoman Communion. The view which he 
takes of intercession of the Saints in this letter he retained 
to the end of his life. He did not encourage, or, as a rule, 
allow, direct address to the Saints, aiAj prier pour prUr, which 
seems to be in accordance with the principle of the English 
Church — ^the appeal to antiquity. We are not, however, 
dealing with the subject controversially here and now, but 
only with Mr. Carter's teaching upon the matter. Canon 
Carter edited a large number of devotional works ; perhaps 
the best known of these is the " Treasury of Devotion." He 
did not merely lend his name to these works, but he 
accepted the responsibility of all that they contained. 
Nothing was inserted without his consent and approval, and 
we believe we are correct in saying that they none of them 
contain direct addresses to the Saints. He has himself 
explained that there was on the one band " the careful desire 



24D PRAYERS FOR PRAYERS OF SAINTS. 

of preserving Catholic devotional doctrine and phraseology/' 
and on the other hand of avoiding " anything distinctively 
Boman." It was not Canon Carter's habit of mind to draw 
hard-and-fast lines^ nor to feel himself always bound by 
them. Our attention has been called to one or two instances 
where he came near to allowing direct address. In one case 
we have no proof of authorship ; and in the other — the " Ave 
Maria " upon a bell hung in one of the chapels, which he cer- 
tainly allowed, is hardly an exception, but more a matter of 
antiquarian interest. If such, however, should be discovered, it 
would be only in accordance with his character, who felt there 
were occasions when '' exception proves the rule." With regard 
to his own private devotions, we should be greatly surprised 
if he could not say with another great Anglican divine, " I 
never addressed a prayer to a Saint in my life." We are 
quite aware of what may be said for direct addresses on the 
part of individuals, from the evidence of the Catacombs and 
from Fathers; but we have no clear authority for "direct" 
invocation, only " comprecation," in the Leonine, Gelasian, and 
Gregorian Sacramentaries. Canon Carter, on this matter, did 
not act alone, but was in correspondence with Dr. Pusey and 
other leaders of the Oxford Movement, who agreed with the 
phraseology which he adopted.^ 

The Blessed Sacrament 

Mr. Carter from the first appears to have had a special 
devotion towards our Lord in the Blessed Sacrament. His 
first work (but one) was upon this subject, and we believe we 
are right in saying that he was the Founder of the Confrater- 
nity, which now has upon its roll many thousands of members. 
He was for a great number of years the " Superior General," 
and thus became a centre of devotional influence through- 
out this organization. A considerable devotional literature 

^ It will hardly be necessary to explain that by the technical term 
" comprecation " is meant " asking God that the Saints may pray for ns ; " 
whereas " invocation " is " Ora pro nobis." The " Sacramentaries " are 
the ancient authorized forms of devotion in the Western Church, 



LETTERS. 241 

upon this solemn subject has been created, which began 
with two or three Eucharistic Collects, printed on a leaflet, 
as follows : — 

" Lord Jesu Christ, Who vouchsafest to be still present 
in the midst of us, giving Thyself, Thy most sacred Body 
and Blood, in the Holy Eucharist, we bewail the injuries and 
sacrileges to which Thou art thus exposed ; and we beseech 
Thee grant us grace to believe rightly Thy adorable Presence 
and the continual oblation of Thy Sacrifice, and overcome all 
opposition to the saving Truth of this ineffable mystery, that 
we, and all that belong to us, and all who follow after us 
wifli Thy whole Church, may be made One Body and One 
Spirit through Thy indwelling. Who livest and reignest with 
the Father and the Holy Ghost, One God, world without end. 
Amen." 

Mr. Carter did not usually act alone, but in association 
with those like-minded — Dr, Pusey, Dr. Bright, Dr. Liddon, 
and others. From this correspondence we gather with what 
intense care words and phrases were used in the revival of 
truths well-nigh forgotten, and sometimes Mr. Carter appears 
to have been in advance of others in the adoption of devo- 
tional terms. The following will illustrate what is meant : — 

"My dear Mb. Caeter, 

" Many thanks. The letter goes in one point, I 
think, beyond what I was previously aware that the bishop 
would say. I mean the dislike of the phrase, * Eucharistic 
Adoration.' Still I do not feel certain (you see, I vruh not 
to believe) that he meant to denounce what Keble taught, 
for in speaking to me (in a much calmer tone) the other day, 
he seemed to be deprecating such adoration as implied a 
material Presence, which he supposed some persons to hold. 
Also, he spoke of Keble in a way one who seriously differed 
&om him on the Holy Euchaxist would, perhaps, hardly do. 
He deprecated the alteration of the Christian Year on the 
ground that Keble's real meaning on the stanza would have 
been well expressed in his note. 

" On the whole, I do not think that the bishop's deliberate 
mind, apart from temporary excitements of feeling (to which 
his temperament makes him obviously liable), would be 



243 DOCTRINE OF THE HOLY EUCHARIST. 

found to be against us, although he would prefer seventeenth- 
oentury phraseology, and in some other points take up a 
different position fit)m our own. I am almost reminded of 
a confession which Banke cites (' Hist. Beform/ iii 535) as 
penned by some Wiirtemberg divines (Lutheran, I presume), 
that ' corpus et sanguinem Christi vere, id est, substantialiter, 
et essentialiter' (the alteration of 'essential' into 'corporal' 
in the Black Bubric seems to give 'essential' a kind of 
authority) 'non autem quantitative aut qualitative vel localiter, 
prsBsentia esse.' Here a Beal Essential Presence is apparently 
held, while one is taken to exclude what, in fact, as we all 
know, Boman doctrine, as authoritatively stated, excludes 
not less. I think Overall would have subscribed this; 
certainly the great passage in Cosin's First Notes (' Cosin,' v. 
131) as to the real, substantial non-physical Presence, and 
the error of Calvinists in confining Chnst's Presence to the 
'use' of the Sacrament, may be taken to speak Overall's 
mind. (If I had to adopt as a formula any seventeenth- 
century statement of doctrine on the Holy Eucharist, I think 
I would take tJuit.) 

" Thanks for your information as to C. B. S. 
" Yours very sincerely, 

"W. Bright." 

Mr. Carter, speaking on the same subject, says : — 

" Looking very broadly at this great truth, we may note, 
as a very strU:ing fact, the deep impression made on the mind 
of the Church by the institution of our Lord Jesus Christ in 
the upper chamber of the Blessed Sacrament. Notwithstand- 
ing ^e centuries which have passed, notwithstanding the 
chuiges which have passed over nations, notwithstanding 
the varieties of civilization and of thought, notwithstanding 
all the controversies and infidelities which have affected 
especially this great mystery, the impression remains deep in 
the minds of men everywhere, derived from what at first 
seems to be but a simple act, though one fraught with such 
intensely momentous consequences for eternity. Far beyond 
the effect produced by any other institution of Jesus Christ, 
this mysterious impression remains in a manner peculiar to 
itself. True that multitudes have fallen away from the right 
belief of this great mystery, but still the impression of its 
necessity and of its momentous mysteriousness has not passed 
away even with the loss of belief in its true meaning — a 



LETTERS. 243 

sense of awe and fear remains, an nnacconntable shrinking. 
They regard it as a duty, even when they dare not approach 
the Altar. And as death draws near, the solemn realities of 
the future, imparting a vividness to the internal apprehen- 
sions which conscience awakens, many are led to seek to 
participate at last in what they acknowledge to be the eternal 
fruit of this Divine mystery. Moreover, the popular expres- 
sion, Hhe Sacrament,' speaks of this indelible impression, 
such as is attached to no other institution, so great and so 
peculiar is the mystery connected with this Sacrament of the 
Eucharist, that it is spoken of as if it was the only one, as if 
there were no other : ' He Himself, Who comes to be present 
through the operation of the Holy Ghost, under the veils of 
the outward forms of the bread and wine, Himself works the 
mystery. Himself perpetuates its blessedness, as He Himself 
offers Himself under these sacred forms ; Himself sets what 
the outward ministration of His appointment represents to 
the outward eye ; Himself inwardly and secretly is continually 
operating the same action which He first performed in that 
upper chamber in Jerusalem.' But it is to be viewed not so 
much as a miracle, but as a mystery. The distinction is 
clear and important. A miracle is the interference with a 
natural law; a mystery is the manifestation of a hidden 
truth under an outward form. What the priest does in the 
celebration of the Blessed Sacrament is to bring about a 
closeness of contact which always exists in the spiritual 
world, with what is contrary to no natural law, but which 
is above all law, which is supernatural, to bring the con- 
secrated elements and ourselves into contact with our Lord, 
through the carrying out of what He declared to be the out- 
ward means, thus linking our earthly state with that Eternal 
State in which He abides, bringing into union the external 
and the internal, bringing into communion earth and heaven, 
men and God; our fleshly form with His glorified fleshly 
Form, our secret spirit with His Incarnate Spirit. We 
effect this by the continued use of the appointed forms which 
are the means and pledges of that inward Spiritual Presence 
being brought home to us, and ourselves brought into union 
with it." 

It will be observed that in the fulness of Mr. Carter's 
Eucharistic teaching he does not admit any ''interference 
with a natural law," such as the destruction or transition of 



244 ANOTHER "^DECLARATIONS 

the ''substance" of the bread and wine seems to involve. 
His writings make manifestly clear that the greatest devotion 
towards the Blessed Sacrament, or rather our Lord's Presence 
in it, can be attained without going beyond the teaching of 
our own formulas. Canon Carter repudiated with warmth any 
idea of disloyalty to Anglican standards. This will be seen 
from the following " Declaration/' which was found amongst 
his writings, but we do not know its date, or whether it was 
signed and circulated : — 

" Whereas, at this present time, imputations of disloyalty 
are being sedulously circulated to the discredit of those who 
have been — some of them for many years — earnestly inculcat- 
ing and defending the doctrines of the Eeal Objective Presence 
and the Eucharistic Sacrifice, as though they were not faithful 
to the Church of England, we therefore, the undersigned, 
exercising the office of Priesthood in the Church of England, 
beg respectfully to state to your Grace, and, through your 
Grace, to our Bight Beverend Fathers in God, the bishops of 
your province, and to the Church at large, what we believe 
to be the mind of our Lord touching the said doctrines, as 
expressed in Holy Scripture, and received by the Church of 
England, in conformity with the teaching of the Catholic 
Church, in those ages to which she directs us, as ' most pure 
and uncorrupt,' and of 'the old godly doctors,' to whose 
teaching she has in many ways referred us. We beg leave to 
declare both what we disclaim and what we hold touching 
the said doctrines. 

"1. Eepudiating the doctrine of 'a corporal Presence of 
Christ's natural Flesh and Blood,' seeing His Natural Body 
is in heaven ; or any materialistic conceptions of His Presence, 
or any physical change of the natural substances of the Bread 
and Wine, we believe that, etc." 

Mr. Keble writes in 1863 :— 

"My deab Mb. Carteb, 

"The second question seems to me more easily 
answered, therefore I take it first. I have been always taught 
that it is just as you say — the grace of absolution is the same 
when pronounced by a priest upon a good confession, i.e, 
a humble and hearty one, general or special, whensoever 
and wheresoever made. As to reparation, you will see how 



LETTERS. 245 

unfit I am to be consulted. I acknowledge to you that the 
very word is quite new to me as a devotional term. I do 
not recollect even to have met with it, until I saw it in your 
letter. I could only guess its meaning. But I have since 
an instance in Mr. Orby Shipley's * Divine Liturgy/ which 
sufficiently explains the use of it according to my conjecture. 
I must say it seems rather startling, and I should like a 
little more time to consider it. Could not the true meaning 
be put in language which should not raise the idea of trusting 
in human merit, as that phraseology seems to do ? But I am 
so ill-prepared with the necessary knowledge that I had 
better say no more at present. If I can find anything more 
definite to write, I will do so before long. But pray do not 
at all depend on me in the matter. 

" I suppose the words may be taken to mean * cupio emen- 
dare quod feci,' but as that cannot be, I beseech Thee to give 
me a heart to sympathize with the opposite thoughts, words, 
and actions of Thy holy ones when Thou lookest upon them, 
to remember me unworthy as longing to join with them vd 
tale aliguid. But the word * reparation,' at first sound, 
hardly suggests this. 

" Believe me, dear Mr, Carter, 

" With earnest respect and regard, 

" Most truly yours, 

"J. Keble." 

The following letter will be of interest as showing the 
activity of both Mr. Keble and Mr. Carter in getting up an 
address and influencing opinion : — 

"My dear Me. Cartbe, 

" I ought to have reported to you long before 
now the fate of our address to the bishops. You mil have 
conjectured that it was put by as clashing with the ' Declara- 
tion ' of the six thousand. That paper reached me just as I 
was making up ours — but I believe I mentioned this to you, 
so I need only now enclose it to you, as it was when I had 
written it out with many, I believe most, of your amend- 
ments, for which I was heartily obliged. I fancied that 
those who do not quite agree with us would not sign the 
Convocation Paper, and so I sent ours to Dr. Wordsworth 
himself, to know whether it might be useful. I enclose his^ 



246 DIFFERENT OPINIONS AS TO MANIFESTOES. 

reply, which I did not get for about a week. Might our 
Paper now do for an address to the Queen or the bishops ? 
I really think both ou^t in some way or other to be put 
on their responsibility. To the Queen especially it seems 
cruel, if we leave her unwarned. We are too busy just now 
about the women's petition, which is assuming considerable 
dimensions, that I cannot undertake to write much about 
this other ; but will you, if you approve, take counsel and 
do as you think best ? My name is at your service. 
" Believe me, dear Mr. Carter, 

'' With true respect and affection, 

" Always yoms, 
"J, Kkble." 

There were different opinions as to the value and wisdom 
of 'Petitions,' or public manifestoes, on certain occasions, 
especially in reference to Eucharistic doctrine ; e.g. : — 

"Dbae Mb. Cabtkb, 

'' I have had a little talk with M., and when your 
letter came I sent it on to him for his opinion. I think I 
may express his opinion and mine somewhat in this way : 
If a 'memorial' is, in this case, not strictly necessary, we 
are at liberty to take into account the inconvenience of that 
mode of proceeding. Many will object to sign it, not because 
they essentially and seriously differ from its promoters, but 
either because they dislike signing any manifesto, or because 
they scruple at this or that phrase or word in the formula ; 
so that a signed statement is never a good expression of the 
real strengdi of the body whose mind it professes to set forth. 
These and other difficulties would have to be met and got 
over, if the case were one which really necessitated the pro- 
ceeding. M. and I do not think it is so. Our reasons, I 
think, may be stated thus — 

" 1. There should not be, we think, any such manifesto, 
except by way of reply to, or remonstrance against, some 
definite tangible accusation, expressed or impli^ But the 
episcopal resolution is indefinite and intangible, so far as it 
implies any accusation at all. 

" 2. Dr. Pusey's speech has said what was necessary to 
be said to the bishops, in reference to their resolution ; espe- 
cially when it is taken with the proceedings of the E. C. U. 
which followed on his speech. 



LETTERS. 247 

'' 3. The Besolation has served its immediate object, and 
is lapsing into the character of an unreality, especially when 
we consider the line taken by Dean Goode in regard to it. 

'' 4. It is eminently desirable not to put a difficulty in 
the way of the Bishop of Oxford; but to make a solemn 
doctrinal utterance by way of reply to the Besolution which 
he undoubtedly excogitated, would be like creating such a 
difficulty. 

'' 5. Still more, if possible, do we feel the undesirableness 
of giving to the Archbishop of Canterbury an opportunity, 
or, rather let me say, of putting in his way an occasion, for 
some very unsatisfactory stieitement on the principle involved. 
We have had trouble enough from such statements of his 
Grace's mind. 

''It is only too possible that, in the course of the St 
Alban's case, events may arise which may call for some 
manifesto. At present, it seems to us that the time is hardly 
come. What the Catholic party teach and believe is not 
now seriously misunderstood by reading and thinking men ; 
and our position is not as yet compromised by any legal or 
canonical proceeding on the part of our authorities. 

"For these reasons, we are for ourselves disposed to 
deprecate any public manifesto at this time, I do indeed 
feel — ^and I am sure that M. does the same — that crises may be 
reserved which will try alike our faith, patience, and prudence. 
And then But we had ratiier not till then any demon- 
strative mode of proceeding. 

"Ever yours, 

"W. Bright." 



Fasting Communion. 

" October 20, 1896. 

"My deab Mr. M., 

" I know the difficulty that arises fix)m the grow- 
ing tendency to make Fasting Communion absolutely neces- 
sary except in extremis, I suppose it is well that thut should 
be pressed in the face of what we all know of laxity and long 
disuse in the matter. But I have been accustom^ to what 
Eeble, Pusey, liddon, and such men have taught, and cannot 
but think with them that the rule of fasting, however 
important, must give way in such cases as you describe your 
sister's to be. I know of many such cases, and though I 



248 EXCEPTIONS TO THE COMMUNION FAST. 

have no certainty in the matter, I do not scruple to say that 
such is my view. I suppose in such a case one would have 
to communicate less often. But to take what renders it 
possible to receive without injury to health seems to me 
perfectly justifiable. I do not see it to be a ' law of the 
Church.' St. Augustine spoke of it as 'wio«/ and such I 
believe it to be. Jeremy Taylor, as I suppose you may 
know, speaks of it in his * Holy Living and Dying,' and so 
regards it. 

"Tours ever, 

" T. T. C." 



" February, 1881. 

"Dear Miss B., 

" I am sorry to have been hindered writing sooner. 
What you describe is a great difficulty. I regret to say 
many feel it. When it becomes a question of Communion or no 
Communion or very frequent Communion, I am accustomed 
to think that the fasting rule must needs give way to the 
necessities of the spiritual life, and cannot suppose that the 
fasting rule, though in itself to be valued, and earnestly to 
be observed when practicable, can rightly be viewed as a 
hindrance. We have kept this principle in the C. B. S. 
It was once carefully discussed in Council, and it was 
decided that we shoidd do all we could to ' promote ' its 
observance, not force it as obligatory in all cases, as you 
describe. 

" I am very sorry to hear of your weak state of health. 
But it seems to me to justify your taking something that 
would enable you to receive ; and, if there is this necessity, 
I do not see why you should lessen the number of your times 
of communicating. 

" Very sincerely yours, 

"T. T. C." 

In another letter, to a nurse in an infirmary, where the 
lady began work at 7 a.m., and there was no celebration 
until after midday service on Sundays, Mr. Carter advised, 
in 1881, that she should take " something as little as possible 
early, so as to prevent suffering." " I quite feel," he adds, 
"you could not fast rightly with so much work to do." 



LETTERS. 249 

There are exceptions when " the proper rule seems necessarily 
in some measure to give way." There are several letters to 
the same effect. 

"Deab B., 

" I quite agree with you — there is a great deal 
of very unhealthy and disloyal playing at Eomanism, which 
is greatly damaging our cause and undermining the truth and 
English feeling of younger clergy. I feel we ought to dis- 
countenance it in every way ; specially I regret that innova- 
tion of the ' Eeservation,' on the grounds you do. We owe it 

to Dr. , I regret to say. But the judgment is a great 

blessing. 

"I suppose you feel, though I do not know what you may 
think, of the progress of our Natal Petition. We have up- 
wards of a thousand signatures. I am going to the Italian 
lakes before the heat. We start this week. I trust you are 
well. 

" Ever your affectionate, 

"T. T. C. 

"P.S. — ^We have just finished reading aloud 'Queen 
Mary.' There are some fiiie scenes and some touching ones ; 
there is yet much that is horrid, the characters horrid, and 
the ideas and the representations generally. It is altogether 
painful, and unlike what one has so often enjoyed in Tenny- 
son. If it is acted, it will, I should think, rekindle the 
embers of the Protestant furor. We are going to read Green 
on the ' History of the English People.* Perhaps you know 
the book. White has strongly recommended it, and it looks 
tempting. I think the author is the same that we met at 
Copri, while he was writing it. 

"T. T. 0." 



*' (Jlewer^ September 6. 
" My DBAK S., 

" I am SO glad to hear, and of course delighted 
to be of any use to H. Mentone has the advantages of greater 
dryness and greater equableness, and more chance of being 
more in the air, only liable to keen winds. I am very glad 
you have done that review for G. I observe F., as a motto 



250 THE CHAPEL OF ABRAHAM. 

to hiB book, alludes to the first edition of Hook's Dictionary, 
which was against Lay-Baptism, but refers not to the second 
edition, in which it is denied. Is it not strange ? I have 
not read ' Waterland/ I am occupying myseS in making 
up the notes which I kept of the Betreats which I gave years 
ago, to put together witii the essay on ' Church and World,' 
of 1868. You know M. is engaged on that book about which 
I spoke to you, which is nearly ready for printing. She has 
taken great pains, and it seems to me very good. I send you 
enclos^ just to show you what I am trying to do. 

" Your loving 

'*T. T. C." 



The enclosure mentioned in the above letter was an 
appeal for the restoration of the Chapel of Abraham in 
Jerusalem. Mr. Carter^s interests were far and wide, and of 
the most diverse kinds, showing the breadth of his sympathy. 
Holy vessels for the altar, vestments, and linen had been 
presented for reverent celebrations of the Blessed Sacrament 
in the Chapel of Abraham, which were preserved by the 
Patriarch of Jerusalem until Bishop Blyth took charge of 
them. The late Patriarch, '' with the advice of his Synod, 
had given his permission, as an act of brotherly kindness and 
sympathy with the Anglican Church," for priests of the 
English Communion to make use of the chapeL And a 
further step was now taken for the thorough restoration of 
the building, ''which is situated in the courtyard of the 
Church of the Holy Sepulchre," at a cost of about £300. 
Mr. Carter had been asked to use Ids influence to raise this 
sum, and accordingly issued an application for funds, accom- 
panied with an account of the chapel from the '' Palestine 
Text Society." 

Beafh of Mother Harriet {HoTumrahh Mrs. Monsell), 

" My deaebst , 

"We were much pleased with your letter. I 
thought Devonshire would be your destination, but had 
not thought of the old quarters. You will feel at home 



LETTERS. 251 

there, and not far from , where you will be always 

welcome. All best Easter blessings be with you and W. H. 
We have had it very fair since Friday, only cold air ; even now 
sleet is falling; the lowest temperature we have had more 
than seventeen degrees of frost at night — Good Friday night 
"Dear Mrs. Monsell passed away calmly and painlessly 
on the morning of Easter Day. I saw her last at the end of 
Passion Week ; the severe weather had tried her. I had the 
feeling it might be nearing the end, but others thought it 
only temporary. During Holy Week she was varying much. 
Sister Elizabeth went down on Easter Eve and just saw her 
in her armchair, but rapidly failing. After she talked and 
inquired after all, about four o'clock in the early morning of 
Easter Day she became unconscious, peacefully calm; she 
passed away to her well-earned rest. You will understand 
what a blank it is — it was so great a life, and so true. She 
is to be buried at Folkestone, her own desire to be there. 
I go down on Thursday to St. Leonard's, to stay over 
Sunday for a Pusey memorial expedition. 

'* Ever your affectionate 

" T. T. C." 

To ffls Son. 
EemvUm of Christendom,. 

" DEARESr J., 

"I see your plan, and I feel that I am criticising 
it too much ; and my own mind being a good deal occupied by 
these efforts at reunion, I am led too much to think of what 
is said about them. But I see what you say of this — besides 
the time involved — involving more than could be said suffi- 
ciently to be understood ; and I can also see that to those 
whom you are addressing it would be beyond the mark. 

"But one point I would suggest. Could you say any- 
thing on the favourable side of Protestantism seeking ' Truth,' 
and then against mere avihorityt For that is surely how 
Protestantism began, and is the real meaning of it as a power. 
It is true that 'Protestantism leans towai^s disunion,' but 
this first came from Bome seeking to crush inquiry by mere 
power. I always think that this side of Protestantism ought 
to be allowed for. At the Beformation, and ever since, Bome 
has stopped all fair enquiry, and so held all who question 
Boman claims and teaching with an antagonism which has 
fostered private judgment endlessly. IkCght you not add 



252 REUNION OF CHRISTENDOM. 

a sentence or two to save this point. The Beformation and 
its endless consequences might have been spared, possibly, 
if Borne could have fairly met the spirit of inquiry awakened 
by the printing press, etc. One can at least conceive the 
possibility. 

" Ever yours lovingly, 

"T. T. 0." 

"Dearest J., 

" I should like to say a few more words on this. 
I understand that the Paper is on the Beunion of Christen- 
dom. You have taken well and graphically the hopelessness 
of reimion through Protestant principles, and have shown 
historically their tendency to subdivision and minimizing of 
doctrine. It is well to state this, and one would desire a 
clear sentence summing up this conclusion. I forget, but 
doubt whether this was made clear as the conclusion of your 
survey of Protestant decays (?). But what seems wanted to 
make a * whole ' and something ' to rest on,' however tersely 
put, was to the effect (1) that the only hope of reimion is 
through reoonciling the differences between the three sepa- 
rated bodies of the Catholic Communion, to be followed by 
the return of the sectarian Protestant bodies; (2) that 
attempts at such reconciliation had been tried and been made 
in some slight degree, and were being made now ; (3) that 
we ought to do our part by prayer for such a result as well 
as by cherishing a fair tone of mind on the questions that 
divide us. 

" Ever lovingly yours, 

"T. T. a" 

" My dearest , 

" I am truly thankful, and heartily trust that the 
joy may live on full of hope. Wliat a lightening there is in 
a new birth of ' a man bom into the world ! ' We came back 
all well. I had a very pleasant visit to Keble — beautiful 
days; suited well the buildings, which are toned down, and 
the creepers are growing up. It all looked delightful. ThQ 
' Unity of Christendom ' of Wilson caused great excitement. 
It came on the second day, rather against the bishops' 
wishes, who did not seem to see its importance or prac- 
ticability. I suppose you saw in the Times about Caxdinal 
Vaughan. 



LETTERS. 2S3 

"I wrote at John's instance. He said it ought to be 
noticed, or it would tell against us. Johnson had the letter 
which Pusey wrote to the Weekly Despatch, and will show up 

the untruth of what a certain ' W li ' said of him. I think 

you are quite right as to your lines. Did you observe a 
letter in the Times complaining of Ave Maria used 
publicly ? I rather fancy the Times will take up the censor- 
ship of Church action, as the bishops have let the mantle fall. 
All best blessings. 

*' Yours, 

"T. T. C." 



The following letters will be of great interest, as they 
contain Canon Carter's mind concerning devotion to the 
Blessed Virgin Mary, Purgatory, and the Eeservation of the 
Blessed Sacrament : — 



(i.) Devotion to the Blessed Virgin. 

« Cflewer, 1897. 

"You ask me what I believe to be the truth about 
devotion to the Blessed Virgin, and I am glad to tell you 
what has been the result of my own studies in this important 
subject. We look, as you know, to the great Fathers of the 
early centuries as the truest interpreters of the law of God, 
and as witnesses beyond all others as to what the Early Church 
believed. They are clear as to their belief They speak of 
the glory of her purity, of her great vocation as the chosen 
mother of Grod, our Saviour, the Eve of the new kingdom, 
and of her great example to us. 

"We cannot but believe and have hope in her inter- 
cession being offered for us, hers especially, with those of 
the other blessed saints, herself the chief. And we may 
surely ask her intercessions, trusting in God to hear us. 

" Prayer to the Blessed Virgin is a different thing. This 
grew in later centuries as the result of the 'Assumption.' 
You know, the Assumption, or bodily ascension of the Blessed 
Virgin, I mean, the idea of it, arose out of a mere fable. 
But the consequences grew and grew till, as you equally 
know, prayer to our Blessed Lady seems taking the place of 
prayer to our Lord. 



254 QUESTION ON DEVOTION TO B. V. M. 

''The Eastern Church has not received it. There the 
same day is kept as the 'Bepose' of the Blessed Virgin, 
simply her peaceful death. And what now prevails in the 
Church of Borne is surely a grievous shock to us. For there, 
Liguori, lately made one of the chief doctors, teaches that 
prayer to the Blessed Virgin, or prayer through her to God, 
may be more availing than prayer to our Blessed Lord. Any 
one who goes abroad may see how chapels dedicated to her 
are far more frequented than those in which He, the Crucified, 
is honoured. You know, Holy Scripture has ever kept the 
Blessed Virgin in a kind of graceful reserve, as best be- 
coming her and the tone of her Magnificat 

*' Your loving 

" T. T. C." 

(ii.) Alout Pwrgaiiory, 

"1897. 

" In writing, as you wish me, about Purgatory, it is right 
to remember that the idea of inJQicted punishment seems to 
have arisen from the growing sense of penal infliction which 
characterized the Middle Ages. The term properly means 
simply purification, and so also the term damnation,' coming 
from ' damnum,' means loss, though a similar sense of external 
infliction grew up. We have no definite revelation about 
departed souls; only, that there is an Intermediate State 
before the final judgment, where souls are detained, and are 
being prepared for their future immortal state. I can see no 
authority for the Boman idea of a penal condition, an im- 
prisonment of suffering purgation from which souls are to be 
rescued. There was nothing of this kind in the teaching of 
the Fathers in the Early Church, nor is there now, as far as 
I know, in the Greek Orthodox Church. The belief was of 
a state of light in which remains of sin was being cleansed 
away through the vision of God, more and more intimately 
revealed and growing as the soul oould receive it, all this, of 
course, in proportion to the state of the departed — ^to those 
prepared, a very paradise of blessedness ; to those in their 
various degrees of advancement, more and more of refresh- 
ment and peace. 

"We Imow here how slowly sinful tendencies are entirely 
cleared away, and though such cleansing will be under far 
more favourable circumstances in the higher world and in 
the immediate Presence, yet we may believe the same law of 



LETTERS. 255 

progress^ as now, prevails there in perfecting our nature — 
there as here. The suffering will be in the consciousness of 
the past, in the sense of remaining evil, the ingratitude of 
faithlessness, and such-like. This, however, alleviated, can- 
not but be felt all the more in that transcendent light. 

"That prayer avails for the departed, as co-operating with 
their inward purification, has, as you know, been ever felt to 
be availing through our Lord's Merits and Love. One cannot 
speak of those in whom no, even the least, seeds of good 
exist, such as might grow and develop into some measure of 
the least degree of blessedness, for of blessedness there are 
many degrees. Our Lord speaks of the Eight Hand, etc." 



(iii) Of JBeservcUion of the Blessed Sacrament 

*' You ask me what I think of perpetual Eeservation of 
the Blessed Sacrament : whether it is allowable, and whether 
it is desirable. 

" You know that Eeservation for the sick dated from the 
earliest ages. It is, and has been, in fact, only an extension 
of Communion, for Communion was the object of our Lord's 
Institution, and our Lord's Body was to be ever ready at 
hand at all times and places. Many used to carry it with 
them when travelling, but always and only for the purpose 
of Communion. So it remained for fifteen centuries; so 
it still remains in the Eastern Church ; so it continued in 
the West until the Eeformation ; and consequently Eeserva- 
tion for the sick only has been the use of the Church of 
England. It has been the use of the Faithful among us to 
live on the sense of the Indwelling Presence through frequent 
Communion, on Holy Scripture, and on the witness of the 
Church of the first eight centuries before the developments 
began which have so unhappily caused dissension in the 
Catholic body. 

" The Eoman mind has evidently taken a different line 
from what has prevailed in England. Having shut off the 
Scriptures from the people, and also the witness of the 
Church's traditions, and having instead established an 
absolute authority of the Church of the day, of the present 
time, it has had recourse to other and new influences to keep 
up devotional life. Thus Eoman use established the Eeserved 
Sacrament with the office of Benediction. Thus, it has of 



256 CANON CARTER ON RESERVATION. 

late established devotion to the ' Sacred Heart/ which, while 
having a great tendency to a material view, can only mean 
an intenser sense of our Lord's affections ; and thus it keeps 
up the mediaBval idea of Indulgences, as attached to specific 
prayers. K we regard the object aimed at in such devotions, 
they seem, and were intended, to supply the place which to 
us has been filled (?) by the use of Holy Scripture and early 
traditions, and I may add the living influence of the in- 
dwelling Spirit of God. I add this last, for any one who 
reads Boman devotions must have seen how little is said of 
such a Living Presence, and it is clear how this has come 
to pass. For Some has been ever afraid to dwell upon the 
inspirations of the Holy Ghost, knowing how to such 
influences have been attributed individual action and 
schismatic separation as against the dogmatic rule of 
authority. Li all this I am not wishing to criticise Boman 
ways, only to show the different lines that they and we 
have been led to take, though I cannot but believe that 
our ways have been the truer and the best for intelligent 
and sustaining and truthful devotion. 

'' Further, as to the question whether perpetual Beserva- 
tion of the Blessed Sacrament is desirable. I have already 
implied that it must be by the act of the Church of England 
as a whole if it were to be ordained. As to whether desirable 
or no, that, of course, is a different question. One thing, I 
think, that must stiike any one who is acquainted with 
modem Boman devotions, is the very painful sense of the 
mode of addressing our Lord in the Tabernacle as voluntarily 
there confined. Such devotion is but a natural consequence 
of the belief. But can this be desirable ? What our Lobd 
Himself may think of such a devotion to Himself we cannot 
know. There is, no doubt, a certain felt sanctity, where there 
is such Beservation, to a reverent mind, and it may have a 
helpfulness to devout persons, such as one ought not to 
judge. But to many a mind, I suppose, doubt must arise. 
To us, at all events, who look to the object for which our 
Lord designed His most Holy Presence in the Blessed 
Sacrament, and who believe that His Indwelling Presence 
through the Holy Spirit is meant to be the consequence of 
Communion, and who live in trust in the witness of the 
Catholic Church for so many centuries to this truth as the 
ground of our spiritual life — ^to us, as I believe, it is truer 
and more according to what we know of our Lord's mind, 
to follow the witness of the Catholic Church for so many 



LETTERS. 717 

centuries to this truth rather than what Soman use of 
comparatively later years has introduced in the matter of 
the Blessed Sacrament, as in other matters which form so 
much of its cherished devotion. 

" I am writing the result of many years of consideration 
of the many truths concerned in the various usages which 
are touched by the questions you have asked. I hope I am 
clear, or I would wish to make any questionable point clear. 
God bless you, and may He keep us united in seeking to do 
our Lord all honour. 

" Ever your affectionate 

«T, T. C." 



The following letter, a copy of which has come to our 
hands, bears upon one of the three questions just discussed, 
that of '' Eeservation." It is a reply to a letter upon this 
subject fix)m the Archbishop of Canterbury. 

'' 14, The Lees, Fi^keBione, 188& 

"My dear Lord Archbishop, 

"I am greatly ashamed by the condescension 
and kindness of your Grace's expressions. I am exceedingly 
sorry if I may have been guilty of any want of deference 
when writing, as I frankly confess I did, under strong 
emotion, feeling how serious a loss was being incurred, and 
having personcd grounds for such feeling. May I mention 
to your Grace some few particulars to show you how much 
one personally feels in tibis matter ? I have been, and am 
still, obliged to reserve the Blessed Sacrament every week, 
as the o^y means of communicating a very suffering Sister 
at our House of Mercy, who cannot receive until late in the 
morning, and is quite unable to bear the service for ' Com- 
munion of the Sick.' The bishop knows of the case and its 
necessity. I am connected with a London parish, where the 
late ardibishop, when Bishop of London, gave permission 
for such Beservation, where, if it were compelled to cease, 
many must suffer and die uocommunicated. I am anxious 
also about other parishes where similar painful loss would 
be sustained. 

" I am not arguing with your Grace, but only explaining 
why I wrote under such strong feelings. I was moved by 



258 RESERVATION FOR THE SICK. 

the thought that if it were to go forth with authority that 
tinder no circumstances the Church of England permitted 
the Beservation for the sick, the Church would be maimed 
in a matter affecting the spiritual life in its deepest needs, 
while manifestly up to this time such permission has been 
considered possible imder special circumstances. In drawing 
the conclusions which I did from the proceedings in Convo- 
cation, I can only plead that I formed my judgment from 
the Ouardian report, which we are accustomed to regard as 
accurate and trustworthy. I do not know whether I missed 
any point. I looked anxiously, but I saw only what I 
alluded to. It did not occur to me to ask for further intelli- 
gence, when the account given seemed to be quite clear. I 
hope your Grace will not think me indifferent to the dangers 
which you have pointed out, and will excuse my warmth 
on the ground of my great anxiety on behalf of suffering 
souls. I am glad, however, that I have erred in supposing 
your Grace's judgment and that of the assembled bishops 
was to cut off any privilege now accorded to us in cases 
of urgency such as I have referred to. The practice I am 
anxious to preserve is in accordance with the most certain 
use of antiquity, and I thank your Grace most warmly for 
your kind reply, which quiets my anxiety. 

" Your Grace's thankful and obedient servant, 

"T. T. Cabteb." 



The Consecration of Barlow. 

The following Paper, bearing date April 19, 1864, was 
probably read by Mr. Carter at some meeting in South 
Devon. It is related to Eoman controversy upon this vexed 
question, written in Mr. Carter's unmistakable hand, and 
sent to us by one who was a chaplain of one of the 
institutions. 

"1. The 'great doubt' about the consecration of Barlow 
ought in all fairness to be given up. Over and over again 
it has been shown that he was validly consecrated. He 
was Bishop, though not in possession of a See. Courayer, 
Dr. Oldham, etc., give the facts. The Church Union 
Kalendar of the present year has the pedigree and proof of 
his consecration. 



LETTERS. 259 

'' It is, I regret to say, characteristic too often of Boman 
controyersialists to persist in bringing forward points long 
.ago disproved. Only a little while ago a E. C. who disputed 
it told me that, on inquiry, she was satisfied that in the 
original of&cial document of Parker's consecration there 
was Barlow's name as Bishop. 

" 2. The form in which our Lord consecrated the Apostles 
was simply, 'Eeceive ye the Holy Ghost; whosesoever sins,' etc. 

" For a long time in the Catholic Church this continued 
to be the use ; it W£is originally only as a prayer that the 
Commission was conveyed. Our form, immediately after the 
Beformation, was but the same our Lord had used. It is 
simply idle to call this defective. The truth is, it has been 
left to the Church to give Sacrament in forms of its own 
choosing, and they have varied from time to time. For more 
than a thousand years absolution was given as a prayer, the 
one which now stands in our Order for the Visitation of the 
Sick after our Absolution. That precatory form alone was 
used during all that period, and still in the East the form, 
I believe, is of this same kind, only the words in Holy 
Baptism and the Holy Eucharist were fixed by our Lord and 
unchangeable, and are the form. In all other sacramental 
ordinances they have varied, whilst the powers given are the 
same. The words quoted, 'For a bishop,' *Stir up the 
grace of God which is in thee by the imposition of our hands,' 
are St. Paul's, words applied by him to the same purpose, 
and to say that these words used by bishops canonically 
consecrating a successor with the full intention would not 
be a true expression of the intent is hardly reverent. 

" The same may be said of what is urged as to omitting 
the mention of 'offering sacrifice.' Iliere is no specific 
mention of this function of the priestly office in our Lord's or 
in the Early Church's form of Commission. Archbishop 
Bramhall argued against this really frivolous (?) change in 
Queen Elizabeth's day. He says, 'He who saith, "Take 
thou authority to exercise the office of a priest in the Church 
of God," dotii intend aJl things requisite to the priestly 
function, and among the rest, to offer a representative sacrifice 
to commemorate and apply the sacrifice which Christ made 
upon the Cross.' It is true one /orm of Commission was 
altered. There was no idea of imperfection before such as 
would invalidate the Commission. What was used at first 
was the primitive form, the words sulded were simply a giving 
^ greater fulness. 



26o THE EUCHARISTIC SACRIFICE. 

''3. As to sacrifioe, it is not trae that oar Church ever 
denied the Eucharistic Sacrifice. The Beformers wished and 
strove to raise the idea of Communion, which had been 
practically lost in the absorbing idea of the Sacrifice, and 
that the worship of the people was thought to be adequately 
fulfilled in being present at the Sacrifice, instead of partaking 
of it. The question really was as to the meaning, what was 
meant and what the relation of the Sacrifice of the Eucharist 
to that of the Cross. All our chief Church writers during 
the Eeformation period argued as Bramhall did, * We acknow- 
ledge a Eucharistic sacr&ce of praise and thanksgiving, a 
commemorative sacrifice and representation of the Passion of 
Christ before the eyes of His Father; an impetrative sacrifice 
and impetrative of the fruits and benefits of His Passion ; 
and, lastly, an applicatory sacrifice. Let him that dares go 
one step farther than we do, and say that it is a suppletory 
mcrifice to supply the defects of the Sa/yrifice of the Cross ; or 
else let them hold their peace, and speak no more against us 
on this point of sacrifice for ever.' 

" The latter passage, which I have underlined, shows what 
idea of sacrifice they endeavoured to exclude. 

" 4. The idea of the king being able to make bishops was 
merely a notion of some few, and it is not clear that they 
meant the royal license as sufficient without consecration. 
There is no instance of any one becoming a bishop in this 
way. There were confused notions of the distinction between 
priests and bishops, but this confusion really arose firom the 
Papal usurpations, which had absorbed most of the episcopal 
rights into the Papal See ; that on the first awakening of the 
mind to the realities of the condition of the Church under the 
Soman supremacy, it took some time to clear away the con- 
fusion. If the idea existed, it was but the notion of a few, 
and never acted on. They were careful, some of them, to 
take out licenses for the time, but this was to give legal 
security and authority. There is no question in our Ordinal or 
in any public act of the distinctions between the three Orders. 

'' 5. As to the intention, it really is not as it has been 
stated. Sacraments are not dependent on the intention of 
the administrator. What would be the untold misery of the 
consequences if such were the case, in the days when 
Arianism nearly overran the Church, or in the case of wicked 
priests and unbelieving priests, who could teU whether we 
had been rightly baptized or absolved, or had really received 
otir Lord's Body ? 



LETTERS, 261 

" This is supposing that there may have been since the 
Beformatioa a defect of intention as to ordaining, which 
really is not to be believed. 

" 6. Is it true that mission and jurisdiction are necessary 
as well as order for ministers of God? But to say that 
through the Papal See only mission can come, is to beg the 
whole question. We deny it on the overwhelming fact that 
it was never so held and done for centuries in Christendom. 
Every canonical bishop has power of giving mission, and so 
it was ever held in better days. 

"7. The cause of the differences as to Rome's dealing 
with Eastern and English priests who go over to them is not 
difficult to discern. They look on us as revolted subjects, 
less so in the case of the East. Their hostility towards us 
is stronger, though Eome has never formally ^ denied our 
Orders. What is said of the then Cardinal Archbishop of 
Paris, when Courayer*s book on our Orders was not judged 
as important on the point ? He was condemned as a heretic 
on other points by the Court, not on this. The policy towards 
us on the part of Rome has been, however, in practice, ' wax 
to the kn^e/ The same enmity has not been called out 
toward the East, at least of later years." 



" Sunday Eveni7ig, December 9. 

"My dear , 

" I may not, I fear, be able to remove from your 
mind the painful feelings which I have unhappily caused, 
but you may, I trust, be able to be more forbearing in your 
judgment of me, if you will kindly read the following account 
of the thoughts weighing on my mind and actuating me. 
They need no reply, and can be read at your leisure. You 
can hardly, I suppose, but be aware of the difficulty per- 
plexing us (by * us ' I mean those with whom I am most 
accustomed to have intercourse) from your avowed desire for 
disestablishment. 

" In addition to this, you may be scarcely able to feel how 
much anxiety arises from your manifest rejection of spiritual 
authority in our bishops or bishops' courts, in consequence 
of their alliance with the State. Nor possibly can you 
appreciate the extent to which what you do is taken, not only 

1 This was written in 1864. 



262 DISESTABLISHMENT. 

by outsiders, but by the Church world very generally, as ex- 

firessmg the mind of the (so-called) High Church party, or at 
east of our section of it. I do not wish to speak of myself 
personally, except by way of explanation. But I have com- 
mitted myself altogether from very strong convictions to the 
duty of endeavouring to restore a better order of jurisdiction 
in our existing status, if, and so long as, it should please God 
to preserve it. 

**1 have gone the furthest length to which I could con- 
scientiously go in the way of resistance, and have not shrunk 
from wounding and estranging near friends in devotion to this 
cause. But it has been aU along — and on this ground alone 
could I justify it to my conscience — ^with the view of restoring 
constitutional order, and, for the sake of this order, believing 
that authority must come from above, and that the present 
constitution is out of joint, not in itself radically wrong. 

" To come nearer to the point. When the other day the 
Queen's Bench at least gready damaged Lord Penzance and 
his Court, I felt, in common with all our party, that we had 
gained a great step towards our end — that, through his ruin, 
in time the day might be clearer towards a true exercise of 
Church jurisdiction. When your letters to the Bishop of 
London appeared, it was evident that a new order of conflict 
was arising, rejecting the bishop's authority altogether in 
every shape that was now practicable, and proposing no other 
in the stead of what was possible now, and this in matters of 
less moment than those in which we had hitherto been 
engaged. 

*' Some of us consulted together as to any combined effort 
of attempting to persuade you to come to terms with the 
bishop. 

"But we decided it was better to write privately and 
separately; hence some of the letters which must have 
reached you on or before the Saturday when you returned to 
London. I was asked to write something publicly to clear 
those of us who with me lamented the line you had adopted, 
thinking it injurious to our common cause and future 
prospects. I declined to do so, trusting to the private 
appeals. 

"When your letter came out on Monday after these 
appeals had reached yon, there seemed no hope of any change 
on your part, and it seemed to me inevitable that we should 
all be compromised if wd were silent, and be assured of 
approving. 



LETTERS. 263 

" Will you forgive me if I add that the tone of that 
letter in its reference to the Bishop of L. (the last paragraph) 
was so defiant, beyond anything I could have fanci^ you 
would write, that I was dismayed at the spirit that was 
colouring the action, and all the more it seemed that 
something was necessary to be done to save those, who, like 
myself, dissented from it, from being implicated. 

'' I could not but think your course a mistake, affecting 
us all, and I had to choose between letting myself and others 
who might look to me in the matter, take our chance of being 
identified with your proceeding, or risking the consequences 
of an open disclaimer. 

" I can hardly expect you, my dear , to look at those 

points, which I have endeavoured to express as briefly as I 
could, in the same light as I do ; but I earnestly trust that 
what I have said will show you that much has to be taken 
into account ; that what I have said may lift the question up 
above personal considerations ; that whether I am mistaken 
or not, it will at least appear that it was the cause of the 
Church, which you love as dearly as myself (though we look 
differently at its outward accidents), that actuated me 
throughout this painful matter ; and that you may perhaps 
somewhat better be able to respect the motives at least, 
though you may be quite unable to approve of what I did. 

" I pray that in anything in which I may have been mis- 
taken in this very painful matter I may be forgiven, as I 
would pray that anything in which you may have erred may 
be overruled in mercy for good. 

" Believe me, as ever, 

" Your affectionate friend, 
"Ti T. Oaktbe. 

*' If you would think well to show this to your curates, I 
should be obliged to you, for I should like to explain myself 
to them equally as to yourself." 



Fasting Commtmion. 

"My deae S. H., 

'' I am obliged to you for writing to me, and am 
glad to reply. Our Community was meant to sustain the 
use of fasting communion as far as possible, lliere are 



264 FASTING COMMUNION. 

many whom I have known in past years, who, staying from 
home for a time, and at a distance from church, would have 
suffered a ^ood deal imless they had taken some support, 
however slight. But for any one regularly, even with full 
sanction, breaking the rule, I have never known, and I do 
not think it would be consistent with the aim which the 
confraternity has treasured. 

'' There may be cases of an extreme kind for a time ; but 
this does not seem to be the case you speak of. 
*' Believe me, in the love of our Lord, 

" Sincerely yours, 

"T. T. Cabtbr." 

It may be necessary to mention that this letter was 
written to the head of a religious community. Mr. Garter's 
mind upon this subject is clearly given in this and other 
letters. We have been told that he was much distressed by 
the violent line which some had taken up, which he thought 
showed a want of consideration for priests, especially when 
they were £eur from their churches. On one occasion he 
went so far as to describe such rigorism as '' binding in iron 
fetters the sacrament of love." 

Canon Carter was desirous of showing his affection for a 
departed friend, and applied to Dr. Pusey to join with him in 
the effort to preserve the memory of one who was much 
loved by both. It appears that the funds raised were to be 
used for an endowment of some object in which all were 
much interested. The application called forth from Dr. Pusey 
the following characteristic reply, which in the light of subse- 
quent events may almost provoke a smile ; but it is an evidence 
of the saintly doctor's unworldly spirit, if not a very practical 
view of things. 

•* Souih Hermitage, Ascot Friory, 

"•7Wy3, 1882. 

"My deakest Friend, 

"I am sick of memorials, and only hope that 
none will be made of me. They are now commonly used to 
promote some object which some one has at heart. Of course 



LETTERS. 265 

it is much better that money should go to an useful object ; 
but the object in so many seems to be something which 
people want, as to fill a church with stained-glass windows, 
etc. 

"Then I have, all my thinking life, disliked making 
capital out of income. It has seemed to me providing for 
futurity till our Lord comes, or the destroyer, out of whisit is 
given us for the day. I have always thought, * Let us provide 
for the things of the day, and let the morrow be provided 
for by those who see it.' I have, on this account, always dis- 
liked making fresh endowments. It has been such waste, 
sinking £1000 (amid the overwhelming wants for the day), 
in order to produce £30 per annum or so, for some indefinite 
future. 

" I could not then consistently join the memorial to Mr. 
S. It would be acting on a principle contrary to what I 
have acted upon all my thinking life. 

" The enclosed will also tell you of a practical difficulty, 
that I am begging as hard as I can for the extension of the 
usefulness of this place, with its magnificent air, by means of 
subscriptions. This hospital and its lands have become what 
they are out of capital, chiefly that of the Foundress, and the 
new wards which are to be built out of capital, if there is 
promise of subscnptions to feed the patients. I would only 
add that the enlargement was part of the original plan of the 
Foundress, but has been proposed thus late from lack of pri- 
vate funds to bmld it. Witt every good wish, 

" Your very aflFectionate 

"E. B. PUSEY." 



This letter was marked on the back by Canon Carter — 
" Thoughts on Endowments." 



"My dear , 

" I must thank you very much for your full and 
very satisfactory reply to my question. It is very support- 
ing to my mind. I shall venture to quote some parts of it, 
I think, if I can carry out my purpose of publishing another 
volume of ' Spiritual Instructions on our Lord's Infancy.' I 
am now correcting proofs of a second volume of 'Parish 
Teachings.' I am glad to leave behind me some few records 
of the palish church days, though they do not come to much. 



266 CRITIQUE ON **LUX MUNDir 

I saw that on non-communicating attendance. I am glad 

that it should be marked. asked me once what it 

meant. 

" Ever yours affectionately, 

'•T. T. C." 



" lAix Mundir 

" My dear , 

"I am truly glad of your critique on 'Lux 
Mundi.' I thought the article excellent. We are evidently 
in for a most serious controversy. I hear from good authority 
that the question as to Pusey House will not be settled tiU 
the long vacation. I wonder how the Council will act. 

Evidently L. and cannot both remain. The correction 

of those passages in the Guardian of last week did not seem to 
make any reed difference. I am surprised and sorry for the 

line which has taken, who, whilst he would not accept 

^'s idea of the dramatic representation of Jonah and 

Daniel, will accept bis view of our Lord's limited knowledge. 
He appears to think that as the earlier ages had established 
Christ's divinity, the later would establish His true man- 
hood and real sympathy, which was less traditionally held. 
But I thought it argued a serious conflict of opinion, and I 
cannot go with it. 

" Your ever affectionate 

" T. T. C. 

" I am rejoiced to see the Times taking part against * Lux 
Mundl'" 

Upon this question, Mr. Carter's views were identified 
with those of Dr. Pusey and Dr. Liddon. He was very 
anxious to show his affection for Dr. Liddon by attending 
his funeraL There are several communications about this. 
Mr. Carter says, writing to a friend — 

" I fully mean to be at St. Paul's. I will go with you, 
meeting at 10.15. I want to make sure of being present. 
. . . Indeed, it is a sorrow, and a loss of a very grievous 
kind." 



LETTERS. 267 

Concerning the Lincoln judgment, he writes — 

" It seems to me impossible, absolutely so, to think the 
archbishop's judgment can settle for ever a controversy of 
many years afifecting the whole Church movement. It may 
add to the materials of our judging, and, of course, clenches 
matters as to Bishop of L., but it can do no more/' 

Again, in a letter apparently bearing the date June 1, 
1890, he says— 

'* I expressed my belief in the address (before a Society) 
as to the archbishop's decision as not absolutely settling 
the question, but it must be subject to Church Synod ; not 
as now, in personam, but in remy [This view (which Mr. 
Carter expressed also in the Guardian) met with very 
general approval.] " The bishop's Charge, which we heard 
yesterday, was very clever and interesting, dealing with 
' Lux Mundi ' and ' Eitual Judgment,' the latter evidently 
waiting for a compromise. 

"I am thinking of going to Switzerland for a quiet kind 
of visit this year. I suppose the last I am likely to take. 
I feel a sight of the mountains will be restful. I will do 
what you wish if there is time. I suppose you want only a 
subordinate article. C. seems to think the Court may be 
viewed as supreme. F. M. is now giving a Eetreat here, and 
is with me. 

" Lovingly yours, 

"T.T. C." 

Canon Carter had a way of magnifying what in his love 
and humility he was pleased to regard as famous. Thus in a 
letter dated July 13, 1893, he writes— 

" Dearest , 

" I thank you very heartily for sending to me a 
copy of your new edition. The book is becoming a classic, and 
all you say in the dedication is most touching to me." 

He was always real and true, but possessed such a 
warmth of affection and vivid imagination as to impart a 



26S THE HOLY SPIRITS GIFT IN BAPTISM. 

glow and brightness to little acts of courtesy which a proud or 
phlegmatic disposition would scarcely notice. This is a trait 
which we constantly discover in his correspondence. E eon- 
ta/rio, what an ordinary character would regard as great 
occasions and calls, which brought honour and notice, 
would be met by him without effort or loss of composure, 
even when press of spiritual work had left no time for pre- 
paration. Thus, we have seen him going off to preach on a 
special occasion and on a special subject, when in the 
carriage he had great difficulty in recalling what was the 
topic on which he was expected to speak. 

** Lux Mundi " was evidently a continued anxiety to 
him. In the next letter before us we come upon this theme 
again, and he says — 

''I have been reading some of 'Lux Mundi,' and am 
grievously sorry for its pu blication, and it seems to me unlike 
the work of real theological critics, though there is much in 
it which is beautiful, ^e two last essays I read on my way 
to Bovey, and these seemed to me good and beautiful" 

It may be mentioned here that he was in the habit of 
reading on his journeys, and became so absorbed with the 
subject that he sometimes lost his way or his luggage — on 
this occasion the latter for a while. 

" I read 's article a second time, and felt the more 

strongly against the line. Some of the views about faith in 
this volume seemed to me more questionable." 

Again, Mr. Carter was much distressed by the new teach- 
ing about the Holy Spirit's gift in Baptism. He says — 

" I came upon 's note this morning, and it, indeed, 

startled me ! If that really is the end of this argument, I 

had yet hoped, that in spite of what says of the Spirit's 

gift, he would have left the renewal of our nature still as the 
predominant idea of baptism, and so kept up its dignity. 



LETTERS. 269 

What can think of regeneration as a real fact ? He 

seems to be evidently caught by novel ideas." 

Canon Carter was very generous, and would take up his 
pen to defend any whom he thought hardly dealt with in the 
press or elsewhere, quite apart from the question of theological 
sympathy. As an instance of this, when writing to a friend, 

he refers to a letter of his in the S , defending a certain 

dean whom he thought had not been quite fairly treated : — 

"I thought," he says, "the comments of 8 very 

unfair upon him. He is a good * Broad,' and will, I think, 
be fair aU round. I fancy he is not deep enough to take in 
the real bearings of the whole question, and that he thinks it 
can be settled by amiable arrangements and kindly administra- 
tion. But he will do well in general ways, though he had 
better have waited for his promotion a few more years. 

" How strange it seems to have lived through the storms 
and struggles, and now to see the vessel moving on so freely 
as if all were peace. The only trouble now is the inde- 
pendence of people, taking each their own line, but happUy 
some going on the right line." 

In the following extract from a letter to a literary Mend, 
Mr. Carter's attitude towards modem views is evident : — 



"Dear 



" I should be glad if you would see your way to 
modify certain expressions in your note, the 'method of 
evolution.' This seems to accept the whole thing. Might it 
be ' a certain kind of evolution,' or something to that effect ? 
Again, ' if in details rectified.' This admits a great deal — one 
hardly knows how much. I think it would need explaining 
what is meant Also, ' may still bear the data.' Is not this 
too apologetic ? I should say, ' are thoroughly trustworthy 
as to data, usually assigned to them.' " 

These extracts are given as evidences of the same con- 
servative tone of mind with regard to science as well as 
doctrine. 



vjo YORKSHIRE DALES AND DELLS. 

BUtial Difficulties, 

"Dearest S., 

'' I feel with you the anxiety of the time. I wrote 
to thank Y. for his letter in the Times. I feel very sure 
that unless the bishops consult the priests and make some 
common cause, there can only be again and again what has 
been — the Final Court appealed against and assisted, and so 
round and round again the same unhappy alternations. I do 
not know how it may be arranged, but the bishops seem at a 
loss how to act. 

" I cannot see how we can accept censing without any 
object of person or thing. This is meant, I suppose, to prevent 
movement in the sanctuary. 

" Yours very affectionately, 

"T. T. C." 



'< Bichm&nd, Yorkshire^ August 22, 1887. 

"My dear Brother, 

" You will be glad to hear of our progress. We 
have had beautiful weather, only one wet day and a thunder- 
storm ; and it has been raining, only to-day it has become 
coldish and dull. We had four days at Bolton, and greatly 
enjoyed that most lovely Wharfe — was there ever finer river 
scenery ? — and a day at Ilkley, a most lovely place on the 
edge of a picturesque moor, on the lower part of the Wharfe. 
Then we came to the Ingleborough country. We could not 
get in at Clapdale, and came on to Ingleton. There we found 
delightful moorland, glens, and waterfalls, and all very 
pleasant, and beautiful air. We got into a little village, 
poor, but all very clean, and food good, and manners most 
civilized and simple. We had a long day's drive round to 

the of Ingleborough and down Wensleydale, about 36 

or 37 miles. Weather beautiful. It is well worth the expe- 
dition, and there are waterfalls, quite striking, by the way. 
These waterfalls are quite a feature of these Yorkshire dells. 

" We came on to Leyboume, and so next day to Bipon by 
Jervaulx. The ruins there are not much^ so great has been 
the destruction ; and we had Bipon cathedral for our Sunday ; 
service very reverent, and inside very good. It is a third- 
class cathedral, but it is fine, and a real cathedral, though till 



LETTERS. 271 

late only a parish church, as you know well. But it is 
difficult to say enough of Fountains, or Lord Bipon's magnifi- 
cent park, and the beautiful gorgeous church he built, and 
happily made over to the parish and his wife, though he 
Bomanized while it was being built. Burgess was architect, 
and it is most beautiful, and of exquisite effect. I think of 
staying here a day or two, and then go on to Durham, where 
we shsdl be for Sunday, and after that make for Stirling, to 
be a few days with my old curate Duthie and his sisters. 
" Your affectionate brother, 

'*T. T. C." 



A Theological Qtiestion. 
Deab , 



October 29, 1886. 



'' I am glad to hear you are coming for the All 
Saints* Octave. We can then talk over some matters. There 
is a theological question. I am not clear about it. It is 
about our Lord's consciousness during His early infancy. 
Is it believed that the Divine Personality pervaded tiie 
human nature so entirely as to give to His infancy a con- 
sciousness of what was then done by and to Him. Would it, 
e,g., be true to say that He was conscious and acted volun- 
taiHy in His circumcision. His flight into Egypt, so as to 
know the meaning and assent to the sacrifice involved in 
those actions ? 

" Yours, 

"T. T. C." 



Prayers of the Saints. 

'' November 20, 1886. 

*'Deae , 

"I find a stronger and clear passage in 'Law: 
Answer to Fisher,' ch. ix. p. 385, Cambridge, Pitt Press : — 
' As here in the Church Militant we have our fellow-soldiers, 
striving together with us and helping together with their 
prayers to God for us ; ' and yet beostuse we pray one for 
another, we do not pray one to another, so the Fathers who 
taught that the Saints in the Church Triumphant do pray for 
us, might with St. Basil acknowledge that they have the 



373 INVOCATION OF SAINTS. 

martyrs feliaw^hdperB to their prayers, and yet pray with 
them only^ and not vmio them/ 

" Yours, 

«T. T. C." 

[The italics are Law*s, while for the subject, see St. Basil.] 

It will be seen from this letter that Canon Carter, in 
r^ard to the '' Invocation of Saints," as well as in other 
matters of controversy, did not feel justified in going beyond 
what, at any rate, at the time was regarded as the limits of 
the teaching of the English Communion. Though his delight 
in, and reverence for, and admiration of the Saints were 
almost unbounded, he did not encourage direct invocation. 
He was not convinced that praying to them was the practice 
of the Early Church, which was ever the Court of Appeal of 
the old Tractarians. On the other hand, in consideration of 
what was practised and encouraged in other parts of the 
Church Catholic, East and West, he might not have always 
felt it necessary to forbid this direct invocation, in the case 
of those who had already formed this devotional habit, 
provided that there was no danger of their trusting in any 
merits or advocacy short of that of the One Organic Mediator, 
'' Himsdf Man, Christ Jesus." Certainly he would not have 
sanctioned any public use of such devotions, nor have 
recommended it in private prayer.^ 

It is evident that this question about direct invocation 
of the Saints was one which exercised the minds of those 
who, in earlier days, edited books of devotion for English 
people. The following letter from Dr. Pusey to Canon 
Carter will reveal the caution and consideration with which 
Dr. Pusey and Dr. liddon touched the lex orandi : — 

"My deabbst T. Carter, 

"I think that that form of prayer, 'May, 
etc.,' has been used these thirty years. I do not remember 
issuing these myself; but devotions which I have edited — 

' This subject is also dealt with in pp. 239, 240, etc.— Ed. 



LETTERS. 273 

although I have defended them — I did not remember 
whether you put them distinctly as a prayer to Grod to give 
us their prayers. But I know nothing about the extreme 
party except what one reads in papers, so that I feel utterly 
incompetent to think how this would affect them. So I sent 
on yours to liddon, and I now enclose his answer, which is 
mine also. 

** Your most affectionate, 

"E. B. P." 



B. C, Controversy. 
"Deab , 



" February 7, 1888. 



" You will not be surprised to hear that C. has 
succumbed to the charms of Bome. His sister led the way. 
The Jubilee at Bome, where he happened to be, no doubt 
influenced the desire, and everything like that unhappy 

letter of the Bishop of kept aggravating the sore. I 

am not sure whether he has been received — but it is as good 
as done. A kind of parting letter has just passed between 
us, and we hurriedly shook hands at the station. 

" Have you seen a Kalendar, published by W., which has 
an increasing circulation ? I saw a laudatory notice of it in 

. H. wanted me to disclaim any connection with it, as 

my name in some way appears on the title-page, connected 
with something which I wrote somewhere. It contains most 
insinuating, unpleasant bits of Bomanism in it. He thought 
a Jesuit must be the author. I thought of disclaiming any 

approval of it in . 

" Yours, etc., 

"T. T. C." 



" Lux Mundi." 

^' September 7, 1891. 

"Deae , 

** There is a matter upon which I should like to 
know your mind. D. having been foiled in his endeavour to 
get Convocation to take up 3ie ' Lux Mundi ' matter, and not 

T 



274 MANNING^S PARTING SHOT. 

finding E. C. U. is able to deal with it, is now set upon getting 
an address to Canterbury, signed by certain names. He is 
corresponding with Goulburn about it, and he will seek to get 
a meeting to consider it. I have told him I would go to such 
a meeting, of a few, very privately, if possible. I have said 
to him, that I should think, if such an address is to be drawn 
up, there ought to be a recognition of what is good in the 
book ; and also a disclaimer of anything against such criti- 
cism as Lightfoot carried out in the Tubingen matter. He 
(D.) would rather say nothing of this kind of allowance, or 
thought it too much of accommodation to popular thought. 
What do you think of such a move, and how should it be 
made, if made ? Certainly the book in its main tendencies 
is of a too rationalistic order. Yet how many like it. Dear 
W. I saw on my way through Exeter. He likes it much, 
and would reject any move against G. He likes him so 
much personally, and he is being 'fSted' just now. I have 
just re-read Illingworth's essay on *The Incarnation and 
Development,' very thoughtful, very well written, full ; but 
my impression is that evolution is taken as the unquestioned 
truth, and that the Bible must be made to square with it. 
But it is written best. I see nothing in G.'s subsequent 
sayings that alters the first impression of his essay. 

" Tours, 

" T. T. C." 



Mr. Carter knew Manning in Lavington days, and when 
they were both old men a mistake arose, which the cardinal 
was anxious to have cleared up, and so he wrote to Canon 
Carter about it. It appears that some one had stated that 
Carter had said of Manning " that if the Church of England 
had been then (when he went over) what it is now, that 
Manning would not have left." Manning, however, thought 
it an opportunity for taking a^ parting shot, which was not a 
very successful one. He said the Church of England was 
neither Church nor any part of the Church ; that it left him, 
not he it, or words to that efifect. We have a copy of Mr. 
Carter's reply in his own hand, in which, after touching allu- 
sion to the circumstances under which they last parted, he 
disclaimed the words which had been attributed to him — ^not 



LETTERS. 275 

ihat he had not used them, but he had used them of some 
one else, not Manning, and adds — 

" You will not think me disrespectful if I add, in reference 
to your closing paragraph, 'that the Church of England is 
neither the Church nor any part of the Church,' that it does 
not pain but surprise me as a hard saying, and surely one 
that needs to be proved. I suppose it to allude to certain 
judgments of the Courts to which we are unhappily subjected 
through our complications with the State, for I know 
how those shock your faith in the Church of England. But 
it has been surely manifest that those cruel blows have served 
to quicken the zeal of many, and brought out more clearly 
the real truth, which had been denied, and the worst that 
they have done for us is to open the way for teachers at 
variance with our true heritage, entering in and finding a 
temporary place among us — a trouble to which history shows 
from various causes the Church Catholic to have been 
exposed at all times, and not wanting, I think, in the Boman 
Communion at present, as of old, enough, it may be more 
secretly than among us. Pardon my testifying to so grave a 
charge." 

Mr. Carter's strong antagonism to anything revolutionary 
comes out in the following : — 



-o • 



" We had a hopeful Council meeting last week at . 

Shaw Stewart kindly undertook to come every week to audit 
the accounts, so that we would have regular Beports, and 
issue an appeal at once. I had rather a painful talk with 

on finding that the programme of S. M.'8 Guild is down 

with the House of Lords — at least, do away with hereditary 
peerages — and you may have seen that exhibition in Hyde 
Park on Sunday last with H. as a speaker, Shaw Stewart 
remonstrating, which I do also, and I had to say that I must 
issue the appe»Ed in my name, and not in his. I feel difficulty 
in working with him while he is following out what he calls 
his Mission." 

"1899. 

" I am truly anxious at the lower-side elements of Church 
life showing themselves as they do, and the bishops seem to 
give free xx)urse to the lower aide, and only stringent on the 



276 FEAR OF ROME, INGRAINED. 

higher. I suppose the fear of Borne is ingrained in the 
English character. It was so before the Beformation, and is 
intensified in the post-Beformation view. I wrote to the 
Time$ to correct a letter answering mine, and correcting the 
good man's error. The Timu likes to keep up this strife, 
and to hold to the lower line. A good man, who gave the 
last Betreat, used incense in the common &shion. When 
the Primate was questioned what he ought to do, he was told 
he was to retain incense, but not to incense persons and 
things. I fancy this may come. No doubt incense was first 
used as a purifier, so in Herbert when near SaUsbury. What 

do you think of the £ ? I have just written an article 

in it on the Oxford Movement. I was glad that the Vicar of 
S. C. gave up kissing the cross on the ground. It was hardly 
English." 

Fasting Communion. 

*' November, 1891. 

"My dear , 

'' I am sorry you have been disturbed in mind on 
this question. In such a case as you describe yours seems to 
be, even in a strict view of the Catholic use of fasting Com- 
munion, it would be permissible to take before communicating 
such relief (?) as you might need. In a paper lately read, 
and now published by Father Puller of Cowley Brotherhood, 
he has taken the highest view of the use, and yet shown the 
allowable relaxations you speak of. It is published at 
Masters, entitled ' Concerning the Fast before Communion.' 

"You may judge of my own conviction in the matter 
from the course which the C. B. S. Council has taken, and 
which I have earnestly desired to promote, namely, that as 
the Catholic and primitive use of very high aufliority, it 
ought to be cherished and furthered in all legitimate ways, 
but that it should not be made compulsory, considering tiie 
necessity of exceptions on account of infirmities of health or 
other causes of overstrain. Many years ago I gathered the 
opinions of men of most mark at the time, among others 
Dr. Pusey, Dr. Liddon, and Dr. Neale, who all agreed in this 
view. We still keep this view in the action of C. B. S. I 
need not say how anxious one may yet be to observe the rule 
when it is possible. 

" I trust you may be at rest in such a matter touching so 
closely peaceful communion with our Blessed IxmL I will 



LETTERS. 277 

recall your name in connection with Church work of many 
kinds, and the memories of our best and dearest ones. 

" I trust you keep fairly well. I follow you at a distance 
of only two years. 

"With much respect, very sincerely yours, 

"T. T. Cabter." 



We gather from a letter to a friend that Canon Carter 
"was occupying himself in making up the 'Notes'" which 
he had kept of Betreats given many years ago. These were 
published by Messrs. Longmans in 1893, together with a 
reprint of the Essay on "The Church and the World," which 
first appeared in 1868. The book is dedicated "To the 
reverend memory of Bishop Wilberforce, in grateful remem- 
brance of his earnest encouragement." It is an invaluable 
compendium on the subject, of which Mr. Carter was a 
master. Dr. Liddon used to describe him as " a fountain of 
spiritual thought/' But to those who had the privilege of 
attending those Betreats at Cuddesdon, these notes seem 
sometimes but a faint echo of the reality — the person, the 
face, the voice, the assembly, the surroundings, all formed 
part of those spiritual epochs, for such they were to many a 
life. They were, in the main, original methods of treatment, 
not rigidly following the Ignatian course, though the author 
was then (1863) evidently acquainted with it, as, e.g. 
" Address 1. — The End of Man ; " and St. Ignatius is referred 
to in the "Introduction," but the author states, "More 
formal methods since that day have naturally, in the order 
of things, systematized what were at first comparatively, so 
to say, unscientific." 

It is scarcely necessary to say that Mr. Carter was him- 
self an embodiment of the spirit of Betreat. His " recoUec- 
tedness " of manner, his capacity for abstraction from outward 
things, his spirit of prayer, his natural gentleness — above alli 
his love for our Lord, marked him out in the beginning as 
one splendidly equipped for work of this kind. It seemed to 
him to be no effort ; he did not " give " meditations merely, but 



27« MEETING A T ST. SA VIOUR S, OSNABURGH ST. 

made them at the time. They were like ''living water" 
from the spring. 

In 1898 Mr. Carter issued a circular, convening a number 
of ''representative priests" for conference at St. Saviour's 
Hospital, Osnaburgh Street, as to limits of Bitual. This had 
been brought about through a few of the clergy in London 
and elsewhere having gone beyond the " Six Points,'" which 
had been almost from the beginning the Bitual ultimatum of 
the Oxford Movement. In the earlier days of this revival, a 
committee of elected clergy was formed for the purpose of 
giving advice upon such matters, when the High Church 
clergy moved as a body, and deferred to their leaders. Each 
felt that not only the interests of their own parish or con- 
gregation were at stake, but the Catholic movement; and 
the introduction of any unauthorized ceremonial might not 
only impede progress, but be the cause of losing ground 

already won. The Bishop of L is reported to have 

appealed to those whom he thought guilty of excesses to 
accept what was carried out at this meeting, but without 
success. Mr. Carter adds, " I am glad we had our testimony, 
and trust it will gather sympathizers." But on the other 
side, he adds — 

" I see the danger you apprehend. I suppose the bishop's 

tendency will be to reduce. When I asked the B to 

allow the reservation of the Blessed Sacrament for the sake 
of the sick, he let me do so, but would not give special license. 
It seems a fear that you wiR take an ell if you give an inch. 
It is so strange to me that they do not see that the way to 
stop perpetual reservation is to speak decidedly on the 
original permission to reserve for the sick. But, as you say, 
you cannot bind the bishops to maintain what we have won. 
I suppose in this [there is] a tendency of fear and suspicion." 

"Jfay22, 1898. 

"My deak , 

"There is an interesting matter now going on, 

The Bishop of has appealed to to know. 

whether he and his companions would not now accept what 



LETTERS. 279 

was carried at our ineeting; but be and bis companions 
declined, giving as their reasons what they had seen of the 

Bishop of not holding to true Episcopal rule and 

authority. Afterwards the Bishop of went to St. 

to confirm, and had a long conversation with the clergy, and 
I have not yet heard the final result. You will have seen 
what passed in Convocation. I am glad we had our testi- 
mony, and trust it will gather sympathies. 

"Yours, 

"T.T. C." 



CHAPTER IX. 

LTTERATUBE. 

Little has been said in this yolume of Rev. T. T. Carter 
as a man of letters. His literary activity from early years 
to almost the close of his life was most remarkable. He 
wrote with extraordinary rapidity. His style demanded an 
attentive reader, because his sentences were often long, and 
sometimes involved. His busy pen was nearly always 
employed upon matters pertaining to the spiritual life. But 
while he was capable of high and sustained flights of de- 
votion, his mentsd activity was commonly exercised in the 
sphere of the practical, and blended with the sweetness of 
his disposition and the evidences of a loving heart. At the 
beginning of his ministry as Rector of Clewer he manifested 
very great interest in the conditions of the dwellings of the 
poor, and started some plans of sanitary reform. This came 
to the ears of Prince Albert, and he sent to confer with him 
on the subject. The result of this interview was the forma- 
tion of an association for the betterment of the households of 
the poor, which still exists, and is named the Prince Consort's 
Association at Windsor. The Bector also was the means of 
providing a Benefit Society on safe principles, in contrast, as 
to security, to those which had existed in the parish and from 
which the poor had suffered. Mr. Carter's earliest publica- 
tion, which was issued in the year 1839, was entitled " Eton 
System of Education Vindicated." The next was upon the 
" Blessings of the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper," in the 
following year, about which mystery he has written so much 



LITERATURE. 281 

since. Then followed, in 1836, a paper on the " Duties and 
Blessings of the Christian Sabbath." 

It is quite impossible within our limits to give a sketch of 
his literary life from 1836 to 1899, when he published his last 
work, a volume of sermons, entitled " The Spirit of Watchful- 
ness." There are two remarks to be made on this volume — 
one, that it is an evidence of his mental and spiritual power 
in his ninety-first year ; the other, a near relative observes 
upon the sermon in this volume for St. Paul's Day, p. 284 : 
" It seems to me that what he says in his sermon on St. Paul's 
Day on * the consecrated life ' may be said of himself." Two 
works on the " Doctrine of the Priesthood " and the "Doctrine 
of Confession," published in the fifties, were the outcome of 
addresses, which Mr. Carter delivered before the members of 
the Clerical Society of the two deaneries of Bumham and 
Bray, and were dedicated to the brethren of that Society. 
It numbered some distinguished men in the locality, and the 
discussions were most interesting. Both of these books, in 
those early days, bear witness to the same apparaius 
theologims as he made use of in riper years, and the same 
fontes — Holy Scripture, the "undivided Church," the 
records of antiquity, and the teaching of the Church of 
England. He maintained in the former book the Sacerdotal 
against the Presbyter view ; and in the latter, makes full 
use of the Office for the Visitation of the Sick, and the Com- 
mission to the Priesthood, from Prayer-book and Bible, and 
the testimony of antiquity. These are samples of the 
author's controversial powers, his fairness in reasoning and 
calm temper. About the year 1860 Eev. T. T. Carter, as 
a preacher, was approaching the zenith of his powers. At 
All Saints, Margaret Street, he preached in the first Lent in 
the new church on Thursdays, and the sermons, which were 
upon "the Imitation of our Lord Jesus Christ," were 
published by Messrs. Masters. He dealt with "the de- 
finiteness " and " universality of our Lord's example," the 
" discipline of the will," etc. Two years later a volume of 
"Sermons," twenty-four in number, was published and 



282 CANON CARTEFUS BIOGRAPHIES. 

dedicated to " His parents/* preserved far beyond the "days 
of onr age." Some think this yolome contains some of his 
finest dlBCOurses, dealing with such subjects as "The Value 
of the Soul/' in which Scotist doctrine is favoured, and 
Creatiomsm. Fuller teaching about the work of the Holy 
Ghost will be found in Sermons ii., xiv., xix., and zzi. 

Canon Carter's powers in biography may be traced in 
his "life of Bishop Armstrong," of "The Honourable 
Mrs. Monsell (Mother Harriet)/' and of "Bev. Bichard 
Temple West" To Bishop Armstrong's "life" we have 
already had occasion to allude in the chapter on " Penitentiary 
Work." Mrs. Monsell's " Life " is too closely connected with 
the Community of St. John the Baptist, Clewer, of which she 
was Superior for a great number of years, to need further 
comment. Alternative years brought forth three more 
volumes of Lent lectures, entitled, " The Passion and Temp- 
tation of our Lord " (in 1862), " The Life of Sacrifice" (1864), 
and " The Life of Penitence " (1866). In the first of these the 
author acknowledges his indebtedness to Stier for suggestions ; 
and the " cardinal truth of the propitiatory virtue of our Lord's 
death" in the sixth discourse is forcibly treated, yet with 
the limits of the true theologian, as, «.^., it is not the death 
viewed only as death, it is the obedience of the surrendered 
Will that gives to the Sacrifice its acceptableness. From 
1879 to 1891 the author published a series of "Spiritual 
Instructions," which, we believe, were all delivered in the 
Chapel of Clewer House of Mercy. The topics which are 
treated are "The Religious life," "The Holy Eucharist/' 
" The Divine Eevelations," " The life of Grace," " Our Lord's 
Early life/' " Our Lord*s Entrance on His Ministry/' These 
"Instructions" are set in a somewhat higher key than 
ordinary sermons, in view of the persons to whom they were 
originally addressed. The one on the "Holy Eucharist " has 
gone into several editions, a sale probably quickened through 
Mr. Carter's position in the Confraternity of the Blessed 
Sacrament. The addresses, although primarily prepared for 
the edification of Sisters, the purpose contemplated in them 



LITERATURE. 283 

'' to cherish devotion and suggest materials for meditation/' 
may well commend them to a wider circle of readers. The 
autiior says in his last preface, " Though there are unques- 
tionably distinctive characteristics marking off a vocation to 
a Sister's life from other orders of life, and also laws and habits 
of life dependent on such a vocation peculiar to it ; yet the 
highest spiritual views in fellowship with our Blessed Lord 
are common to all His elect." 

Canon Carter was always strongly anti-Roman, yet the 
discussion between the Latin and English Communions had 
no great attraction for him ; but when some one with whom 
he had a special tie and friendship was drawn away from 
the Church of England, he would write controversial letters 
which were of especial value, not only because of their 
substance, but for the absence of acrimony of spirit and 
of exaggeration of statement, which commonly are found in 
this species of literature. The book, " The Roman Question : 
in Letters to a Friend," was first published anonymously, as the 
work of an " aged priest." A re-issue, however, soon followed 
with the author's name. The letters were written in no po- 
lemical spirit, nor for any controversial purpose, beyond that 
of retaining a person who had become " shaky " in the fold 
of the Church of England. Canon Carter felt strongly, that 
whatever temptation may have existed in the earliest days of 
the Oxford Movement, now it was sufficient evidence of its 
vitality and reality to point to its fruits — the transforma- 
tion of the Church of England. Such a witness to him 
seemed to be enough " si monumentum requiris circumspice/* 
He touches upon, in these " Letters," a few saUent points in 
the controversy between England and Rome. He regarded 
the unity of the Church as depending upon the Episcopacy 
and the Sacraments. That the Church can be outwardly 
divided, he answers by pointing to the " permanent breach " 
between Rome and the great ancient Churches of the East. 

The author quotes a number of Patristic authorities and 
commentators against the interpretation that the rock in St. 
Matthew xvi. 18, 19, is St. Peter, and against the assumption 



284 DEVOTIONAL WORKS. 

that the commission was only given to that Apostle. He 
held strongly that the Apostles had a world-wide commission, 
and was inclined (with Professor Salmon) to trace the idea of 
St Peter^s Boman Episcopacy to the influence of the " Clemen- 
tine Homilies/' a spurious writing. The book shows the author's 
clear historical knowledge of the question he is debating; 
and his fairness and calmness are everywhere manifest, as 
well as his reverent spirit. He thought submission of the 
intellect absolute and entire was wrong, that the highest line 
was not to divest one's self of one's endowments and responsi- 
bilities, and '' to abandon all mental ezerdse in matters which 
most deeply concern one's eternal interests." 

Mr. Carter occupied some portion of his declining years 
in writing and editing devotional works. We must also name 
three volumes, in which we have samples of his parochial 
teaching during the long period, nearly thirty-six years, when 
he was Sector of Clewer. The contents of these wiU show 
his capacity for adapting himself to an ordinary congregation 
and to the poor ; these " Parish Teachings " have a special 
value in this respect. They are entitled '' The Doctrine of 
the Holy Eucharist," drawn from Holy Scripture and the 
Secords of the Church of England, the Lord's Prayer and 
other services, the Apostles' Creed and Sacraments. In 
1893 he brought out '' Retreats, with Notes and Addresses." 
They are memories of Chislehurst, Cuddesdon, St. Augustine's, 
Canterbury, Hurstpierpoint, and Cowley. Together with these 
" Notes " there is a reprint of his Essay on Eetreats in " The 
Church and the World," which was written in 1868. These 
"Notes " many prize who attended those devotional gatherings, 
but they miss the influence of the conductor which accompanied 
his words, and the author fears " that these ' Notes ' give but 
roughly the substance of the addresses." There is no attempt 
at completeness in this brief survey of the works of which 
Canon Carter was the author. The difficulty is still greater 
when we attempt to enumerate those works which he edited, 
or for which he contributed Introductions, etc. He wrote 
a Preface to '' Notes and Questions on the Catholic Faith," 



LITERATURE. 285 

from the works of Dr. Pusey, a book which has attained a 
large circulation. He edited so carefully as to render himseK 
responsible (as has already been written) for " The Treasury 
of Devotion." Other well-known works, "compiled by a 
priest," "The Way of Life," "The Path of Holiness," "The 
Guide to Heaven," "The Star of Childhood," "Simple 
Lessons: A Book of Private Prayer." Besides these, "A 
Manual of Devotion for Sisters of Mercy" (8 parts, in 
two volumes). "Nicolas Ferrar," and "John Kettlewell" 
were not only edited by Canon Carter, but he also wrote an 
Introduction to each of those works, touching upon the 
history of the times, and in the second of these volumes he 
traces the springs of modern parties in the Church of England 
to the time of the Nonjurors. 

The author also prepared a volume of Collects, Epistles, 
and Gospels, for use on special occasions and holy days ; and 
a Book of Family Prayers, which has gone into a great 
number of editions. It is impossible to include here the 
numberless letters, articles, and contributions of various 
kinds to reviews and newspapers. There is only one thing 
which should be added to this account, so far as it goes, of the 
products of his mental activity and busy pen, which is this — 
there is a manifest unity o{ purpose in it all — to make God 
more known, more loved, and more served. This runs like a 
golden thread through all his writings and publications. 
Though he loved books, reading them and writing them, he 
was not, we repeat, a student or "literary man." All he did 
in this way was but a means to an end — to glorify God by 
his service to man. This was the secret of his untiring 
industry. His last published words sum up all : " To God, 
the Giver of all, be glory and thanksgiviog for ever, and may 
His Presence ever be the desire of the soul that trusts in 
Him." 

Canon Carter had a special devotion to the Eucharistic 
Mystery, and was the Founder of the Confraternity of the 
Blessed Sacrament, and presided over it as Superior-General 
for a number of years. He had felt the great neglect of tins 



286 THE FORMA TION OF AN ASSOCIA TION. 

Holy Mystery manifeflted by slovenly celebrations and un«- 
prepared communicants, and those comparatively few. At 
the beginning the following leaflet was circulated more than 
forty years ago, and he has written and spoken much since 
upon this sacred mystery : — 

At thb Formation of an Association. 

It is proposed to form an Association for united prayer as 
our best hope of preserving, in our present hour of trial, the 
fulness of the Catholic Faith, inherited from our fathers, thus 
casting ourselves on the promise of our Lord, " If two of you 
shall agree on earth touching anything they shall ask, it 
shall be done for you of My Father, Which is in Heaven." 

The bond of union is to be the use of fixed prayers for 
the preservation of the full deposit of dogmatic truth com- 
mitted to the Church, especially all such doctrine as touches 
its Sacramental character. 

The engagement of those who join this Association is '' to 
use the prayers agreed upon for a year, commencing with 
Lent, 1857, on the Friday in every week, and at every cele- 
bration of the Holy Eucharist at which they may be present ; " 
the daily use of the prayers being desired, where such greater 
frequency can be sustained. 

Any who desire to j(»n this Association are requested to 
state their desire to the friend who supplied this paper. 

It is not thought expedient to keep a general registry of 
the names of those who join. Friends will of course know to 
whom they have supplied a copy of the prayers ; and it is 
thought desirable only to know, as far as possible, the total 
number of persons who thus combine. 

Prayers of the Assoeiation. 

Lent, 1857. 

O Almighty God, Who hast instructed Thy holy Church 
with heavenly doctrine, and committed to it the stewardship of 
Thy mysteries, we give Thee hearty thanks for the full deposit 
of the Faith and Sacraments entrusted to us ; and we pray 
Thee to enable us, in this our day of trial, to preserve it un- 
corrupted, and to hand it down to our children's children, to 
the glory of Thy Name, and the salvation of the souls of Thy 
people ; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen, 



LITERATURE. 287 

Grant, we beseech Thee, O Lord, to all Bishops and 
Pastors, to maintain and set forth Thy truth in its fulness, 
and to every member of this Association, to be sound in faith, 
holy in life, and conformed to Thy holy will in all things ; 
through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amm, 

Any Special Prayers may here he added. 

We beseech Thee, Lord, pour the spirit of Thy love 
into our hearts, and unite all whom Thou feedest with the 
One Bread from heaven, in one faith, hope, and charity, and 
in outwfud communion when it shall seem good in Thine 
eyes ; through the merits of Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. 

Our Father, etc. 



And his last address to the Confraternity before he retired 
dealt with the Holy Sacrament. He said — 

" We may look with thankfulness to Almighty Grod for 
our extensive growth from the day on which a small band 
gathered in the parlour of All Saints, Margaret Street, of 
whom the greater part have passed to their rest. During the 
interval we have seen great progress, for which we have con- 
tinually prayed. We have seen the faith we hold extending 
itself, till we fear its fashionableness may eat out its true 
depth. We have seen the symbolic ritual spreading daily 
and at last sealed with authority. . . . We have seen Beser* 
vation for the Sick steadily growing, and in some cases with 
due authority, and this in both kinds, as it surely ought to 
be. And in speaking of Beservation, may I add for myself 
that I can see no authority of a Catholic kind for services 
founded on such Beservation. We may certainly say that 
Benediction is only the use of a very few late centuries. . . . 

"While we thankfully recognize this continual progress 
in the main features of Eucharistic truth and practice, we 
may surely count it our special blessing in our portion of 
the Western Church that we have the Catholic Liturgy in 
our own tongue, ' understanded of the people,' and our Com- 
munion in both kinds, thus keeping our Eucharist as our 
Blessed Lord ordained. We are surely right in thankfully 
preserving these our special privileges, fruits of long and 
painful conflict." 



288 ^ ROMAN SELF-ASSERTION"^ 

It will be Been by these last words that Canon Carter, in 
his great devotion to the Blessed Sacrament, was to the end 
against the spirit which disparages everything English and 
exalts everything foreign ; and he made his stand on behalf of 
"our Chnrch's true position/' and would only accept develop- 
ments when they were consistent with apostolic and primi- 
tive belief and practice. The Soman denial of our Orders 
was to him ''Boman self-assertion/' and only should call 
forth '' a calm re-affirmation '' of our position. 

The following brief retrospect is in Canon Carter^s own 
words, and will call up many memories : — 

" My sympathies drew me to All Saints, Maigaret Street, 
and to Upton Bichards, as a centre, and this the more when 
I undertook the Lenten courses there. He and I were alike 
embarked in the Church movement, and this with a common 
mind to promote moderate action in the great Bitual struggle. 
There we often met to consult, and more than once com- 
municated with the bishops, seeking to bring about, if pos- 
sible, some hcnu standi. T. W. Perry was also of one mind 
with us; and Chambers of Soho. Then it was that we 
resolved, with a view of establishing a settled doctrine, and 
a basis of teaching as to main principles, according to what 
we believed to be Church of England truth, to form the 
' Confraternity of the Blessed Sacrament.' 

" There met for this purpose, besides Upton Bichards and 
myself. Chambers, Perry, Cosby White, Charles Lowder, 
LyaU, Mackonochie, and Bobert Brett. We met in the 
common room of the Clergy House. The Manual shows 
what our principles were. To prove our desire to preserve a 
moderate Une, it seems sufficient to say that we would not 
make an absolute rule of Fasting Commimion/' 



CHAPTER X. 

CHAKACTEB. 

It is very difficult to portray the character of a person whom 
one may have known for a great number of years most 
intimately, to present him in a book as he reidly was, to 
those who have never known, perhaps never seen him. 
Some regard the subject of this Memoir as an ecclesiastical 
firebrand ; others, as a great student ; others, again, as an 
unapproachable ascetic. He was really none of these. He 
was, it is true, mixed up with many controversies, in some 
taking the lead ; but he hated prominence and disputes, and 
loved unity and peace. The keenness which he manifested 
when what he believed to be the true doctrines and practices 
of the Church of England were assailed, and forbidden by 
Courts which, in his opinion, were not invested with any 
spiritual authority, arose from his vivid realization of Divine 
things. Position, place, honour, gain, ease, are objects which 
would not have a feather's weight with him, when in the 
opposite scale some doctrine or ceremonial of the Catholic 
Church was assailed. The following letter, which is cha- 
racteristic and bears no date, but appears to refer to the 
disturbance caused by the Bath Judgment, was written to 
Butler of Wantage, with whom Carter of Clewer, half a 
century ago, worked heartily, especially in those early days, 
in defence of the Faith. 

"Deab Butler, 

" I have given my name. It is with diffidence, 
and with the reverence I feel for our bishop, that I differ 



390 "^ TIME TO SPEAK."" 

from his view, though I hardly see how he could have said 
otherwise. But (1) I do not see that it is another article, it 
seems to me only an assertion of truth we have held. It 
pained me more than I can tell you to act as an individual 
in such a matter ; but how else can we act 7 — not in Sjmod, 
diocesan or provincial, in such a matter. Our bishops cannot 
act except individually. (2) I cannot feel that our pulpits 
meet the case of a public wrong. We have a double charge, 
one a pastoral sphere, and one ecclesiastical This comes 
imder the latter. If we cannot speak regularly in this, what 
is left but to do it irregularly ? Spain was driven to guerilla 
warfare against the French, and we seem in a like case. 
Individual protest has alwqrs been the refuge in extreme 
eases according jbo Cath(diCi custoQu We are in extremis, I 
feel, in this respect. (?).,it, doefi^ burnish the list of a few 
names, and the enemy 'may cut us down piecemeal. But 
this seems to ine* better than remaihing perfectly silent about 
it and leaving them to say, ' You accept it, and you dare not 
speak out' Our strengtibi would be in united action; but 
this is now impossible, and the next ground of strength 
appears to me in bearing witness, and transmitting our wit- 
ness now ; it may tell for us one day, if not now. Prayer is, 
indeed, the great strength, and I trust that on this protest 
will be founded a brotherhood for revival of the truth ^ about 
the Blessed Sacrament. 

'' But I do not see what strength there is in not speaking, 
for in the Courts of Law, etc., the enemy have it their own 
way, and in a few years the popular mind succumbs to the 
legal decisions. 

" Of the time 1 know not: It may be premature ; but at 
last we cannot do otherwise, and then we have already pro- 
tested against the Court of Appeal, and cannot recognize it ; 
and what we protest against now is no less a matter than a 
heretical sentence of the Metropolitan, and this, I suppose, is 
sufficient cause. 

" If the cause were quashed on technical grounds, there 
still remains the archbishop's sentence, and th^ needs some 
set-ofif against it ; and in the appeal, what are we to expect ? 
I cannot hope that a Committee, formed by the present 
Government, and backed by the popular voice, will overrule 
a judgment of the archbishop. I should like to know what 
the bishop means by saying, ' It wiU stand greatly in our 

* This was done by the Founder of the C. B. S. many years after. 



CHARACTER. 291 

way! What is in his mind to do ? or what can even he do ? 
What has he done to remedy the Grorham matter ? This is 
a far more difficult matter, and with less of sympathy. 

" I do not write as if I were shaky. I have no temptation 
to be so, thank God ! I am resolved to die at my post, or, 
if driven from it, die anyhow where Andrews, Ken, Wilson, 
etc., have left their bones. 

*'But I feel I cannot be where I am without clearing 
my own conscience, by asserting that what one of our 
brethren is deprived for, I hold; and I see no help but in 
this clearing of individual consciences. 

" I do not write as seeking to persuade you who can judge 
much better, and have this strong witness of our bishop with 
you ; but only to clear myself in your eyes, and to show that 
it has not been heedlessly done, that I have resolved on what 
I felt could not but be opposed to his view, and an indi- 
vidual acting, but could not do otherwise — salva conscientia. 
God bless you ever and all your work. 

*' Your ever affectionate friend, 

"T.T.Carter." 

The fervour and courage which are breathed in this letter, 
and the restful faith in the Anglican Communion, were marks 
of Canon Carter's spirit throughout his life. He never doubted 
the triumph of the cause ; he was too convinced that he had 
truth on his side and magna est Veritas, et prcevdlebit The 
calm courage, the dignity of bearing, and lovable smile, all 
combined with wonderful humility, were evidences of a great 
personality. Those who knew him almost throughout his 
clerical life, speak of his marvellous industry and self- 
sacrifice on behalf of what he conceived to be the best interests 
of the Church of England — ^her spiritual well-being; and 
thus he was drawn into controversy by the encroachments 
of Erastianism, We find in a published letter to the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, expressed with a force and clearness 
which had great effect, the grounds upon which he lamented 
the declension of spiritual power in the Established Church, 
and the interference of Parliament with Church Courts. We 
will make a quotation : " When we come to the latter period 
of the Greorgian era, there is a constant interference. The 



393 CHURCH AND STATE. 

caose of this strildng difference is obvious. During the 
former period, at least its greater part, Conyocation was in 
the full exercise of its functions ; and the mutual action 
between Church and State was preserved with more or less 
of comparative fairness and mutual recognition of each 
other's rights. The terms of the compact were ordinarily, 
at least, observed It was during the spiritual condition of 
the Georgian era, after Convocation had been suppressed, 
that the new order commenced, and the Church being 
practically silenced, the State intruded itself more and 
more into the spiritual demesne. Some corrective power 
doubtless was needed, and the torpid Church, past feeling 
any wrong to its spiritual life, acquiesced.'' Canon Carter 
protested strongly against that '' darkest and most degraded 
period" being quoted as "our normal state," in order to 
bolster up ''a prescriptive right of interference," and to 
make it appear as though a degenerate state of things was 
"the proper and intended relation between Church and 
State." The author here gives a succinct history of the 
facts, ** the history of what has passed sifice the Beforma- 
tion as to the regulation of procedure in our Ecclesiastical 
Courts," which, so far as we are aware, has not been called in 
question. In all this, on the other side he most clearly lays 
down that ** all coercive jurisdiction proceeds from the Crown ; 
that Canons in conflict with statutes of the realm are ipso facto 
void ; and that Canons require the sanction of the Crown." 
He does not uphold one power by making inroads on the 
other; his argument does not extend to pre-Reformation 
times, he only clearly traces the decadence of a great consti- 
tutional principle, the Church's jurisdiction, as collateral 
with that of the State, each in its proper sphere; and a 
wrong done to the Church's jurisdiction was a " wrong done 
to its spiritual side." 

We have gone a little into this point because it explains 
many of Mr. Carter's incursions into the arena of controversy, 
which have made him to be regarded, by those who did not 
know him, as an '' ecclesiastical firebrand." 



CHARACTER. 293 

His historical capacity was of no mean order. His keen 
eye quickly seized npon any incursion of civil into spiritual 
jurisdiction, and whilst strongly in favour of Establishment, 
he clearly saw the f(ym jtmsdictionis was different in the 
temporal and spiritual powers, and the sphere and object of 
their respective exercise. His " Letters " to the Archbishop 
of Canterbury on *' A True Phase of Anglo-Catholic Principles," 
" A Further Plea for Constitutional Liberty and Constitutional 
Order," " The Eightful Claim of the Church of England," were 
in dignity, substance, and tone all that could be desired. We 
remember what a calming effect these publications had at the 
time upon those who had been disturbed by recent events. In 
one of these he traces the encroachments of the secular upon 
the spiritual jurisdiction. These " Letters " were not merely 
called forth by the immediate exigencies of controversy, but 
were evidently the result of long brooding upon the question of 
jurisdiction, and of accurate acquaintance with the history of 
the Church of England and of the Prayer-book, which is 
bound up with that history, since the Beformation. Canon 
Carter had a great hatred of Erastianism, as the enemy of 
spiritual jurisdiction and spiritual life. 

The following letter is one of the numberless testimonies 
we have to the sweetness of his disposition and absence of 
acrimony in dealing with controversies : — 

" Eev. and dear Sir, 

"The enclosed cutting from a paper about ten 
years ago (1890) reproduces a communication which I 
received from the late Canon Carter. I trust the same may 
be of use to you. I think it valuable, because we have 
therein his own words upon the subject of his resignation 
(1880). I knew the writer for about twenty-five years, and 
was, I believe, of some use to him in furnishing him with 
some statistics, for which he so kindly mentions my services 
in reports extending over many years. 

" He asked me to call at his house, which I did from time 
to time by appointment. I was exceedingly impressed by 
his conciliatory disposition. He perceived and valued all 
that was good, and was ever ' on the look-out ' for points of 



294 CANON CARTER'S HANDWRITING. 

agreement. The standpoint he maintained whenever prin- 
ciple was involved did not prevent overflowing charity and 
Grfect gentleness. His virtues are well known to you. 
deed he was the most ' lovable ' of men. 

" Yours etc., 

"F. F. B." 



He was not naturally a particularly fluent speaker ; he 
needed a little time to get into his subject, and to be 
deeply stirred with it ; like the Psalmist, " the fire kindled, 
and at the last I spake with my tongue." The hearer felt 
that he was in the presence of mvnd^ not merely words. 
The present operations of the mind found an outlet 
through the tongue. But when suddenly called upon "to 
say a few words" when a spiritual theme was being dis- 
cussed, even in a vast assembly like a Church Congress, 
he would rivet the attention, and dispel all acrimony 
from the debate. We heard it said when he sat down, " It 
flowed out of his mouth like honey." 

Then Canon Carter was regarded as a great student. 
Those who knew him best would not say this. His time 
was too much taken up with spiritual affairs to admit of 
his being a book-worm. He would give unstinted time to 
strangers who sought his help when tempted or troubled, 
and long hours were spent daily in spiritual work in 
reconciling sinners or ministering to the Saints. Here, 
too, must be noticed the enormous correspondence which 
occupied much of his valuable time — ungrudgingly given. 
Persons in all parts, who had not the slightest claim upon 
his time and attention, applied to him for guidance and 
help in every kind of difl&culty and sorrow. This continuous 
occupation of his time and his pen brought about those cryptic 
characters, almost undecipherable, with which so many are 
• familiar, who during advancing years corresponded with him. 
In early life he wrote a beautifid hand. We print a specimen 
of his writing at the age of twenty and at the age of ninety, 
which will be sufl&cient proof of this statement. 



-i^-.n2 












-^1.^ 
•*>\^ 



CHARACTER. 295 

" The art of judging of the character of persons by their 
writing," says Disraeli, " may become an instrument guided 
by and indicative of the natural dispositions." '' Assuredly 
Nature would prompt every individual to have a distinct 
sort of writing, as she has given a countenance, a voice, and 
a manner." Perhaps this is only a general rule, and writing 
may be reduced to a mechanical joocess. But with authors 
the rule that writing and style reveal character especially 
holds good, and ''the handwriting bears an analogy to the 
character of the writer, as all voluntary actions are charao* 
teristio of the individuaL" No doubt, in the case of Canon 
Carter, the amount which he wrote, and the swiftness of his 
composition, had much to do with the form his handwriting 
ultimately assumed. 

Of human nature he was a student ; that book he knew 
well, disfigured with sin or transfigured by grace. He was 
not a student in the sense of a man who spent hours daily 
upon theological treatises, the writings of the Fathers and 
Schoolmen, or modem divinity ; yet he loved books, and was 
often found to be acquainted with those just published, which 
he would read when journeying, and occasionally get so 
absorbed in thought as to step at a junction into a wrong 
train. He was a daily reader of the Times^ and often at night 
after dinner would read aloud to his daughters. 

In his later days he often wrote kneeling on one knee, 
and without sufficient hold on the paper, so that the writing 
twisted about, and perhaps ended in a comer of the page. 
The obscurity of his writing often led to curious mistakes. 
A bishop received a letter from him which he was unable to 
decipher, and looking for the name of the writer at the end, 
misread it as ''A. Tartar," and was only reassured that it was 
not from some mde assailant by his chaplain informing him 
that the signature was " T. T. Carter," of Clewer. On another 
occasion a letter marked " private " was received by a clergy- 
man during breakfast in London, who being unable to read 
it, passed it round the table, with the resalt that it still 
remained '' private," though each guest had essayed to read 



296 CANON CARTER AS A PREACHER, 

it. One more instance of this difficulty. A clergyman 
airiyed at Clewer from Bristol to preach a Lenten sermon at 
the parish church, and when in the vestry he suddenly dis- 
covered that he had forgotten his manuscript, so he said he 
could not preach. Mr. Carter quieted his feelings by saying 
he would lend him one of his sermons, with which document 
the stranger ascended the pulpit, only to discover that he 
could not decipher a line. He said afterwards the hand- 
writing was as if some small bird had dipped his claws in 
ink and walked across the page. It was an open secret that 
a special man was kept for reading his ''copy" at a printing- 
house in London. Still, though it must be admitted that it 
was difficult to read his writing, it was not carelessly written 
but every sentence was formed and word written with an 
accuracy which, when the writing was deciphered (if examined 
with a glass), left no stroke or twist unemployed in construct- 
ing the words. But familiarity with his mode of expression, 
as well as with his letters, was a necessity, especially in his 
later days. Writing is, no doubt, truly said to be a revelation 
of character, and in the case of Canon Carter, though the 
burden of a great correspondence may have had something to 
do with the form which his hand ultimately assumed, his 
writing certainly also bore witness to something unique in 
character, and was an evidence of strength. 

His sermons, especially in the later years of his life, imless 
on exceptional occasions, were not written. They bore the 
marks of earnest prayer and the knowledge of souls rather 
than of profound study — in fact, they were spiritual effusions ; 
but there was a logical substratum to them, which held the 
parts firmly together. They were never sentimental or emo- 
tional, but calm and thoughtful. Whilst we should not attri- 
bute to him great oratorical powers, there was in his preaching 
the evidence of deep personal conviction; intense, though 
restrained, earnestness ; spiritual insight ; unvarying refine- 
ment ; and intellectual grasp of the subject in hand ; manifest 
love of Grod and of human souls, — qualities sufficient to draw 
the wicked and depraved from a life of sin, and the faithful 



CHARACTER. 297 

to a life of absolute self-oblation. His voice, though not 
strong, was clear and sweet and penetrating, high-toned, and 
evidently responsive to the movements of his soul. Besides 
all this, he had a fine presence, the stature 9iXiA phydque of a 
Guardsman, and the face of a Saint. His eyes seemed to 
quicken and glow with fire when he became animated, and 
when he returned into the vestry after preaching, the clergy 
have noticed this strange look of fervour. 

Mr. Carter was a quick reader, and seemed able to extract 
the pith of a treatise (as reviewers do) without pausing long 
on introductory matter or subsidiary thought, and with equal 
rapidity he would express a judgment upon the work or its 
tendency. In many letters these traits are conspicuous. 
E,g.: "You see how M. follows G. in putting aside the 
Fathers and working on the Scripture independently." " M. 
has had in America a rather sharp censure." '^ It is a sad 
tendency of our time." ** I was reading last night Creighton 
on the Papacy. What an interesting and reliable book it 
is ! " "I have been going carefully into M.'s book. I have 
thought it will lower Baptism. He has evidently expended 
an immense amount of labour upon it; it will raise Con- 
firmation, which is a good thing. But can you attach any 
definite idea to the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, beyond an 
increase of the gift of the Holy Ghost ? Does not indwelling 
imply a personal possession of a peculiar kind, so as to make 
one His instrument, or otherwise only gifted?" "I read 
G.'s sermons last night, and saw the great deficiencies as to 
the Atonement, of which the Bishop of 0. had told me. I 
suppose him to mean a passive, inactive state of the Divine 
Personality, leaving the whole virtue to the Manhood. He 
seems to set the value of the Sacrifice on the Cross to the 
perfectness of the obedience of the Man, not to the under- 
Ijring power of the Divine Personality, imparting to the 
suffering of the Manhood an Atoning Power." " I am also 
reading Byle's work on the Canon of the Old Testament. 
What a dead set there is against Pusey's view of Daniel I " "I 
am reading Pusey's ' Daniel ' a second time, as a refreshment 



298 THE ''HIGHER CRITICISM."* 

after D/s book. Surely Pusey's view will rise again and 
prevail I I cannot but feel that the New Criticism will 
have its day and pass. I am very glad of the line which 
Chapter 11. took. I regret the line of G." " The Bishop of 
G. and B., in the Tinus^ approves of the Declaration/' i.e. 
on " Inspiration/' 

It is hardly necessary here to enter upon the question, 
What was Mr. Carter's attitude towards what is termed the 
''Higher Criticism?" The Declaration, printed in another 
part of this book, sufficiently reveals that. Mr. Carter had 
an intense reverence for Holy Scripture, and he feared the 
new mode of dealing with the contents of the Old Testament 
might weaken the faith of English people, who very often 
built their convictions on the letter of Holy Scripture, and 
very often have but a faint realization of the authority of the 
Church. Mr. Carter viewed things fix>m within ; and if he 
found that the "Higher Criticism" had done damage to 
souls or injured faith, that would be one ground of opposition. 
It is not enough to point to the atmosphere of his early life 
at Oxford, and his associations, and his " length of days/' to 
account for his posture towards the new teaching. He 
assimilated much new truth in his time, and had an ^ open 
mind/' and showed a readiness for assimilation of all that 
was true and good; but he thought the new teaching an 
untrustworthy guide, with no definite ultimatum. Moreover, 
his reverence for our Lord's use of the Old Testament he 
thought involved the traditional view ; and that, to disparage 
His reference, e.g.y to Noah, the Flood, etc., involved a belief 
in the limitation of his knowledge or truth, which he, with 
so many, regarded as inconsistent with the teaching of the 
Catholic Church on the Incarnation. Mr. Carter regarded 
the Holy Scriptures as " the daily food of the people/' In a 
letter, printed dsewhere, will be found that this meditation 
on the Word of God he thought supplied our people with 
food which the Church of Bome sought to provide by modem 
devotions of a sentimental character. This was his view, and 
therefore any tampering with the inspired Scriptures touched. 



CHARACTER. 299 

in his mind, the constant food of our people. Moreover, he 
was thrown back when he attempted to apprize the value of 
the Higher Criticism by the extravagances of some higher 
critics, and the tone of irreverence in some of the lecture- 
rooms in Grermany, or such statements as that of St. Greorge 
Mivart, that what theologians have taught for centuries 
" may not have a shadow of foundation in fact." Such views 
may indeed unsettle minds, especially amongst ourselves, 
who have not "the formal decrees of the Sovereign PontiflF 
teaching the whole Church ex caihedra as to faith and morals '* 
to turn to, when the " trustworthiness " of Holy Scripture 
seems to be sinking under our feet. 

"My dearest , 

" I am sending you the Eeview of L.'s book. I 
am afraid it is too long. The chief lack of the book seems 
to me to be devotional. One would have wished some 
unction in it. We have had a pleasant ramble on the coasts 
of Cornwall, Lizard, Land's End, Tintagel, Bude, etc. ; one 
main point, we were delighted with Truro Cathedral. Cornish- 
coast air is really quite bracing. The churches are all inte- 
resting, generally restored, ritual good, early celebrations 
everywhere ; but the Church is very weak, alas I I should 
resign that position, only one feels one must stand against 
the rigorist and extreme party. It seems to me a clear duty. 
There are certain who are determined pn enforcing fasting 
communion, or leaving the Society. 

" I have enjoyed my time very much at Beer, on the side 
of a hill, the house just overlooking a beautiful cove ; and, as 
I sat and wrote, I could see all that passed— >all alive with 
fishermen and bathers ; and just above a wide range of moor- 
land, delightful to walk, and on to the highest point of the 

cliff we could see from Portland to , very beautiful ; and 

several expeditions around my old friend Woodcock's, within 
about twelve miles just beyond Axminster. A good church 
and priest at Beer. You may know him — C. H., son of a 
Devonshire man, once Inspector of Schools, Diocesan. The 
sale of ' Catholic Beligion ' is a good sign, at least, of interest 
in Church matters. My friend A. has been working at 
'Anglo-Saxon Saints,' and has a whole series. The new 
appointments appear to be good. Bishop Temple seems to 



300 LITERARY TASTES AND POWERS. 

me able to deal with the preBent educational matters well. 
All seem to welcome the Bishop of Peterborough. I only 
trost this appointment will not put off the next volume of 
his ' History of the Papacy during the English Beformation.' 
''We have a large parochial mission going on — Tiling- 
worth giving lectures to the upper set, Bickersteth doing 
excellently; and Ives and Cowie at St. Stephen's, and 
Buxton at Dedworth. Errington had well laid the prepara- 
tions. I was at two of Illingworth's lectures. They were 
simple, on the graces of the spiritual life. 

" Your ever affectionate 

"T. T. C." 



" We are nicely placed for a while on the south rock at 
T. Sun all day, and the water at high tide washing the very 
base of the low cliff beneath our windows. The weather fine, 
except one shower last night There are many interesting 
places near — old churches and castles. Miss M. has stirred 
up friends to invite, and we go to stay a day with the Dean 
of St. D. next week. To-morrow we go for a drive to some 
places beyond Pembroke. I have a note from H., asking me 
to preach, or rather, * say a few words,' at the evening service. 
It is an enormous congregation, and I declined; but he 
nailed me for a harvest thanksgiving on Thursday. It is a 
fine church, a bright service ; at the early celebration linen 
vestments and lights. There is a C. B. S. ward. Do you 
want that notice of Bishop W. now ? I am sorry to say 
that I have delayed writing. I have been busy with B.'s 
Preface, and rather occupied with another volume of 
' Spiritual Instructions ' — ^rather venturesome. I am surprised 
at that article to which you called my attention. It was 
more wanting than I could have conceived possible from 
him in a view of the unseen state — ^rather an extinguisher of 
it I am reading De L.'s letter a second time, and carefully. 
It struck me at first as fair, but, in its result, confirming the 
old view. Whether man will be influenced by its rather 
archaic line, I am questioning to myself. I had a talk with 

the Bishop of ; he seemed to hope that the bishops 

will come as our Deus in machind, and I wrote to the 

Bishop of at his request, and another who is hampered 

by his connection with P. H., and has three of his chaplains 
among the ' Lux M.' set. I will see about that other article 
to-night I am glad Sadler filled up the gap." 



CHARACTER. 301 

These extracts are given as afiTording further illustrations 
of Canon Carter in two lights — ^his intense love of nature, 
and his literary tastes and powers. It was aa natural to him 
to write as to speak, and the industry of the man comes out, 
that even during a time of rest and change his pen was not 
idle. Canon Carter, it is needless to say, had great literary 
powers, not only in the way of rapid composition, but also 
(which may be a surprise to some), like Dr. Fusey, in the 
business part of the transaction. We do not mean as to any 
monetary advantage (which he never considered), but in 
regard to type, correction of proofs, publication, etc. Some 
authors will not correct their proofs, but get others to do 
this for them. Mr. Carter, on the contrary, would bestow 
the greatest care upon correcting and revising his proofs, 
often desiring a "revise" of the proof. He thought himself 
that he did not possess the fitting qualities for a reviewer, 
but one who had been a reviewer for many years, and 
might from experience be capable of taking an estimate, 
regarded Canon Carter as especially qualified for that kind 
of literary work. His critical judgment, his love of truth, 
his theological knowledge, his refined taste, his fairness, his 
courage, his character — elevated above all that is mean or 
self-seeking or truckling — ^all seemed to fit him for review- 
ing religious writings. In this, as in much else, his humility 
was sometimes an inconvenient virtue, causing him to under- 
value his powers, whilst he was apt to magnify those of 
others. But few could equal him in those fields of thought 
with which he was familiar, as, e.^., in the writings of the 
Caroline Divines and of the early Tractarians. 

The third mistake in estimating the character of Thomas 
Thellusson Carter is that which makes him an unapproachable 
ascetic. Whilst self-sacrifice was the root-principle of his 
life, those who knew him well will bear witness to the intense 
brightness and joyousness of his spirit. Indeed, this has been, 
on the other side, exaggerated, so that the way he was able to 
bear his sorrows, his wonderful seK-command, has been mis- 
interpreted to mean an absence of natural affection. We 



302 CANON CARTER, AN OPTIMIST. 

who know him best have seen this calm demeanour in the 
midflt of bereavement and trouble, hut we have also seen him 
turn aside and weep. He was intensely affectionate. His 
spiritual letters as well as fomily letters bear witness to the 
warmth of his affections. But in all troubles he was like 
Israel of old, who had light in their dwellings. No doubt 
that it was a very remarkable feature of his character, his 
perpetual brightness. Looked at from a natural standpoint, 
men are said to be naturally optimists or pessimists. Canon 
Garter, like Bishop Westcott, was doubtless an optimist ; it 
was natural to him to look on the sunny side. We mention 
Bishop Westcott because there are several points of likeness 
between these two great men. They were both bom optimists, 
and this type of character seems to us the disposition out of 
which Saints are mostly made. They never can believe that 
evil will be dominant in the end. Dark clouds are passing 
things, the sun behind them ever shines. Troubles, sorrows, 
losses, bereavements, are passing things, the ever and all per- 
vading Love Divine will shine out when these have become 
things of the past Canon Carter was, we admit, an optimist. 
To have seen him in the presence of death, to have seen him 
by the graveside, to have watched him when his dearest was 
being committed to the earth, was to have witnessed the 
tenderest human love, but never the sorrow which is without 
hope. 

We earnestly desire in this Memoir to paint him as he 
really was, and to dissipate entirely any mistaken notion 
that he was like some sour ascetic who condemned innocent 
pleasures and never took part in them. He could delight in 
the simplest and most innocent forms of amusement. We have 
heard his voice lifted above the rest when the patients at St. 
Andrew's Hospital had their Christmas entertainment, and 
the men were singing some innocent song which he seemed 
quite to enjoy as he joined in the chorus. When the shadows 
of some trial darkened his home he would feel it most keenly, 
and bear everything with uncomplaining patience ; but his 
delicate sense of humour never forsook him, even in the hour 



CHARACTER. 303 

of deep triaL He could take in a situation of strange con- 
trast in a moment, and, if you knew him well, you would see 
by a look of the eye or a curl of the lip that though his- heart 
was torn with sorrow, he saw the incongruity ; and this sense of 
humour — a mark of the Saints — ^would seem for a moment to 
relieve the strain. In one thing he was particular, which was, 
not to overshadow others with any personal cloud of his own. 
In a time of most bitter trial he had to leave his home for 
the performance of some spiritual work for the bishop before 
ordination, and those with him wondered how he would act, 
whether, under the painful circumstances, he would go and 
fulfil the engagement or not. He went, and gave the addresses, 
and Canon F. said, "He never mentioned any trouble, 
and was really as bright as usual.** It was this marvellous 
self-command which hid from others the pangs which he was 
suffering in his loving heart. 

The following letter contains a true image of the man : — 

" I recall a walk through the street at Ilfracombe one 
evening after dark with him, and our passing by a brightly 
lighted place where a cheap-jack was selling his wares ; the 
crowd and the scene delighted him, and he joined it and stood 
watching and listening with the greatest interest, as a child 
might have done, and joining in the laughter." 

In the same letter we have other remembrances of a 
different kind. The writer says-^ 

''His appreciation of the sea and the rolling waves one 
stormy day is also vividly in my memory. One thing which 
impressed me in early days was the manner in which he went 
to read the Lessons, his unaffected reverence. ... It is a great 
blessing to have known such a real Saint." 

Canon Carter was most beloved, it might be imagined, 
in the House of Mercy, Clewer, by the Sisters, also by the 
Penitents, and especially by the Magdalens. In the old days, 
we speak of more than thirty years ago, the Magdalens had n 
sort of festivity at Christmas, when they were allowed to give 



304 POUTICAL SENTIMENTS. 

pleasure to other people. They had a Christmas tree in their 
sitting-rooniL To enliveii the proceedings, mottoes were tried, 
though perhaps not very successfully. They presented Mr. 
Garter, as the Warden, with a pretty dress for his grandchild 
S. The gift was accompanied with the following lines, no 
doubt composed by the Sister-in-charge, or adapted to the 
occasion: — 

'* There was an Abbot of Aberbrothock 
Who pat a bell on the Inchcape Rock, 
Bat oor good Abbot of Aberbrothock 
Shall plMe on Sybella a white cape frock.** 

Mr. Garter was not present, but before the evening was 
over he sent back the answer, with great delight ; it shows his 
quickness and interest in everything. Answer — 

'< The Inchcape bell shall still ring on, 
And so shall the thanks for the gift of love, 
While the beautiful robe the grandchild shall don, 
Shall speak of the glories of heaven above.*' 

The last line is a key to explain that continuous bright- 
ness which so puzzled people whose eyes were fixed on the 
earth — ^it was a reflection I 

Whilst Mr. Carter was in no sense a morbid ascetic, and 
entered with gusto into all innocent joys, it may be neces- 
sary also to show that though religious interests were ever 
supreme with him, he was not what has been styled " a man 
with one stop." He took deep interest in all that was passing 
around him, and was generally " up-to-date " with the political 
questions of the day — a Conservative in politics, but not 
narrow in his sympathies. The following letter will be an 
evidence of the estimate we are taking of the late Warden of 
Gewer's political sentiments — it is addressed to Us son : — 

"My deabbst J., 

'* I do indeed think that letter of Gladstone's to 
the Hyde Park mob a great mistake, inflammatory and im* 
warranted in his position. But I view it as an outburst of an 
impressible, passionate, enthusiastic temperament. To such 



CHARACTER. 305 

a mind as his, Dizzy's temper must be positively hateful 
and riling, often to past endurance ; and even Lord Derby's, 
though better, is yet as cold as a north-easter; and G.'s 
feeling is that of distrust of the Gk)yemment doing anything 
adequate to the occasion, nor, whatever Lord Derby's wonder- 
ful strong language said, was he likely to put a screw on the 
Turks finnly enough in act to set free those poor victims of 
their horrible Government. The Government (ours I mean) 
would, I verily believe, hush up anything if they could, and 
go on with their diplomacy and satisfied with promises which 
have been a hundred times falsified, for the Turk cannot free 
Christian subjects without ceasing to be a Turk. I cannot 
but think that we have lost a noble opportunity of freeing 
these poor Christians if we had taken a bolder line — ^what 
Eussia is now doing. The Saturday seems to me to be 
taking a very low line, ascribing Russia's action wholly to 
ambition, as if to rescue members of their own race and their 
own Communion might not be imagined as a motive ; and also 
calling Gladstone unpatriotic, meaning evidently thereby that 
he disregards the material interests of England in comparison 
with the claim of humanity and of Christianity. Even the 
old Pagan could say, ' Quicquid est humanum, &c.' No doubt 
Eussia never has her eye off Constantinople, and the desire 
must ever be present, lest the passion which has evidently 
stirred the Eussian people seems enough to account for the 
movement. And it is scarcely to be supposed, that, even if 
Austria were weak enough to allow it, Bismarck would ever 
permit Eussia to get hold of the countries bordering the 
Danube, and so command all its course. Some day, no doubt, 
Eussia will have a great share in Greece; I hope will possess 
Constantinople. But not yet. One's conversation sometimes 
reaches boiling-point. But Dizzy is enough to turn any 
sober man crazy. 

" I am going to get back to where I b^an, for the late letters 
of Gladstone have damaged himself and his cause, but I 
think he laid hold of the real truth as to the necessity of 
getting rid of Turkish rule by strong measures, as the only 
hope of freeing these poor people from an intolerable and 
shameful tyranny. I am hoping that things will settle down, 
though a blaze might readily spring up. G. has a hope of 
sketching. We have occasional sunshine and pleasant walks. 
I hope all are welL With love to all. 

" Ever your aflFectionate 

"T. T. C." 



3o6 A NORTHERN WEDDING. 

This letter is especially valtiable, not only as expressing 
Mr. Carter's views on political questions of the day, but 
because it is one of the very few letters we possess of 
that long period, over two years, when he had to sojourn 
abroad for the recovery of Us strength after an illness which 
nearly proved &taL We may give one more instance of 
Canon Carter*s lighter vein, and the real happiness which he 
experienced in the happiness of others. At the age of eighty- 
four he travelled to the North of England to marry a daughter 
of an old friend, and the journey he accomplished seemingly 
without fatigue, giving an address at the conclusion of the 
marriage service in a crowded church. He entered with his 
usual keen interest into all the ceremonies and amusements 
which are common at Northern weddings, especially the foot- 
races. Fearing he might take cold, as the air was fresh, he 
was wrapped in a large shawl, to fasten which a lady lent 
him a brooch, which he had the misfortune to lose. It was 
afterwards found. But in the mean time he purchased 
another to make good the loss, and sent it with the following 
lines: — 

'* Let me repair 
The lack of care 
That happy day, 
When all was gay 
Except the hurry 
And the flurry, 
And the remt 
At the sad forget 
As to where was set, 
When unable to find 
What had been so kind 
A loan to keep out 
The cold from without, 
And prolong the delight 
Of that joyous night, 
When lul were bent 
With affections true 
In that great event, 
Long pknned before, 
Of June 13, 1894. 

T. T. 0." 

These lines are inserted here, because they contain a 



CHARACTER. 307 

revelation of Canon Carter's simple affectionate character 
and the joy which he experienced in the joy of others. 

Those who knew Mr. Carter's habits well, will all bear 
witness to— as a marked feature of his character — his industry. 
His use of time, and sense of its value, were very noticeable. 
TSo trouble or pains ever seemed to be too great for him in 
doing good. Whilst we have said that he was not a student, 
perhaps " bookworm " would have been the better term. He 
read quickly^ and took in what he read as quickly ; and his 
mind approved or rejected with the same rapidity. He was 
sharp in detecting a flaw of inaccuracy ; and if an argument, 
in. seeing when it was carried too far. . He Jbad, too, that 
mark of genius in being dissatisfied with his own productions. 
He was readyto take or give a hint, with a smile which 
would disarm an opponent, Thinffl which would provpkjB 
ordinary men would often with him call out laughter, he had 
such an unfailing fund of humour. He could be very busi- 
ness-like, though business was not his forte, and in such 
matters he was sometimes too trustful, sometimes to his 
great loss. On one occasion he engaged a curate without 
having seen him or inquiring his age ; and when he arrived 
he was found to be quite an old man. The effect of this 
surprise, which would have vexed many a rector, was a 
merry outburst of laughter, and turning to a friend, he said» 
"Why, he is older than I am," and then again the merry peal. 
But to go back to his diligence. Until he was a very old 
man he rose early and celebrated the Blessed Sacrament 
before taking any food ; but a cup of tea was brought to him 
immediately after the service. To see him walk, with his 
long strides and rapid movements, was an indication of his 
physical energy. With the exception of the two severe 
illnesses, he always enjoyed excellent health. This blessing, 
sanctified by grace, was, we believe, at the root of alL No 
invalid or weak person could have accomplished half what he 
did. He laboured from morning till night, and sometimes late 
into the night. No pains were too great to achieve anything 
for (xod. An instance occurs to us, quite in his earlier days. 



3o8 THE SIGHT OF THE SCOTCH MOUNTAINS. 

He had written an address upon some important snbject, 
which he was to deliver the next daj to the clergy (we 
think, but we are not sure) at Salisbury. At night he feared 
what he had prepared was not quite what was wanted, and 
so he set to work to write another paper ; this took him far 
into the night, or rather morning, when some one, finding he 
had not gone to bed, came in search of him, and found him 
writing, and sheets of paper covering the table and part of the 
floor, the fruits of the midnight toil. This was but an instance 
of hiB persevering diligence. The same trait of character was 
manifest in lus travels. In the examination of some ancient 
building, or a picture, or a document, he would not be content 
until he had seen everything. He would go down on his 
knees to decipher the inscriptions, and imperil the catching 
of a train in this eagerness for research. He had great 
capacities for enjoyment, and a wondrous way of shutting off 
anxieties and trials, especially when in the midst of beautiful 
scenery. At a time when his troubles about the resignation 
of his parish were nearly at a climax, he went off to Scotland 
and refreshed himself with the sight of the Scotch mountains, 
about which he wrote with great delight, which few could 
have done in the midst of so much anxiety. In all, he never 
seemed to be without the thought of God, and of spiritual 
things; seeing quickly at any turn some spiritual lesson 
which would suggest itself. When he was driving through 
a Yorkshire lane, the plough was making furrows across the 
fields by the side, and as the earth was turned up, groat 
birds followed the plough in eager pursuit of worms. As he 
watched them with their keen eyes and long sharp bills, ever 
absorbed in seeking food, he said, " See their eagerness ! see 
their eagerness ! " that was all, except the look he gave, which 
showed his mind was occupied with the lesson these creatures 
taught us, of eagerness for the Supreme Good. On the moors 
he displayed the same delight, and though he was lame 
through a varicose vein from which he suffered in lus leg, he 
wanted to walk across the expanse to get a fuller view of this 
natural grandeur, and it was with some difficulty he was 



CHARACTER. 309 

persuaded to get back into the carriage. He was delighted 
with Lastingham, and went down into the crypt. On his 
return, he rather complained that they would not let him go 
into the moors. He was then eighty-eight. He was also 
greatly interested with the old Gilbertine Church at Old 
Malton. He was no musician, yet he was very fond of hear- 
ing good music, especially the Passion music, and enjoyed 
going to St. Paul's. At the back of all this was the same 
trait of industry which seemed to know no limits, but orare 
et Idborare ever went together. 

His devotional powers seemed to be unlimited, and found 
expression sometimes in a plain and practical level, at other 
times in ecstatic language ; and so he was able to provide 
food for the humblest matter-of-fact Christian, and for the 
souls of those who were climbing high the mountain-side 
and were capable of rapturous petition. Here is an instance 
of the latter, written in 1862 — 

"Thou givest me the sorest cross, I would that Thou 
shouldst not let me shrink firom it. let my real gladness, 
my real sorrow, be only for what draws me near to Thee, or 
draws me back from Thee. Dearest Jesu, fill up every void, 
satisfy every longing, be Thy Fulness felt in every loss. 
Thy loss for me be a perpetual gain, gain to me. Be Thou 
sweetness to my taste, brightness to my eyes, fervour to my 
heart, purity in my senses, rest in my weariness, perpetual 
music in my soul, supplying every loss. 

"Let nothing depress me, if not forsaken of Thee, my 
secret joy, and nothing elate me, if Thou, my only true life, 
are not with me. Hush all my complainings, dearest Lord, 
in the Bosom of Thy sweet Will, and enfold my being in 
Thy everlasting Arms. Give me to desire only what is in 
Thy Heart, and the grace to wait the fulness of my bliss. 

" Keep Thou perfect stillness in my soul, that I lose no 
sound of Thy inward Voice, no breathing of Thy Spirit. 
Amen. 

" Jesus, Life of my life. Soul of my soul, move within 
me, inspiring every thought, directing every purpose. 

" Spirit of light. Whose abode is witMn me, illuminate 
my imderstanding with Divine wisdom, and preserve in me 
a calm, clear vision of Thy revelation to my soul. 



3IO " UNTIL THE DA Y BREAK.'' 

** I have chosen Thee, O my Ood, as mj End. I would 
choose every means that best will bring me unto Thee. 

'* Clothe me with virtues ; Fill me with devotion ; Ani- 
mate me with love; Give me, O God, a tender heart, 
inflaming me with love and holy desire; Bestrain every 
movement ; Still my heart, hush me to rest in Thy Bosom, 
O my God. Spirit of sanctity, Creator of all good, breathe 
into me humility and patience, calm recoUect^hiess, meek- 
ness, unselfishness, holy joy, and charity that faileth not." 



In a Time of Oreat Trial. 



"My deab 



" I have just received your husband'er lett^, and 
look forward to meeting you on Monday in Pans. He tells 
me you have been expecting to hear. I believe I wrote 
after that special letter. It was certainly in my mind to 
do so. I am very sorry if there has been any mistake. I 
am afraid you have had a very trying time. But I have 
an inward conviction that you are through tribulation secretly 
being brought to the Heart of God; through these pangs, 
after dreariness and a taste of spiritual desolation, the soul 
is thus prepared for Divine gifts ; this without Sacraments, 
God Himself working His own work. I have looked to this 
discipline of trial, unconsciously to yourself, being the in- 
strument that God will thus use; and hereafter you will, 
perhaps, know more, as already you have seen how much 
you owe to trial and earthly loss. Your experience has led 
you many ways, beside the more direct sacramental mysteries. 
You have tasted of God and invisible things, through the 
faces of the mountains, their greatness and loveliness and 
stillness of earthly beauty; and we have seen more of 
God and felt more of the nearness of unseen worlds in your 
husband's pale face and anxious looks ; and you know of the 
deep things of God as they come out in the conflict of feeling, 
in struggling with trials that come so dose home in such 
searching intercourse. But all is well and leading onward 
to the blessed end, and the day will at last break and reveal 
all in the holiest light, and your soul^s joy will break out in 
untold raptures, and the conscious Presence of God will bear 
you into the very Heart, there to be hushed in unutterable 
sweetness and joy. May He hasten the time and prepare 



CHARACTER. 311 

you for it. His blessing rest on you ever. With Mrs. C.'s, 
M/s, and G.'s love, 

" Your loving 

"T. T. c;' 

The Thought of Sdf. 

" My deae , 

"I am Sony to have been so long replying to 
your question. I need hardly say that what you describe 
clings to one's being beyond all else. It is the sense of 
one's self coming into everything. What we look to hereafter, 
when one is in God for ever, self wiU be lost, and the mere 
sense of what is true, holy, and good felt, all being ascribed to 
God, as the cause and end of all. Now we turn to self-praise 
what ought all to be for the praise of God. What we should 
seek for is to do the right, to do our best, and not to let the 
thought run on the idea * that / did it.' 

" The following means in the way of self-discipline help 
to this : — 

" (1) To keep before the mind the truth, that it is not of 
myself, but of God in myself and through myself that does 
the good and exercises powers; that one is purely the 
creature, and how miserable a thing it is to take to one's self 
what He is pleased to give and work in one's self; it is like 
a servant acting for his master, and taking to himseU the 
credit of his master's act. If one really saw the truth, it is 
a very sad vanity. You would see this in the case of a 
pretty person, magnifying herself for a pretty face. Is it 
not the same if the gift is of the mind and intellect ? 

" (2) To keep before me the thought of others who are 
greater, and who with the greatest gifts have been most 
modest, most self-forgetting, greater in this abstinence from 
any self-praise. How the greatest men have been the most 
humble, because they have seen something greater than 
themselves. 

" (3) To recognize other people's greatness in one's own 
way or in other ways — ^greatness and goodness in any, and 
to give all credit, all honour, simply, if only to rejoice in 
others' gifts. True sympathy is to ' rejoice with those that 
do rejoice, and weep with those that weep/ 

" (4) To accept gladly any disregard of one's self, any dis- 
respect, any words of praise for others, any sense of failure, 
any word that questions what we have done or thought , 



312 THE PURPOSE MORE THAN THE LETTER. 

anything in some degree humiliating ; to feel it a real gain, 
and thank Grod for it. I hope these few thoughts maj help 
you. I know the difficulty, but it can be overcome. With 
all best wishes. 

" Very sincerely yours, 

"T.T. C." 



'^ Except three at the least, eommunieate with the Priest** 

" My DEAB , 

'' I do not think that under such circumstances 
you need scruple to continue to celebrate, and take the 
chaDce of less than those being present. We have, I think, 
to bear in mind the principle on which our rubrics were 
framed, now that we are hindered from any change being 
made in them. 

" There is no doubt that the object of the rubric was to 
prevent solitary Masses as a system. Such a cause as yours 
has no such character as was desired to be corrected, and 
there was no wish for the restoration of services which 
might have difficulties such as you experience. In such 
case, I should surely say you are in harmony with the spirit 
that animated the reforming movement. 

" May God bless your endeavours. 

" Very sincerely yours, 

"T. T. C." 

This letter is of value, as many have felt this difficulty of 
the rubric. Mr. Garter takes in the whole position, and acts 
upon the spirit rather than the letter. This well comes in 
the chapter upon "Character." He acted on the mutatie 
mutandis principle often, and a rigid and blind obedience to 
the letter whilst the purpose was lost sight of, would not 
commend itself to his mind. 



Subjective Religion. 

A singular instance of goodness and self-denial was 
brought before Canon Carter for his opinion as to purely 
subjective religion. The following letter is the answer. We 
ought to say that we have only a copy of his letter before us. 



CHARACTER. 313 

and that evidently written by some one who had not alto- 
gether mastered his hand. 

"My deab , 

" There have always been minds which have been 
influenced by purely subjective realization of God. We 
cannot limit the Holy Spirit's work, and such persons may 
be quite true and possessed with the belief of their God's 
work in them. But history has shown the extreme danger 
of such purely internal and subjective communion with God 
and heavenly things, and of the sad effects that may arise 
from such a view of religion. Some may be pretematurally 
guarded from such effects, while many have been seen to fall 
into them, self-confidence and self-conceit being the very 
least among such effects. God knows us better than we 
know ourselves, and He knows that we need an objective 
system of Sacraments for external use, or He would not have 
ordained them. Nothing can be clearer than the ordinances 
of Baptism, Absolution, Holy Communion, and of the neces- 
sity of membership with an organized body, and of the gifts 
of grace and peace being associated with such sacramental 
ordinances and fellowship. The same God Who by His 
Spirit speaks directly to the soul, gave us this system, as not 
only a channel of His grace, but also a witness and a guard, 
uniting the outward and the inward ; and this undoubt^ly is 
the Catholic order of Communion between our souls and 
Himself and Christian life. 

"Without, then, wishing to judge these good people, 
we may safely say that it would be presumptuous to regard 
their state otherwise than an exceptional condition in the 
general order of God's dealing. Wesley and brother did 
a good deal to promote subjective religion and personal 
assurance; but he was at sixty years a strong 'vert(?) to 
Church system and Sacraments. 

" Sincerely yours, 

"T. T. Carter." 

The gentle charity which pervades this letter shows Mr, 
Carter's character in its true light — ^his courtesy, whilst at 
the same time his firmness in asserting what he regarded as 
the truth. Though there were many in early days who did 
not understand or were incapable of appreciating his great 



314 ONE OF THE " LIGHTS'^ OF THE CHURCH. 

powers as a master of the spiritual life, there were some who 
foretold what he would become to the Church. The follow- 
ing letter from a great bishop, ''Henry of Exeter/' onlj 
expresses what was beginning to be felt in 1865, which we 
are permitted to transcribe. 

" 24, Park Street, F; AprU 1, 1863. 

"Eev. Sir, 

"If you knew the gratification, and, I hope, 
edification, which I have derived from your sermons and 
lectures, you would not be surprised at my requesting you to 
give me an opportunity, whenever you may come to London, 
of expressing to you in person my sense of tlie deep obliga- 
tion the Church owes to you. 

*' At the close of a long life, I look with humble con- 
fidence in Gk)d's mercy to that Church, in raising up you to 
be one of its lights. 

" May the Spirit of Christ rest upon you 1 
" Believe me, 

" Your very faitMul brother in Christ, 

"H. EXETKR. 

" Bev. T. T. Carter." 

In the chapter upon ''Character" the following touching 
letter, from the pen of the doctor who attended Canon Carter 
in his latter years, may fitly find a place. 

" Windsor, 

" My dbab , 

" In writing of Canon Carter it is difficult for me 
* to express in words all I feel, for he was a man only met 
once in a lifetime. I saw much of him during the later 
years of his life, for when he saw my hat in the hall ^ he very 
often carried it into his study. I always went into that 
room with thankfulness and pleasure. Everything there was 
peaceful, and he was the embodiment of all that was gentle 
and holy. I always felt nearer to God whilst with him. 
His ever bright and fresh intellect made him delightful as a 
conversationalist and most instructive, and his broad and 
most tolerant views made him to be beloved and revered by 

^ That IB, when the doctor was visiting a sick relative. — ^£d. 



CHARACTER. 315 

all classes of Christians. His chief characteristics seemed to 
me, as a rather Low Churchman^ to be bis personal holiness, 
and he instilled into my mind the fact as being far before 
ceremonial. I remember soon after the Bound Table Con- 
ferences at Lambeth Palace, when it was decided that incense 
nsed ceremonially and candles carried in procession were 
illegal, I asked him one morning whether he had received a 
letter from the bishop on the matter. He answered in the 
negative in his usual gentle way. * I do not think he will 
write to me,' he continued. But I said, * Suppose he does, 
will you obey him ? ' ' Oh, certainly,' he said. ' I should 
carry out his wishes.' It always struck me in conversation 
with him, that he never looked upon extreme ritual as 
necessary, but that to some it was helpful, and as a High 
Churchman he preferred it. 

" I do not know whether his quiet unostentatious way of 
giving to charities has been mentioned, but he usually gave 
to me, unasked, in charities I was interested in, and made no 
inquiry, trusting fully in the person or object in which I was 
interested. As his doctor, I was most anxious always to pre- 
serve his brain and his body in its wonted activity. At the 
early services he refused the early cup of tea and piece of 
bread and butter until, for health's sake, I begged him to take 
it. At the services he knelt until his knees refused further 
to bear the pressure. His Sunday work, after he was ninety 
years of age, was an example for many a young man. The 
last few months of his life he gave up work almost entirely, 
and when I seemed to urge him, his answer was, 'I am 
getting an old man. . . .' I felt he required no urging; 
that his fine constitution and his indomitable will, and Us 
great love for all, made him work until his powers failed 
him, and he painlessly laid himself down and passed away. 

" At the interview, when he said he was getting old, I said 
how I would that he could be made young again, and I told 
him the story of Faust, which he did not seem to remember. 
He said he never went to the opera as a young man, and 
very seldom to the theatre, that he worked very hard at 
Chnst Church after leaving Eton, and then after getting a 
First Class, he immediately entered the ministry. His work 
and his life show how clearly he had one object in view, 
personal holiness as his great object in life, and what an 
example to every one who came in his way; and how it 
really influenced every one is told in the following story, 
an interesting conclusion to a most painful subject. 



3i6 A TOUCHING SCENE. 

"Some time after Mr. Carter resigned the charge of 
Clewer Church, due entirely to the litigation of Dr. Julius, 
Mr. Carter and Dr. Julius accidentally met at Mrs. Bridg- 
man's house at Clewer HilL Dr. Julius was in the drawing- 
room, talking to Mrs. Bridgman, when Mr. Carter was 
announced in the dining-room. Ihr. Julius became deathly 
white, and said how bitterly he regretted that he had ever 
allowed himself to be drawn into the prosecution, that, had he 
knownMr. Carter, nothing would have ever induced him to take 
it up, but he, a perfect stranger, was out-persuaded by others 
in and near the parish. iKn. Bridgman then said, ' Well, 
would you like to see Mr. Carter ? ' He said, ' I should.' 
Mrs. Bridgman then went down to see Mr. Carter, and told 
him who was upstairs, and would like to see him. Mr. Carter 
said, * Oh yes, I should like to see him, if he would like to 
see me, but I could not go up to him.' Dr. Julius then came 
down, and they shook hands, sat down, and talked pleasantly 
for some time, and parted friends — ^a happy endmg to the 
most painful trial which never ought to have been started. 

** I do not know whether you propose to mention about his 
last summer holiday, and the last offices which were done by 
the Sisters, and myself and his two grandsons when we 
placed his remains in their last resting-place. Pleased to use . 
this exactly as you like. I only write it in love for him. 

" Ever yours sincerely, 

" William Faibbank." 

It will be seen from these pages that the existence of 
the Sisterhood of St. John the Baptist, Clewer, was owing to 
the needs for the supervision of penitents, and that is still 
the chief work. Mr. Carter had been stirred by Gkni's grace 
to try to seek and save the lost, a conspicuous need in the 
neighbourhood of a garrison town, and it is a matter of ex- 
perience that only by Sisters can such institutions be suc- 
cessfully worked. Mr. Carter and Bishop Armstrong were 
pioneers of better and more successful methods of penitentiary 
work. Mr. Carter is commonly said to have had the spirit of 
the Apostle of Love, St. John ; but he had also something of 
the spirit of the Baptist. The Community was named crfter 
Christ's Forerunner, and had as a motto, '* Ilium oportet 
crescere, me autem minui." 



CHARACTER. 317 

Canon Carter, the most gentle of creatures, had the firm- 
ness of a rock, and an indomitable will, when he came forth 
to defend the Church. In this way he was mixed up in, 
and took a leading part, and became a champion, when some 
truth or ceremony of the Faith was assailed; but, like 
Michael, he was " all for God." 

His love for Gkxl seemed to quicken his natural sensibili- 
ties, and in his home life, and in his dealings with the parents 
of the Sisters, will be found all the tenderest movements of 
natural affection. Never would he allow any disparagement 
of domestic and family Ufe, or one vocation to vie with 
another. He would say, " There are diversities of gifts, but 
the same spirit." His allegiance to the Church of England 
held him back from the extremist line. 

To give an instance of this, much has been spoken and 
written of late with regard to the Invocation of Saints, and 
Mr. Carter's opinion (as previously Dr. Pusey's) has been 
sought on the subject. As a rule, we have said, he would not 
allow direct addresses to the Saints, but only prayer to God 
for their intercession. Thus, in the " Treasury of Devotion," a 
well-known manual, carefully edited by him, we find at page 
10, *^ May all the Saints and elect of God pray for me." This is 
" comprecation." This he allowed and encouraged, but not, I 
repeat, direct intercession. Mr. Carter defended the ''Treasury 
of Devotion " in the Times as " compiled with the careful 
desire of preserving Catholic devotional doctrine and phrase- 
ology clear of anything distinctively Boman." I am quite 
aware that direct intercession is not " distinctively Eoman," 
for it is enjoined and practised in the East ; nor am I ignorant 
of the witness in the catacombs and some expressions in the 
Fathers about direct intercession privately used; but I 
believe I am right in saying that it formed no part of the 
public authorized services of the Early Church — which the 
Church of England makes her standard. I have here, how- 
ever, not to deal with the subject in itself, but simply with 
Mr. Carter's view concerning it, and as a rule he objected to 
direct invocation. And here I say, as a rule, because my 



3i8 PERMANENT RESULTS OF COMMUNITY UFE. 

attention has been called to an exception, which is qnite 
characteristic of him, so unnatural it was for him to be a 
rigorist and to stick without a single exception, especially to 
a ruling which had, at any rate, the Latin and Greek Church 
not in favour of it. 

A copy of a letter has been sent to me with regard 
to an inscription upon a new bell for the Manor House 
Chapel at Oxford, in which Canon Carter says, ''It is 
quite well to do as you propose, for the inscription to 
be ' Ave Maria, ora pro nobia' " The bell was cast with 
that inscription, hung, and episcopally blessed. It is only 
fair to insert this; but I am confident that neither Canon 
Carter himself, nor those whom he guided, used, under his 
authority, direct addresses to the Blessed Virgin Mary or 
the Saints. He would fear lest the office of the. " One 
Mediator" should be obscured. In saying this, I am judg- 
ing no man, and giving no opinion, but only trying to set 
forth the true convictions of Canon Carter, and to paint the 
manner of man he was. 

Canon Carter saw clearly the need of Community life> 
something more than individual self-oblation to the work of 
Christ. He said, in the history of the Beligious life there 
appears to have been two different aims : one, the perfection 
of the individual ; the other, the perfection of the community. 
Canon Carter seemed to aim at both. He had a constructive 
genius which manifested itself in organization. On the one 
hand he sought to lead individual Sisters in the ways of 
holiness ; on the other, he saw the permanency of the work 
depended upon the existence and careful building up of 
Community life. He said — 

" Sister Dora achieved her wonderful work alone. She 
has passed away and left nothing behind her. If the full 
results of such great gifts as God vouchsafes from time 
to time to His Qiurch are to be preserved, they must be 
embodied in organized societies." 

Hence the need of Sisterhoods, and not only of personal 



CHARACTER. 319 

self-oblation. Sisterhoods remain ; individual devotion passes. 
His mind seemed to me like two minds rolled into one. It is 
rare to find the mastery of great principles and attention to 
minute details in the same person. These capacities coexisted 
in him. He had a clear conception of what the constitution 
of a Sisterhood ought to be in the Church of England, its 
relations with the bishop of the diocese, with parochial clergy 
where they worked, and the value of a council, half-lay, to 
Sisterhoods in external matters. His ideal was not that of 
Bishop Webb, a " Diocesan Institution," but he thought Bishop 
Webb's principle might work well in Bloemfontein. Nor 
could he agree with the late Bishop of Lincoln bs to the age of 
dedication, " three score years old/' but showed in his ^' Vows 
and the Eeligious Life" that St. Paul's restriction referred 
to " widows," and that in 1 Cor. vii. 37 he had dealt with 
"virgins." Canon Carter's sense of humour was rather 
excited by the idea of the Sisters only undertaking their 
arduous duties after sixty ! 

It has been thought by some who knew Canon Carter's 
mind best, that the following extract from the Nineteenth 
Cmturyy which the editor has kindly allowed to be taken, 
throws much light upon the posture of Mr. Carter's mind with 
regard to the bishops and the Church. He has elsewhere 
expressed the same thoughts, though more briefly and less 
forcibly. He is here dealing with a particular subject— <x)n- 
fession — upon which his treatise sufficiently expresses his 
opinions. The article from which we are about to quote had 
for its purpose the correction of some xmguarded statements 
of Canon Teignmouth Shore, respecting confession, and at the 
close of the article, having adduced passages from Jeremy 
Taylor, Patrick, etc., the author passes to some general 
principles to account for the temporary desuetude of the 
preacher. 

Canon Carter writes : — 

" It may appear strange, if these things are so, that 
ponfession to a priest, together with other sacramental 



3ao THE OXFORD MOVEMENT, A RECOVERY. 

ordinances, which have been of late so freely taught (this was 
written in 1896) amongst us, should appear to many as a 
mere accretion upon our proper and legitimate system, the 
invention of the Oxford Movement. Tins was actually said 
lately in a leading article of tlie Tvam. It would seem from 
Vtt. Shore's article that this idea has also entered into his 
view of the present condition of our Church life, and to many 
there may be need of some explanation : how it could be, if 
the views above stated are correct as to such doctrines 
leavening the Church up to the end of the seventeenth century 
and beyond it, as acknowledged and accepted principles in 
active operation, they should have fallen into such oblivion 
t^t their assertion now appears to be a novelty, and awakes 
in many such strenuous opposition. I cannot myself doubt as 
to the cause. There supervened upon the Bevolution the 
secession of the non-jurors, and tMs comprehended no less 
than four hundred priests and eight bishops, including the 
Primate. The men who clung to the belief of the Divine 
right of kings, and to whom their oath to the exiled family 
was a part of their religion, were also the main upholders of 
the higher view of the Church's system. They were succeeded 
by men of a different stamp, and with these came in a lower 
view of Church life. There is no mistaking the difference 
between those who seceded in consequence of their reverence 
for their oath, and those who were able to accommodate them- 
selves to the new order of things and the new principles of 
government. The consequences of such a change extended 
throughout the Church as well as throughout the State. 
There were families who retained the old usages. These were 
individual witnesses to the forgotten truths among the clergy, 
but they were comparatively like angels* visits, few and far 
between, as voces damantium in deserto. The Oxford Move- 
ment was, as it were, the rising up again to the surface for 
the first time, after more than a century, of the stream which 
had so long been hidden undei^ground, bringing with it the 
treasures of Catholic truth, held in abeyance during the 
interval. The Oxford Movement was the rising to the surface 
of the teaching and uses of the days of Andrews, and Jeremy 
Taylor, and George Herbert, and Cosin, and Ken. We see a 
difference in the attitude of the men who led the Oxford 
Movement, a difference arising from their antecedents. 
Keble and Pusey were both brought up from childhood in 
families which had inherited the old ideas common to the 
non-jurors. Newman had no such advantage. NewmaQ, 



^^ . - - ■ - r.-ir*< 



CHARACTER. 321 

during the struggle, said, ' I look to the bishops.* Pusey said, 
' I look to the Church.' A whole world of diflference lay 
between the two sayings, marking the immense diversity 
between the two men in their bringing up, and their grounds 
of belief. To Keble and Pusey the attacks which reached 
them from all quarters were of no account. They were con- 
scious of the solid groundwork of the system they had 
inherited. They remained calm and tranquil through all the 
turmoil. Newman had no such stability, for he had had no 
such early teaching, and when attacked, he had no standing 
ground, and despaired de rymblica. The strength of those 
who held firm, and still taught, and have prevailed, arose from 
their clearly seeing that the Tractarian theology was nothing 
new in the Church of England; was simply a recovery 
through faithful witnesses of the good old system for which a 
long fine of our forefathers prayed and suffered, before the 
Bevolution in Church and State led to the decline and torpor 
of the last century." ^ 

This is the true explanation of the contrast between the 
last century and the present, which so many view with sur- 
prise and suspicion. The Evangelical Movement led the way 
out of the "Slough of Despond;" the Oxford Movement 
completed the recovery. 

In the year 1882 some of Canon Carter's friends united 
together to present him with his portrait as " a mark of their 
esteem," and it was painted by Mr. F. HoU, E.A* Lord 
Beauchamp was asked to make the presentation, but was 
unfortunately prevented from discharging this "agreeable 
duty" in person. He, however, wrote to Mr. Carter in the 
kindest terms, expressing the pleasure which the contributors 
received from joining in the gift, and the hope that it would 
be treasured by his family, and be an enduring record of the 
countenance of one who had done so much for the revival of 
the Beligious life in the English Church.^ 

Canon Carter replied — 

"I can hardly adequately express to your lordship my 
grateful sense of the great kindness which has dictated this 

1 Nineteenth Century^ February, 1895, p. 288. 
^ The frontispiece of this volume is from the picture thus presented. 

Y 



322 PRESENTATION OF PORTRAIT. 

very sratifyinff and yaluable gift. It xeally impresses me 
with Uie thou^t of so much generous and flattering regard, 
when one seems only to be doing what has come to one 
simply in the way of duty to do. Nothing could have been 
more grateful to me than this, with which my family are so 
delighted, which has been so generously designed and beauti- 
fully carried out, for all greatly admire Mr. HoU's work. 
Your lordship's very kind expressions have added greatly to 
what in itself I have every reason to be grateful for, though 
I hardly Uke to take to myself what you have been good 
enough to say. 

'' Believe me, my Lord Beauchamp, 

" Yours, etc., 

"T. T. 0." 

Dr. Pusey had, I understand, some objection to likenesses, 
and wished to explain why his name was not on the list of 
contributors. A regret was expressed that Dr. Pusey had 
not seen his way clear to afford his friends the same pleasure 
which Mr. Carter had given to his in this respect. 

We have received the following letter, which brings out 
strikingly two features of Canon Carter^s character — ^his 
love of travel and sight-seeing, and his attractiveness to 
children: — 

** We were staying in Florence, and some of us being a 
little tired of sight-seeing, a drive into the country was 
proposed. Mr. Carter consented, but added, 'You must 
remember that we have sixteen more things to dee.' He. 
liked to explore a place Uioroughly, and, having done this, 
to go on at once somewhere else. Another point is, young 
people always took to him, and liked to come and tell him 
about their afiGurs. His grandchildren used to love to run 
into his study." 



CHAPTER XI. 



LATER TEABS. 



In June, 1881, Canon Carter left the Eectory, which, by the 
kindness of his successor, the Bev. Eoland Errington, he was 
permitted to occupy for a year after his resignation, and went 
to Uve in St. John's Lodge, the beautiful home prepared for 
him by generous and loving friends, in which the remainder 
of his life was spent. Here, for twenty yeays, he worked 
with unswerving regularity, visiting the scattered branches 
of the Sisterhood, and receiving all (and they were many) 
who desired to come to him for spiritual help. No stress of 
weather, even when he was long past eighty, would induce 
him to give up his weekly visit to the house in Bose Street, 
Soho, where he was accustomed to see the Sisters and others 
who came to him from different parts of London ; and though 
extremely sensitive to changes of temperature, he seemed to 
take an almost boyish pleasure in braving the elements. 
" I have come back safe," he would say, with his bright smile. 
" But really it was not fit for you to have gone." " So the 
guard told me at the station," he answered, laughing, after a 
day of dense November fog. 

To the very last no temptation would induce him to put 
aside his plan of work. He would not, even in the heat of 
summer, change his accustomed hours so as to walk or drive 
at a cooler time, lest he should thereby cause some slight 
inconvenience to others. His consideration, his delicate 
thoughtfulness for the comfort or pleasure of those about 
him, seemed to grow year by year. 

He read widely, almost to the end, using for this purpose 
every available moment. His great power of abstraction 



334 RANGE OF READING. 

enabled him to read much— even difficult books — during his 
frequent railway journeys. He took great delight in history 
and biography (one of the last books that he enjoyed was the 
'' Story of Dr. Pusey's life "), and he was heard to regret 
Bishop Creighton's appointment to the See of London, because 
it destroyed all hopes of his completion of his " History of 
the Papacy." The last hour of the evening was frequently 
spent in reading aloud, and none who heard it can forget his 
reading of his favourite passages from Wordsworth or Tenny- 
son. For Browning he never cared much. The Christian 
Year was a lifelong companion, usually called for on Sunday 
evening, or, when away from home, during afbemoon rambles 
on the seashore or mountain-side. He retained his early love 
for Scott's novels and poems, but as a rule he refused to read 
stories except in his holidays, saying they took up too much 
of his thoughts. 

The intense delight in scenery, in natural beauty of all 
kinds, seemed to deepen as his years increased. It was 
indeed a delight and high privilege to be with him in the 
holidays, spent always in some beautiful spot— often in 
Switzerland or the Highland glens, or, when long journeys 
could no longer be undertaken, in Devonshire and Cornwall. 

** I think it is really the nicest combination I have come 
across in this paradise of pastoral beauty," he wrote to his son 
from St. Beatenberg in 1885 or 1886 ; " undulating, bright, 
upland scenery, and gigantic masses around crowned with 
those great Oberland heights. You can wander, lie down, 
just as you like, with plenty of pine trees for shade, and 
splendid views around, and in the glorious though rather hot 
weather we have now, we could not have a pleasanter place, 
and pleasant people have been or are here. ... I am very 
glad Gladstone has resigned, though evidently he does not 
bate his absoluteness. I have had the Spectator forwarded to 
me as well as the Guardian. Don't you think the Spec. 
good ? It suits me admirably, though I suppose it has been 
more dead against G.'s views than I can quite be." 

No doubt his wonderful endurance and power of work. 



LATER YEARS. 325 

prolonged through so many years, was due in great part to 
this gift of firesh enjoyment, and the keen interest which he 
was ever ready to take in new scenes and differing lives. 
Thus he describes a tour in Wales : — 

To ms Son. 

*• Barmouth. 

" We have had, I think, a very prosperous expedition. 
The first week, unchanging sunshine, was very delightfully 
spent at ^ Chepstow, Kntem, Eaglan, Ilantony (not with 
Ignatius ; he is four miles beyond, on a desolate side of the 
Black Mountains. He has injuitBd the influence which he 
once had by upholding a supposed apparition of the B.V.M.). 

" Tenby we grew to like very much. The air, we all 
agreed, was very pleasant and healthful ; the sands and rocky 
shores, the absence of fog, the interest of old castles and 
churches in the neighbourhood, and pretty wooded spots in 
hollows, sheltered from the ceaseless winds that play at their 
own sweet will on the general surface of the country, all 
give great variety and enjoyment. Then, too, a fine church 
and bright services, lights and linen vestments at early 
celebrations, good choir and organ, and very large congrega- 
tions, were a good addition ; a good deal of Church life, a 
C.B.S. ward. . . . The people seemed very hospitable and 
kind, several calling, in a quiet way. Weatihier very variable, 
but a good share of fine, and in our lodging we had aU the 
sun that shone. The expedition to St. David's, of which, 
doubtless, you heard, was a very enjoyable episoda Cer- 
tainly a wonderful Church settlement as ever was, in a kind 
of creek in the once-waste moorland. . . . We came here to 
finish our outing with a little more mountain scenery ... a 
fuchsia is in bloom under our window, a myrtle hedge not 
far off, and at a farmstead on the hill a bed of liLLes like the 
Japanese. The place must be mild." 

In 1891 a severe attack of influenza compelled him to 
take three months' rest, and this time was spent at Penzance. 

" I am clearly gaining ground, though slowly," he wrote to 
his brother, the Eev. W. A. Carter, in July of tiiat year. " I 
cannot walk much, but exercise my legs as much as I can, 



336 BEAUTY WHICH ''UPLIFTS THE HEART!'' 

I am obliged to take either a fly of some sort or donkey- 
chair, and vaxy our movements in this way. There are 
beautiftd drives. Mr. Bolitho ^ has kindly sent his carriage 
for me more than once. We enjoy our view of the bay from 
our window veiy much indeed — ^very pretty, and alive with 
boats. The fishing-boats from Newlyn at one side of the bay 
are most picturesque. . • . The Sundays are the worst for me. 
I have not yet ventured to church." 

It pleased God to restore his strength in a wonderful 
degree, so that after a few months he was able to resume 
his customary work, and his powers of walking and standing 
seemed but little impaired; and when, for the first time, 
during the holiday of 1897, his pleasure in walking began to 
fail, he fell back on his early love for boating, and spent 
much time on the beautiful sea-creeks of Salcombe. 

To HIS Son. 

'' Salcombe, August 16. 

" We have exceedingly enjoyed this place. The windings 
of the inland sea, the varied coves, the rocky shores, me 
undulating slopes of hill, not high, but always picturesque, 
the endless boating, and the lovely walks, all this has been 
very del^htfiiL . . . We took General Boberts' book on his 
Indian lue, and have been reading it in the evening with the 
greatest interest. It is admirably done. For the day 
reading I have been going on witii Archbishop Benson's 
* Cjrprian,' a very wonderful work for such a busy man. I 
shoidd like some day to tell his son how greatly interested I 
have been, and how much it shows his intellectual power.'' 

Such extracts might be multiplied. All his letters on 
such subjects show tiie same delight in natural loveliness, 
the same readiness to be pleased by all simple pleasures, and 
gratefully to receive all Idndnesses. It was the spiritual side 
of beauty that appealed to him. Hence his great love for 
Wordsworth. " Such beauty as this uplifts the heart," he 
said, in 1899, while crossing the Dart 

1 Thelate^nUiamBoliUicEsq., ofPolwithoD. 



LATER YEARS. 327 

Many years earlier, in a sermon preached at All Saints, 
Margaret Street, he expressed the spirit in which he regarded 
the visible works of God. '' Created forms are as shadows 
cast from the substances of the inner world, and it is 
designed that we should attain to a gradual knowledge of 
God as we look on and through outward nature with an 
illuminated eye." * 

Among the interests of these later years was the repair of 
a small chapel, situated in the courtyard of the Church of the 
Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, and known as the " Chapel of 
Abraham/' of which some account is given in Chapter VIII. 

In the parish church, which he quitted with such deep 
regret, he always took the keenest interest. He often visited 
it, delighting in any repair or improvement, and caring 
specially for the beautiful churchyard. 

But, in spite of much kind pressure from his successor, 
he could never, except on a single occasion, make up his 
mind to take part in its services. That occasion was a 
marked one, to be long remembered by the parishioners. In 
1896 a mission, conducted by the Eev. Cyril Bickersteth, 
had deeply stirred the hearts of many, and at its close Canon 
Carter consented to speak once more from the pulpit in 
which he had stood Sunday after Sunday for six-and-thirty 
years. 

The following notes written on the spot, brief and incom- 
plete as they are, may yet, to those accustomed to listen to 
Canon Carter, give some idea of this beautrful address : — 

''The great movement by which this place has been so 
deeply stirred has come during the festival of the Saint 
whom in this church we specially commemorate. We may 
trust that his intercessions with those of all Saints may aid 
to bring a blessing on those who have been gathered here, 
and on those who minister to them. Such a hope opens to 
us the whole vision of the kingdom of God, and of those who 
are within the kingdom round His Throne, and among them 
are some of those whom we have known and loved in the 

* « Lent Lectures," p. 18. 



328 THE ''PATIENCE OF THE SAINTS.'' 

fleshy whose names we cherish in onr deepest hearts. We 
are helped in our passage through this troubled state by con- 
templating the restful, peaceful denizens of that world we 
trust to enter. 

^Ab years advance, and we experience more of earth's 
trials, it is a great interior strength to have that vision in our 
minds, and catch such glimpses as we can of the host now 
before God. There is a touching story told of Bichard 
Hooker, a man of many conflicts, in his last days ; he was 
seen by those who watched him, his eye glistening, and a 
smile on Ids lips, and he said that he was contemplating that 
world of peace and rest to which he was hastening. It is a 
lesson to ourselves. 

''In the Bevelation of St. John, after speaking of the 
terrible woes that are to come on the earth, he says, ' Here is 
the patience of the Saints/ This was to be the first point 
sdected in viewing those who had passed through their time 
of trial, issuing out into that perfect grace of patience, resting 
on the will of God. 

''At the close of a great movement, such as is taking 
place here, breathing into souls momentous resolutions, keen 
anxiety must be felt by those who watch over them as to 
how the impression will live on, and those higher purposes 
be maintained, amid the pressure of daily life, with its multi- 
plicity of details, through which all have to work their way 
upward and onward. It is a false view to look on these 
details as hindrances, as merely ' worry.' Opposition, inter- 
ruptions, sudden alarms, the weariness of pain or weakness, 
is not to be looked on as hindrances to our true life. They 
are opportunities for the growth of the spiritual life. We 
may say that all depends on them. 

"Whether we can gain any likeness to our blessed Master 
depends on habits formed, on the tone of mind, on persevering 
steadfastness. Through these things we gain the stillness of 
the soul of which we dream. But only after conflict, hard 
trial, and weary detail; thus only is anything of that interior 
rest or true peace to be found. 

" It is a lesson and encouragement to feel that if we are 
faithful in the trial, there comes at last as the fruit that 
blessedness which is some reflection of the Heart of Grod and 
the Mind of Jesus. ' He shall sit as a Sefiner and Purifier 
of silver, and He shaU purify the sons of Levi.' It is a 
wonderful picture of a real fact. He sees before Him the 
great mass of humanity, with its intermingled dross. He sees 



LATER YEARS. 329 

the nations, and the indiyidoal lives among the nations, 
spread before Him, and as the silver is purified in the fire it 
reflects the image of the Befiner on its surface. We shall be 
like Him, for we shall see Him as He is." 

In 1897, feeling no longer able, owing to his increasing 
deafness, to take an active part in the meetings of the Society, 
he resigned his position as Superior-Greneral of the C. B. S., 
which he had held since its first foundation, thirty-five years 
before. In the following year, October 26, 1898, he received, 
with great pleasure and emotion, the magnificent gift in which 
the members of the Society expressed their love and gratitude 
for his long services, a splendid set of altar vessels. They 
were brought to him by the new Superior-Gteneral, the Eev. 
B. Suckling, the secretary, the Bev. J. Dixon, and his life- 
long friend and fellow-worker, the Bev. J. E. Hall, and he 
dedicated them in his oratory at St. John's Lodge, putting in 
tender words and prayer for the loving friends who had given 
them, and then blessed the gold medal for the Superior- 
Qeneral, which had been brought at the same time, putting it 
first on himself, and then hanging it round Mr. Suckling^s 
neck, and gave his blessing to him and to the others who 
were present, and afterwards, in his study, made a little 
speech, in which he spoke of the growth of the Society from 
its tiny beginnings at all Saints, Margaret Street, the many 
helpers passed away, those still left, and ended brokenly, " I 
think you've overdone about me ; but I don't know — I don't 
know." He was much afifected, but not overcome. 

On January 6, 1899, he sent the manuscript of his last 
volume of sermons, the " Spirit of Watchfulness," to Messrs. 
Longmans, himself correcting the manuscript and revising 
the proofs. In that year he went down to Paignton for the 
summer holiday, and was able to enjoy the beautiful drives, 
going as far as Totnes and Berry Pomeroy, and spending a 
few days with a nephew at Exeter. The Channel Fleet came 
into Torquay during his visit, and was a source of much interest, 
and one day he was rowed out into the bay to get a nearer 
view of the great ships. 



33© DELIGHT IN HIS GRANDSON'S WORK. 

Among his autumn pleasures was the watching the first 
work of his architect grandson — a new bell-tower at the 
House of Mercy. 

The winter brought a heavy and wholly unexpected blow 
— ^the death of his only son on December 14. This bitter 
grief was borne with calm submission. He went on, to the 
fiillest measure of his strength, with his accustomed work, he 
met all around him with his usual gentle smile, but those 
who watched him closely saw that the spring of his life was 
broken, and from that day his strength fSailed more and more 
rapidly. 

Still, for nearly two yeais he worked on, till, after his 
return home from Byde, in the summer of 1901, he was laid 
by with a slight internal attack, from the effects of which he 
never wholly rallied. In October he seemed much better, and 
on the 26th of that month he was able to preside at the re- 
election of the Mother Superior. On that day he visited the 
Convalescent Hospital, as well as the House of Mercy, doing 
more than he had done for long, and was bright in the 
evening, and pleased to have got through so much. The 
next day he did not feel able to rise, and on the following 
morning, the Feast of St. Simon and St. Jude, he passed away 
without pain or straggle, in the presence of his two daughters 
and a nursing Sister. 

Two days later, on the eve of All Saints, he was laid 
beside his wife in Clewer churchyard, in the presence of a 
great gathering of friends and fellow-workers in those labours 
for the Church of God to which all his life had been given. 

Canon Carter's great delight in natural beauty has often 
been noticed in this volume. There was a last and touching 
instance. At dusk, on the evening before his death, one of his 
daughters was about to draw the curtains. He stopped her, 
saying, '' I want to see the star," and lay gazing at the planet 
which shone in unusual splendour through the window at the 
foot of his bed. A star appears in the background of the 
bronze placed in the parish church of Clewer to his memory, 
in remembrance of this his last look on outward things. 



LATER YEARS. 33i 

A few lines written by himself may here find a fitting 
place. 

" I am deeply grateM to Almighty God for life proloi^ed, 
so that I have lived to see the result and the success of the 
struggles of many years, during which in His Providence I 
have had to bear some part. Doctrines, once fiercely opposed, 
now accepted or tolerated, and at least maMng their way 
more peacefully; Bitual, once still more wil<Uy attacked, 
now authoritatively sanctioned, at least as to its main features ; 
the Beligious Life, once so strangely suspected, spreading 
everywhere ; a whole Church Kevival on true Catholic lines, 
which commenced since I was ordained, thus obtaining a settle- 
ment and bearing promise of permanence and of progress 
through after ages, on English grounds and according to 
English ideas. Thanks be to God I " 

The following is a touching account of Canon Carter's 
last years in his ministerial life, fix)m 1885 to 1901, written 
kindly at the instance of the editor of this work. Mr Cuth- 
bert was for some time an assistant Curate of Clewer in earlier 
life, and was subsequently Sub- Warden for about seventeen 
years, and has been appointed, since the Founder's death, 
his successor as Warden. He had many opportunities, from 
friendship and of&ce, of intercourse with Canon Carter during 
his declining years until their close, and the impressions 
which he received from the holy life which he constantly 
had before him he has recorded in a few pages, which will 
form a suitable conclusion to this memoir. Mr. Cuthbert's 
record bears out the description given of the Warden of 
Clewer at the time of his death — " Canon Carter presented 
sanctity under the aspect of beauty." ^ 

*' 8t, John's Lodge^ Clewer. 

" My dearest Friend, 

" In trjring, at your request, to put on record some 
reminiscences of our venerable and beloved Master, I feel 
very painfully how inadequate will be the few scattered 
recollections which are all that I can contribute to give any 
true impression of him as I found him to be during an 

^ Article in Church Quarterly. 



332 " IT IS TOWARDS EVENING."^ 

interoonrse which lasted through more than a quarter of a 
century, and which latterly became so close and intimate. 
My first meeting with Mr. Carter was in the year 1867, when 
I attended a Betreat conducted by him at Bovey Tracey. It 
was my first Eetreat ; the subject of the addresses was ' The 
Priesthood/ and ideas of the ministerial life were then opened 
out to me which were far in advance of anything which I 
had hitherto realized, and which were deepened and brought 
more closely home to me when I went to him privately. 
This Betreat was held either immediately before or after the 
opening of the newly erected House of Mercy, and I remember 
h^g greatly impressed by the sermon which Mr. Carter 
preached at the dedication service, in which he dwelt on 
the place which the Grace of Sympathy holds in the Christian 
life as a fruit of the Incarnation, and how especially requisite 
and important it was in Penitentiary work. After this I did 
not again meet him until the beginning of 1873, when I had 
the privilege of renewing my acquaintance with him at Borne. 
I remember then especially a walk with him, on the Festival 
of St. Antony of Padua, to the church where on that day the 
animals are blessed, and the interest he took in the benedic- 
tion service'as we saw it then performed. 

" The result of our intercourse at Borne was that on St. 
John the Baptist's Day, 1873, I went to Clewer as assistant 
curate of the-parish, where I remained for rather more than 
two years. lAie clerical staff at Clewer in those days was a 
large one, the clergy of the parish and of the Sisterhood form- 
ing practically one body. We used to meet every Monday at 
the Bectory to settle the week's work, and when this had been 
done,'the Biector, as he was then, used constantly to bring before 
us some matter connected with the Church questions of the 
day in which he was especially interested, and ask for our 
opinions about it. And I well remember how greatly I was 
struck by the breadth and largeness of view with which he 
was wont to take in all the aspects of the subjects which he 
proposed for our consideration, as well as by the patience 
with which he used to listen to the sometimes very crude 
expressions of opinion to which some amongst us, myself 
especially, gave utterance. Another point which at that time 
greatly impressed me was the intimate personal knowledge 
which the Bector had of many of his parishioners, so that 
although he did not then as a rule visit much in the parish, 
he was always ready himself to take up any case which I 
found especial difficulty in dealing with. 



LATER YEARS. 333 

" I left Clewer at the end of 1875, and for the next nine 
years my opportunities of meeting Canon Garter were almost 
entirely limited to the annual visits which we used to pay to 
him on the occasion of the Commemoration Festival at the 
House of Mercy, an event which was always to me one of 
the red-letter days of the year. In 1883, however, he was 
kind enough to come to preach at the reopening, after restora- 
tion, of Market Drayton Church, of which I was then Vicar. 
Before he came, there was among the people a certain 
amount of prejudice against him on account of his reputation 
as one of the leaders of what was called ' the extreme High 
Church party.' But his presence and his sermon on 1 Cor. 
xiii. 12 quite dispelled the unfavourable feeling which 
had existed, and his visit was productive of the happiest 
result. 

"In 1884 I returned to Clewer as Sub-Warden of the 
House of Mercy, The Warden was then in his 77th year, 
but was still as active, both in mind and body, as many a 
man of 60. His Sunday evening sermons he preached sit- 
ting, but without 8uiy notes ; they were of the same deeply 
thoughtful and spiritual character as they had ever been, and 
for some time seemed to me to gain rather than faU ofiP in 
lucidity and clearness of arrangement. 

" For some years after I went to Clewer the Warden took 
his full share in all the services and other work connected 
with the Community. Only as regarded outside engagements 
and matters connected with the public life of the church did 
he gradually come to take a less active part. His last appear- 
ance on a public platform was, if I remember rightly, at the 
Church Congress at Birmingham. 

" We at Clewer had feared that the effort of going to and 
speaking at the Congress would be too much for him, and 
tried to dissuade him from it. But he was quite decided 
that he ought to go, and the impression which he produced 
upon a large and somewhat excited audience was noticed at the 
time as bemg very remarkable. Though, however, he gradually 
withdrew from the position which he had held for so many 
years as a leader of the Catholic School in the English Church, 
Canon Carter^s interest in all the current questions of the 
time continued to be as keen as ever. He would still, as of 
old, at our Monday morning meetings, talk over whatever 
subject was ^in the air,' and &om time to time letters with 
the well-known signature used to appear in the papers, 
which showed how alive he was to everything which had to 



334 ''AND THE DAY IS FAR SPENT.'' 

do with the maintenance of the Faith and Ritual of the 
Chnrch« 

" Thus the years went on so quietly and with such little 
outward change that we hardly realized when he reached and 
passed the limit of his four-score years. Not, I think, till 
after that did the necessity of trjring to save him any un- 
necessary fatigue, whether of body or mind, really come 
home to us. And when it did so, we found it no easy task 
to carry out our duty in this respect. Many a time did it 
only come to light after the event that the Warden had, un- 
known to us, ^en some piece of work from which, had we 
known of it in time, we dxould certainly have endeavoured 
to dissuade him. I think at times he found some pleasure 
and amusement in thus circumventing us. His weekly visits 
to the London Houses of the (immunity were among the 
first things which we prevailed upon him to give up. He 
came back one day from one of these expeditions with his 
face sadly cut from having fallen in tiying to get into an 
omnibus while it was in motion. This, of course, alarm^ us 
greatly. But all we could succeed in doing was to extract a 
promise that he would in future make the omnibus stop 
before attempting to get on it. Soon afterwards a carriage 
was provided for him by the kindness of an old friend, and 
for some time he continued this part of his work. But at 
last it became manifestly too much for him, and he quietly 
consented to relinquish it. In other respects he went on 
much as usual, celebrating always on Sundays, and at least 
on one day in the week. His sermons, however, gradually 
changed their character. He began to take his notes with 
him, and to read from them, and there was a marked growth 
of simplicity in what he said, so that the likeness wMch we 
always loved to trace in him to St John, became in his old 
age more striking than ever as the burden of his exhortation 
became more and more the cultivation of Love and Unity 
one with another. It was not, I think, until after his return 
from his summer holiday in 1900 that the decline in Ids 
power became very marked. From that time he himself 
recognized his growing weakness, and quietly acquiesced in, 
though he very rarely suggested, the surrender of this or that 
portion of his work. He often spoke of his failing memory, 
and gently put aside matters which he felt he could no 
longer deal with, though still keeping his hold on much of 
his distinctively spiritual work. And not, I think, until the 
summer of 1901 (Ud he give up celebrating on Sunday at the 




PROPOSED MEMORIAL IN THE CHAPEL. 
{Designed by G. F. Bodley, R.A.) 



LATER YEARS, 335 

altar of the House of Mercy, and take to celebrating in his 
own private oratory instead. 

''There seems little more which one can say about 
this period until quite the end. On Saturday, October 26, 
1901, I went to him to speak about the Chapter for the 
election of the Mother Superior, which was to be held on 
that day. Some little time previously a Chapter for the 
election of some novices had been held, at which he had 
asked me to preside in his stead. And I quite expected 
he would have done the same on this occasion. But I found 
him with all the necessary papers carefully arranged, and 
quite decided to go himself to the Chapter, which he did, and 
presided at it without the slightest confusion or hesitation. 
Then I left him, thinking t^t he would rest during the 
afternoon. But far fix)m resting, he went first to the Hospital 
to see som^ invalid Sisters there, and then to the House of 
Mercy. Oii ' Sunday morning he sent me a note to say that 
he was not feeling very well, and could not preach. I went 
over to see him, but found him so bright and entirely him- 
self that I thought it was only that he had somewhat over- 
tired himself the previous day, and needed some rest. 
Monday was the Festival of St. Simon and St. Jude. I was 
about to go to him about ten o'clock, when a Sister who had 
been with him in the morning came hurriedly in and begged 
me to go over at once. I went, but before I reached his 
room the end had come, and he was at rest, looking only as 
he might have done in his sleep. But a few minutes pre- 
viously he had been talking to the Sister who was nursing 
him, and had been inquiring about a patient in the Hospital 
in whom he was interested. Thus quietly, after seventy 
years of strenuous work in the Church's Ministry, did the 
soul of this great priest pass into that world in which for so 
long he had seemed to us who knew him best to be already 
living, in the scarcely veiled Presence of the Lord, Whose he 
was and Whom he served. 

"Yours, 

*'G. Seignelay Cuthbert.'* 



The Fimeral. 

We would fain end here ; yet it may appear abrupt and 
wanting in affection not to mention the esteem and tender 
love with which the earthly casket of the immortal spirit of 



336 THE FUNERAL. 

the " saintly Carter " — the beautiful instrument of ceaseless 
activities for Grod's glory and man's good — ^was laid to rest 
under the shadow of St. Andrew's Church, Clewer, so long 
the scene of his loving labours. 

The body, clad in Eucharistic vestments, with the chalice 
and paten in his hands, was brought tiie night before the 
burial into the Chapel of the House of Mercy, whilst the 
Sisters sang the TJrb^ Beata, there to remain amid loving ^\ 
watchers until the morning, when a special Eucharist was 
celebrated for the family and mourners by Canon Carter's 
nephew, the Bishop of Zululand, now of Pretoria. Later 
came the chief service, beginning with a solemn celebration 
of the Holy Mysteries, the Eev. G. S. Cuthbert, then Sub- 
Warden (now Warden), being the celebrant. The Dies Ivor 
was exquisitely rendered, the voices accompanied witii organ 
and violins. But whilst the crowd in the great chapel 
witnessed to the affection in which Canon Carter was held, 
when the long procession slowly emerged from the Chapel 
and entered the road, the scene was still more striking ; for 
thousands had gathered, filling every spot between the House 
of Mercy and the church — a distance of more than half a 
mile — to catch a glimpse of the funeral of the priest who 
had been so long known and loved, both as Sector of the 
parish and Warden of the Sisterhood. A long line of sur- 
pliced priests and ninety Sisters preceded the cotfin, which 
was of ancient shape, but hidden by a beautiful pall, the 
pall-bearers being Lord Halifax, Colonel Drummond Hay, 
£ev. Fatiier Benson, and the Bev. £. A. Suckling, the family 
and mourners walking next to the coffin. The unbroken 
silence of those in the procession and of the throng of people 
was a most remarkable feature. The regular footfall of those 
who were walking, like the beating of a pulse, alone broke 
the silence, and now and then the soft falling of the autumn 
leaves from the trees. The day was unusually bright, as 
seemed fitting for the bearing of one to the tomb who had 
shed so much brightness into numberless lives. The scene 
was indescribably touching — ^it was so simple, so real, so 







D 
X 
u 

U 



N 
PQ 



LATER YEARS. 337 

deyotional, such a remarkable gathering. It seemed to be 
composed of '' all sorts and conditions of men.'' 

As the church was neared the crowd became more dense, 
but a path was kept clear; the Bev. J. E. Swallow, of Hor- 
bury, who had been for a long period a Chaplain at Clewer, 
was responsible for the good arrangement of the procession. 
The Bev. A. Cowie, Eector of Clewer, began the service; 
the Lesson was read by the Bev. G. N. Nicholas, Vicar of 
Clewer St. Stephen. At the grave, the Ven. W. H. Hutch- 
ings conducted the service, saying the prayers of com- 
mittal; and the Bishop of Oxford, at the close, gave the 
Blessing. Besides the Bishops of Oxford, Beading, and 
Zululand, and the Deans of Windsor, Lichfield, and Chichester, 
there was a great number of priests and of lay people, all 
anxious to show their loving regard for their pastor and life- 
long friend, now borne to his last resting-place; amongst 
them many to whom he had ministered in his gentle fatherly 
way as far as memory could reach back. 

His teaching, which he had the happiness, during the 
last years of his life, of knowing, was continued by his 
successors in the parish (Bev. Boland Errington and Bev. 
A. T. C. Cowie) — would not be forgotten by his flock, as well 
as Ms keen interest in all that concerned their well-being, 
both spiritual and bodily. 

The resting-place had long been awaiting him by the side 
of his wife, in the beautiful churchyard at Clewer, and now 
those who visit his grave will see the space which had for 
thirty-two years remained vacant on the grave-stone, filled 
with the name of Thomas Thellusson Carter. 

« Then wander back to life, and leian 
On our frail love once more, 
'Tis sweet, as year by year we lose 
Friends oat of sight, in faith to mnse 
How grows in Paradise our store." 

In the Chapel of the Community at Clewer, on the 
north side of the altar, against the angle of the apse, there 
is an alabaster effigy of the Founder, fully vested, and of 
the size of life. The figure rests upon what is generally 

z 



33S " OBDORMIVIT IN CHRISTO."* 

described as an altar tomb, with the following inscription, in 
an abbreviated form, on the base :«• 

'' Orate pro animA Thomse Thellosson Carter domfts istdus 
commonitatisqae Sancti Joannis Baptist® Fundatoris qui in 
festo Sanctorum Simoms et Judn mcmi anno sacerdotii Lxnt^ 
ffitatis xciv^ in Christo obdormivit/' 

Over the figure there is a wooden canopy, and on the 
wall at the back the Crucifixion carved in a panel, with 
the words underneath : — 

'' Caritas Xti urget nos." 

On the north wall of the Sanctuary of the parish church 
of St. Andrew, on a slab of slate let into the wall, there is a 
small bronze figure reposing upon a kind of bier, protected 
by delicate pillars, supporting a canopy. Above this, on 
a separate bronze plate, but upon the same slate slab, are 
inscribed these words : — 

" In p. mem : Thomae T. Carter, qui olim banc cancellam 
exomavit obdormivit in Christo xxviii. Oct: mcmi: et in 
agro vicino expectat Besurrectionem." 

"My dkab , 

"I think you would like the following very 
touching incident for the Memoir. 

"On Saturday last one of our servants was in Clewer 
churchyard tidying a grave belonging to her family. She 
noticed a middle-aged, grey-headed working man, who came 
to her and asked to be shown the Warden's grave. She took 
him to it, and called his attention to the white flowers lying 
upon it. He stood bareheaded, and tears ran down his face. 
'As is fitting,' he said, 'and as he would have wished.' 
After a few minutes' silence he begged to be directed to ' the 
house in which he lived.' The Bectory and St. John's 
Lodge were both indicated, but before he went on he entered 
' the church where he had so long ministered,' and he added, 
' This place should indeed be reverenced. If I had not been 
ill and laid by at the time, I should have been at his 
funeral.' 

"We do not know who the man was, he seemed to have 
come with a * coster excursion ' from London." 



INDEX 



Abingdon, 6 

Abraham, Chapel of, in Jerusalem, 
250 

Aoland, Hon. Arthur H. D., 18 

Aged parents, 180 

Albnla Pass, 10 

All Saints, Old Margaret Street, 14 

Altar vessels, presentation of, 329 

Alt GathoUcs, 71 

Anglican standards, £uthf nlness to, 
244 

Apparatus theolo^cns, 279 

Armstrong, J., Bishop of Grahams- 
town, 75, 89 

Atonement, the, 297 

Bablov, consecration of, 258-261 

Beanchamp, Lord, presentation of 
nortrait, 321 

Belgium, 10 

Bell Farm, 42 

Bellinzona, 52 

Bier Lane, 14 

Biography, comments on, 79 

•* Bksnngs of Lord's Supper," ^6 

Bluoher, 2 

Bodley, Mr., 40 

Bologna, 55 

Brett, Bobert, 288 

Bright, Bey. Dr., on Carter's resigna- 
tion, 79 

^ on manifestoes, 246 

Buckland,8 

Burgon, Dean, 10 

Burnham curacy, 13, 20, 34 

Butler's Analogy, 9 

Oabtbb, Canon, Mrth of, 1; early 
years and education, 1 ; unbroken 
attachment to home, 2 ; Ordina- 
tion of, 12 ; Curate of Beadinff, 12 ; 
Ordination as priest at Buokden, 
13; his marriage, 15; glimpse of 
his home life, 20; secretary of 
SJP.G., 33; his illness in 1871, 
43 ; his religious atmosphere, 86 ; 
his daily habits, 108; his love of 
scenery, 212; his politics, 303; 
his death, 830; his funeral, 330, 



335-337, Literature of, 280-288 ; 
memorial of, in Chapel of House 
of Mercy, 337; bronze figure of, 
in parish church, 338 
Garter, Canon, address by, at a Pro- 
fession, 143-149 ; addresses by, at 
daily Matins, 33 
Garter's, Canon, sermons on peniten- 
tiary work, 76-78 

« Spirit of Betreat," 277 

Carter, Mrs., senior, 3 
Chambers, Bev. J., 288 
Character of Canon Carter, 290 
— , 88 a preacher, 296 
— , capacities for keen eigoyment, 
306, 308, 325 

, his devotional powers, 309 

, his extreme gentleness, 317 

, his industry, 307 

, mistakes about his, 292 

, not bookworm, 307 

, not firebrand, 292 

^ not stem ascetic, 302 

Christ Church, 5-7 

ChrUtian Tear, 15 

Church Penitentiary Association, 92 

Clergy Discipline Act, 150 

Clewer, appomtment to, 26 

—^t Gftnon Carter's sermons, 89 

, specimens of, 90-92 

9 resignation of living, 150 

"aerical Society," 38 
, Clewer Green, 39 
Communion, weekly, 29 
enlargement of churchyard, 27 
gradual improvements, 40 
institution and works of, 96-98 
the Mission at, 327 
number of Penitents, 93 
ofiiortory, weekly, 30 
restoration of church, 34 

Bule, 108 

Goblentz, 10 

Goire,51 

Coleridge, J. T., 131, 132 

Committee formed to build Warden's 

house, 172 
Communion, evening, 230 
, fasting, 247, 248, 263, 276 

z 2 



340 



INDEX. 



Gommimioii, wmUt, 29 
Oommiuiitj of 8t. John Bftptiit, 99 

, motto of, 101 

Cooferaioe of priMti, 278 
CanfeMion, deeUration on, 221-226 
^^ on Boman OommnnioD, 72 

^ Paper on* 209, 221 

, Siiteit' rule of, 236 

GonMoration of AU Salnti, Ded- 

woith,283 
•«Coniiehet,"16 
Gonrtenay, Canon 0. L., 46 
Onthbert, Bot. O. 8^ reminiaoenoee 

of Gaaon Garter, 831-385 

BiDifOiiTB, 17, 89, 235 
Definition of Sisterhood, 102 
DeUght in natural beauty, 380 
DeTotion to Bleaaed Sacrament, 

240 

to BloMod Virgin Mary, 258 

^ first Euoharistio eolleots, 241 

Disestablishment, 261-263 

Dixon's "^ History of the Ghuroh of 

England," 215 
** Doctrine of Confession,'* 88 
*< Doctrine of Priesthood," 88 
Dollinger, Dr., 70 
Dora, Sister, 318 
Dumford, Bishop, 7 

Eabtwabd position, 14 
Eden of Oriel, 10 
Elementaiy schoolmasters, 82 
Elizabeth, Sister, 99, 251 
EllisoD, Dr^ 43 

Endowments, Dr. Pusey on, 265 
Erastianism, 291 
Eton, Carter's entrance into, 1 

, the Great Bebellion at, 2 

, musical eTcning at, 5 

•* Eton System of Education," 15 
Evans, William, 2, 11 
Exeter, 79, 213, 217 
Exeter Hall senrices, 38 

Final Court of Appeal, 188 
First Class (Lit Hum.), 10 
Fishing yiUage, discipUne o^ 212 
Florence, 56, 57 
Folkestone, 84 
Foreign travel, 49 
Form of Self-oblation, 110 
Founder of O.E.T.S., 87 

ofG.B.S.,240 

Freeman, Archdeacon, 228 
Froude, Archdeacon, 15 
Froude, Hurrell, 8 
Furse, C. Wellington, 33 



** GntALDIMB,'* 28 

Gladstone, Bight Hon. W. E., 8 

Gould, J., Esq., 15 

Gould, Bey. B. J., 27 

Gray, B., Bishop of Capetown, 79 

Grorer fiunily, 18 

Hall, Ber. J. E., 172 

Hamilton, Bishop, 8 

Hawtrey, Bct. Stephen, 27 

Hearen, meditation on, 185, 187 

Hicks, J., 18 

Higher criticism. Dr. Bright on, 203, 

204 298 
HoU, F., B A., paints Canon Garter's 

portrait, 321 
House of Meicy, 38, 41, 42, 83 

1 Council of, 88 

Howard, Bishop, 66 
Hutchings, Bey. W. H., 45 
Hyacinthe, P^, 72 
Hynm-book compiled, 85 

IVBBBIATn, 87 

Industry, 807 

InfaUibiUty, 67, 68 

Infancy, spiritual instruction, 265 

Influence of Sisters on Penitents, 85 

Inspiration, declaration on, 195, 196, 

197 
Institution and works of '^ Glower," 

96-98 
Inverary, 3 

luTooation of Saints, 272 
Irringites, 125 
Ischia,61 
lyes. Bey. B. J., 42, 44 

Jklf, Dr. B. W., 9 
Jenldns, Oriel, 10 
JuUus, Dr., 150, 176 

Kate, Bishop of Lincoln, 13 

Eeate, Dr., 2 

Keble, John, 133, 245, 246 

Ladt Penitents, 87 

Lago Maggioze, 52 

Lastinffham, 309 

Latituoinarianism, 183 

Landriot's ** Gonferencee on the 
Holy Spirit," 229 

Lanphier, Bey. H., 41 

Library of Anglo-Gatholic Theo- 
logy, 14 

Library of the Fathers, 14 

liddon, Canon, 45, 76, 160, 165, 178, 
205 

Lincoln Judgment, 267 



INDEX, 



341 



Lincoln, letter firom Bishop of, 218 

Longley, Arohbishop, 8 

Love of moantains, 808 

Lowder, Bey. Gharlee, 288 

« Lux Miindi,'» 217, 266, 268, 274 

Maokabnibs, Bishop, 152, 175, 178 

Mackonochie, Bey. A. H., 226 

Madeira, 13 

Magdalens, 95, 803 

Malton, Old, 309 

Manning, Archdeacon, 30, 80 

Manning's '< parting shot," 274 

" Material Presence," Dr. Bright, 241 

, Oanon Garter, 242 

Mediator, one, between Gh)d and man, 

210 
Meditation, 121-123 
" Memoirs," by Canon Garter, 208 
Menaggio, 55 
Mentone, 249 
Milan, 55 
Milman, Dean H. H., ** History of the 

Jews," 12 
Mince-pies, 19 
Missions, 30 
"Mixed Life," 103 
Monoks, Goley Park, 13 
Monsell, Dr., 45 

, Harriet, 208 

, Mrs., death of, 251 

Montem (in 1817), 2, 7 
Mountain, Jacob, 38 
Mmiich, 70 

Naples, 59 

Narelli, Mens., 70 

Newman, Cardinal, 8 

Nicholas, Bey. G. D., 40, 42, 43, 46, 47 

J^ind/eenia^ OmAiwryy Confession, 319 

Nonjurors, 320 

" Notes and Questions on Catholic 

Faith," 209 
Novitiate, second, 134 

Oaklet, Bey., 14 
Office, dismissal, 94 

for Penitents' admission, 93 

Oriel, 10 

Ottley's " Bampton Lectures," 213 

Oxenham, Bev. Nutcombe, 8 

Oxenham, Bey. W., 7 

Oxford Movement, 21 

Tracts, 14 

Pabi8,10 

Parish church, last words in, 327 
Parker, Mr. T. H., 80 
Penitentiary work, 75 



Pemtentiary work, new era, 81 

, Sisters in charge, 82 

" Penitents " not all penitent, 85 

Penzance, Lord, 161 

Perry, Bev. T. W., 288 

Piddlehinton, 17 

Pius IX., story about, 68 

Political questions, 212, 213 

Portrait, presentation o( 321 

Prayer helps against wandering, 124 

Prince Begent, 1 

Purgatory, 254 

Pusey, Dr., 6, 8, 22, 23 

, on the ** Bomans," 226 

, ** sick of memorials," 263 

"Queen Mabt" unlike Tennyson, 
249 

BADOLZFrs's, Mrs., Bomances, 9 
Bapturous prayer, 309 
Beservation, 279 

ofB.8.,255 

Beeignation of Clewer parish, 150 

, Canon Carter's motives for, 173 

, parishioners of Clewer regret, 

171 
Betreats, 217 

, letter to one shrinking, 219 

Bennion of Christendom, 251 
Bhine, 10 

Biohards, Bev. Upton, 288 
Bidsdale Judgment, letter on, 152 
Boman confessional, 72 
Borne, 64, 65-73 
Bose, Hugh James, 15 
Burideoanal Chapters, regularity, 40 

Sandpit Gktte, 5 

•^ Scaling the heights," 112-115 

Scottish journals, 17 

Scott's novels, 9 

Sel^ against thoughts of, 311 

" Seven Champions of Christendom 

The," 9 
Shore, Canon Teignmouth, 319 
Short, Vowler, 7-9 
" Six Points," 217 
Skiddaw, 4 
Stacey, 9 

Stewut, Shaw, 214 
St Gear, 49 

St Stephen's Mission, 40 
Streea, 52, 53 

TmiNANT, Mrs., 54, 83, 84, 99 
Theological question, 236 
Tom Ghtte, 10 
Total abstinence, 87 



343 



INDEX. 



Tofcii«i,16 

Toor in 8<rath WaIm, 825 

in Gknith Dvroii, 829 

in OomwiU, 880 

TraetariAn MovMneni, 10 
•^TkMMiry of Devotion,'' 281, 239, 

817 
Tndor, Ber. R, 39, 40 
Tories, eitimate of, 805 
Tyrol, 10 

Ulm,50 

Yal di Tionro, 52 
yenioe,10 

Visitation, a biahop's, 18 
Yowa, 110. 188, 190 

^ Biahop Wordsworth's ideaa, 

110 



Yowa, Oanon Oarter'a worda on. 111 
*^, Ordination, Dean Olinreli on, 
152 

Wist, Bot. Dr., 172 

Weat, Bar. B. T^ 45 

Weymonth, 20 

Whitby. 4 

White, Bev. O. Ooaby, 45, 288 

Wilberforoe, Bialiop S., interoonrae 

with, 85-88, 79, 84 
WiUiama, Bey. Isaac, 15 
Wine,not*<imdt,"88 
Win«aeld, 9 
Woodoock, Obarlea, 10 
Woodatook ball, 8 
Wordaworth, Biahop 0., 8 
Writs for oonvening Gonyooation, 

215 



LETTEBS. 



AoKD parents, love of, 180, 181 
Appeal Oonrt, 189 
Arohbiahop'a Goort, 191 

Balbton, to Arohdeaoon, 154 
Baptism, lay, 250, 280 
Beandhamp, Lotd, to, 203-208, 247, 

321 
Bright, Dr., fitom, 142, 145, 15^155, 

165 
Brother, letters to, 52, 56, 59, 61-65, 

156, 165, 166, 168, 169 
Bntler, Deim, to, 289 

Carteb, letter to, from Bey. J.Hicks, 
17 

, Mrs., senior, from, 34 

Chapels of Sisterhoods, 38 
Ghnst Ghnroh, deecrlption, 6 
Ghuroh, Dean, from, 152 
Ohnroh and medinyaliBm, 147-149 
Coleridge, Sir J. T., 131 
Gommnnion of Saints, 209 
Community organization, 139 
Controyersial matters, 252 
Gonyooation, summoning, 215 
Cornwall, coasts of, 299 
Coxreoting a falsehood, 253 
Gonrtenay, Cuion, letter firom, 45 

Dbath of Mra. Monsell, 251 
Dedication, a sister's. 104 
Defence of a dignitary, 269 
Deyotion, on, 185 



Diifionlt character, 117 
Disestablishment, 261 
Diyoroe, 198 
Doctor, from his, 814 

EASTBBJOy, 119 
Eastward poaition, 186, 188 
Editor of 2Viiies, Dr. Liddon to, 176 

of ^,206 

Eldest sister, to his, 7 
EyolntioD, 269 
Exeter, Bishop of, 814 

Fastxno Gommnnion, 248, 263, 276 
Final explanation, 176-178 
P. J. B., 294 
Friend, to a, 152, 159 
Funeral of Dr. Liddon, 266 

QiyiNO Betreats, 219 
Growth in grace, 176 

Hall, Bey. J. E., to, 106, 107 
Higher criticism, 195, 201, 299 
Historical defence, 184, 185 
Hobhouse, to, 31 
Holy Ghost, sin against, 182 
Home life, a Sister on, 126 

y pain of leaying, 129 

Homily and confession, 227, 281 
Humility and patience, 120 

Illsoitimaot, 140 
Impatient lady, 115 



INDEX. 



343 



Income, 211 

Infaocy of Christ, 236 « 

Interior mortification, 128 
Irvingites, 125 

Keble, Rev. J., from, 245, 246 

Lettebs to B. D., 188-190 

Liddon, Dr., 45, 171, 172, 205 

Life at Oxford, 8 

Lincoln, Bishop of, 218 

«* Lux Mundi,''^217, 266, 268, 273 

Mackabnbss, Bishop, from, 175, 178, 
179 

, to, 157, 165, 170 

Idanning, Cardinal, letter to, 274 
Mannal, new, 207 

Nicholas, Rev. G. D., 45-47, 48, etc. 
Novitiate, second, 134 

OxENHAM, Rev. W., 7 

Pabishionbbs, to, 176-179 
Profession, on renewal, 118 
Pusey, Dr., 22, 23, 30, 100, 209, etc., 
227, 265 



Beuoiok, subjective, 313 
B.O. pressure, unfair, 238 
Ritual difficuHies, 270 
Bomanizers, 249 
Bubric, ''three at the least,'' 312 

Shabpness at times, 117 
Sign of the Cross, 231 
Sister, to his, Mrs. Balston, 64 
Sisters' duties, 236 
Spiritualism, 231 
Skinner, Bev. J., to, 226 
Son, from his, 153 

, to his, 251, 252, 305, 326 

Spiritual advice, 232, 236 
Sympathy, 233, 235 

Thbologioal question, a, 271 
Thoughts of self; against, 311 
Trials, on, 310, etc. 
Trustfulness, on, 117 

Vbntnob, 120 

YoBK, Arohbishop, to, 205 
Yorkshire dales, 270 



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